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} 3931109 M VAVHOIW 15 30 ALISH3AINN 



TT. E. PAGE, c.H., LITT.D. 
ΤΕ. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. tW. H. D. ROUSE, rirt.p. 








First printed 1925 
Reprinted 1953, 1961 

Printed in Great Britain 


NOTE Ὁ. ὦ. A OMA P ee Eme Va. SEN mE DUM ud vi 
LIST OF LUCIAN'S WORKS p εφ. c Ru ἃ vii 
ANACHARSIS, OR ATHLETICS . . . . . . . . 1 
ON FUNERALS (De Luctu) . . . . . . . . . 11] 

A PROFESSOR OF PUBLIC SPEAKING (Rhetorum praeceptor) 133 
ESSAYS IN PORTRAITURE (Imagines). . . . . . 255 
THE GODDESSE OF SURRYE (De Syria Dea) ο, dr aa Boar 

INDEX 4 e wo ας Woo 4h 7€ Rowe de sex. 413 


In the constitution of this volume there are two 
departures from the order in which Lucian’s writings 
are presented in the Codex Vaticanus 90. The 
Asinus, which there follows the Menippus, has been 
left out of this volume and relegated to the last; 
and Pro Imaginibus, which in the MS. is separated 
by six pieces from Jmagines, has been brought 
forward and placed directly after it. 



VoruME I 

Phalaris I and II—Hippias or the Bath—Dionysus— 
Heracles—Amber or The Swans—The Fly—Nigrinus— 
Demonax—The Hall—My Native Land—Octogenarians—A 
True Story I and JJ—Slander—The Consonants at Law—The 
Carousal or The Lapiths. 


The Downward Journey or The Tyrant—Zeus Catechized 
—Zeus Rants—The Dream or The Cock—Prometheus— 
Icaromenippus or The Sky-man—Timon or The Misanthrope 
—Charon or The Inspector—Philosophies for Sale. 


The Dead Come to Life or The Fisherman—The Double 
Indictment or Trials by Jury—On Sacrifices—The Ignorant 
Book Collector—The Dream or Lucian's Career—The Parasite 
—The Lover of Lies—The Judgement of the Goddesses— On 
Salaried Posts in Great Houses. 

VotumeE IV 

Anacharsis or Athleties—Menippus or The Descent into 
Hades—On Funerals—A Professor of Public Speaking— 
Alexander the False Prophet—Essays in Portraiture—Essays 
in Portraiture Defended—The Goddess of Surrye. 




The Passing of Peregrinus— The Runaways—Toxaris or 
Friendship—The Dance—Lexiphanes—The Eunuch—Astro- 
logy—The Mistaken Critic—The Parliament of the Gods— 
The Tyrannicide—Disowned. 


Lapsu—A pologia—Harmonides—Hesiodus—Scytha—Hermo- 
timus—Prometheus Es—Navigium. 


Dialogues of the Dead—Dialogues of the Sea-Gods— 
Dialogues of the Gods (exc. Deorum Judicium cf. Vol. III)— 
Dialogues of the Courtesans. 


Soloecista—Lucius or the Ass—Amores—Halcyon—Demos- 
thenes— Podagra — Ocy pus — Cyniscus— Philopatris — Chari- 




Taking us back to the early sixth century, Lucian lets us 
listen to a conversation about Greek athletics between Solon, 
the Athenian lawgiver, and that legendary figure, the 
Scythian Anacharsis, who came to Greece in the qnest of 
wisdom just as Solon himself had gone to Egypt and 
Lycurgus of Sparta to Crete. 

K. G. Jacob, who tried to make out that Lucian was an 
ardent reformer, laid great stress on this dialogue as a tract 
designed to restore the importance of athletics in Greek educa- 
tion by recalling how much they meant in the good old days 
But Lucian, who in any case was no laudator temporis acti, says 
nothing of any significance elsewhere to indicate either that 
he thought athletics especially in need of reform or that he 
felt any particular interest in them; and if the Anacharsis 
had been written for any such purpose, surely it would have 
ended with the conversion of the Scythian to the standpoint 
of the Greck. 

Let us say rather that Lucian, who was especially 
interested in Anacharsis and Solon, as we see from his 
Scythian, wished, perhaps for the edification of an Athenian 
audience, to present tlem in conversation, and shrewdly 
picks athletics for their theme as that feature of Greek 
civilization which would be most striking and least intel- 
ligible to the foreigner, the ‘child of Nature.’ 

The conversation takes place in the Lyceum at Athens 
The opening sentence assumes that Anacharsis has just 
been enquiring about something else, and now turns to a 
new topic. 




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AND why are your young men doing all this, 
Solon? Some of them, locked in each other's arms, 
are tripping one another up, while others are choking 
and twisting each other and grovelling together in 
the mud, wallowing like swine. Yet, in the begin- 
ning, as soon as they had taken their clothes off, they 
put oil on themselves and took turns at rubbing each 
other down very peacefully—I saw it. Since then, I 
do not know what has got into them that they push 
one another about with lowered heads and butt their 
foreheads together like rams. And see there! That 
man picked the other one up by the legs and threw 
him to the ground, then fell down upon him and 
will not let him get up, shoving him all down 
into the mud ; and now, after winding his legs about 
his middle and putting his forearm underneath his 
throat, he is choking the poor fellow, who is slapping 
him sidewise on the shoulder, by way of begging off, 
I take it, so that he may not be strangled completely. 
Even out of consideration for the oil, they do not 
avoid getting dirty; they rub off the ointment, 
plaster themselves with mud, mixed with streams of 

1 The under man is trying to break his opponent's hold, a 
“ half Nelson,” by striking him on the upper arm. 




γέλωτα ἐμοὶ γοῦν παρέχουσιν ὥσπερ ail ἐγχέλυες 
ἐκ τῶν χειρῶν διολισθαίνοντες. 

"Κτεροι δὲ ἐν τῷ αἰθρίῳ τῆς αὐλῆς τὸ αὐτὸ 
τοῦτο δρῶσιν, οὐκ ἐν πηλῷ οὗτοί γε, ἀλλὰ ψάμμον 
ταύτην βαθεῖαν ὑποβαλόμενοι ἐν τῷ ὀρύγματι 
πάττουσίν τε ἀλλήλους καὶ αὐτοὶ ἑκόντες ἐπα- 
μῶνται τὴν κόνιν ἀλεκτρυόνων δίκην, ὡς ἀφυκτό- 
τεροι εἶεν ἐν ταῖς συμπλοκαῖς, οἶμαι, τῆς ψάμμου 
τὸν ὄλισθον ἀφαιρούσης καὶ βεβαιοτέραν ἐν ξηρῷ 
παρεχούσης τὴν ἀντίληψιν. 

Οἱ δὲ ὀρθοστάδην κεκονιµένοι καὶ αὐτοὶ παίουσιν 
ἀλλήλους προσπεσόντες καὶ λακτίξουσιν. οὑτοσὶ 
γοῦν καὶ τοὺς ὀδόντας ἔοικεν ἀποπτύσειν ὁ κακο- 
δαίμων, οὕτως αἵματος αὐτῷ καὶ ψάμμου ἀναπέ- 
πλησται τὸ στόμα, πύξ, ὡς ὁρᾷς, παταχθέντος 
εἰς τὴν γνάθον. ἀλλ᾽ οὐδὲ ὁ ἄρχων οὑτοσὶ διί- 
στησιν. αὐτοὺς καὶ λύει τὴν μάχην---τεκμαίρομαι 
yap τῇ πορφυρίδι τῶν ἀρχόντων τινὰ τοῦτον 
εἶναι---ὁ δὲ καὶ ἐποτρύνει καὶ τὸν πατάξαντα 

Ἴλλλοι δὲ ἀλλαχόθι πάντες ἐγκονοῦσι καὶ ava- 
πηδῶσιν ὥσπερ θέοντες ἐπὶ τοῦ αὐτοῦ μένοντες καὶ 
εἰς τὸ ἄνω συναλλ.όμενοι λακτίζουσιν τὸν ἀέρα, 

Γαῦτα οὖν ἐθέλω εἰδέναι τίνος ἀγαθοῦ ἂν εἴη 
ποιεῖν' ὡς ἔμοιγε pavia μᾶλλον ἐοικέναι δοκεῖ τὸ 
πρᾶγμα, καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ὅστις ἂν ῥᾳδίως μεταπεί- 
σειέ µε ὡς οὐ Med M. οἱ ταῦτα δρῶντες. 

αἱ Jacobitz: οἱ MSS. 
2 ἀγαθοῦ vulg.: ἀγαθὸν MSS. 

1 « The exercise is that known in the modern gymnasium 
as ‘knees up,’ and is apparently the same as that described 
by Seneca ( Ep. xv.) as the * fuller's jump,’ from its resemblance 



sweat, and make themselves a laughing-stock, to me 
at least, by slipping through each others hands 
like eels. 

Another set is doing the same in the uncovered part 
of the court, though not in mud. They have a layer 
of deep sand under them in the pit, as you see, and 
not only besprinkle one another but of their own 
accord heap the dust on themselves like so many 
cockerels, in order that it may be harder to break away 
in the clinches, I suppose, because the sand takes off 
the slipperiness and affords a firmer grip on a dry 

Others, standing upright, themselves covered with 
dust, are attacking each other with blows and 
kicks. This one here looks as if he were going to 
spew out his teeth, unlucky man, his mouth is so full 
of blood and sand ; he has had a blow on the jaw,as 
you see. Buteven the official there does not separate 
them and break up the fight —I assume from his 
purple cloak that he is one of the officials; on the 
contrary, he urges them on and praises the one who 
struck the blow. 

Others in other places are all exerting themselves ; 
they jump up and down as if they were running, but 
stay in the same place; andthey spring high up and 
kick the air.! 

I want to know, therefore, what good it can be to 
do all this, because to me at least the thing looks 
more like insanity than anything else, and nobody can 
easily convince me that men who act in that way are 
not out of their minds. 

to the action of a fuller jumping up and down on the clothes 
in his tub.” E. N. Gardiner, Greek Athletic Sports and 
Festivals, p. 296. 





Καὶ εἰκότως, ὦ ᾿Ανάχαρσι, τοιαῦτά σοι τὰ 
γιγνόμενα φαίνεται, ξένα γε ὄντα καὶ πάμπολυ 
τῶν Σκυθικῶν ἐθῶν ἀπαδοντα, καθάπερ καὶ ὑμῖν 
πολλὰ εἰκὸς εἶναι μαθήματα καὶ ἐπιτηδεύματα 
τοῖς ΄Ελλησιν ἡμῖν ἀλλόκοτα εἶναι δόξαντα ἄν, 
εἴ τις ἡμῶν ὥσπερ σὺ νῦν ἐπισταίη αὐτοῖς. πλὴν 
ἀλλὰ θάρρει, ὦγαθέ' οὐ γὰρ μανία τὰ γυγνόμενά 
ἐστιν οὐδ᾽ ἐφ᾽ ὕβρει οὗτοι παίουσιν ἀλλήλους. καὶ 
κυλίουσιν ἐν τῷ πηλῷ ἢ ἐπιπάττουσιν τὴν κόνιν, 
ἀλλ. ἔχει τινὰ χρείαν οὐκ ἀτερπῆ τὸ πρᾶγμα καὶ 
ἀκμὴν οὐ μικρὰν ἐπάγει, τοῖς σώμασιν: ἣν γοῦν 
ἐνδιατρίψῃς, ὦ ὥσπερ οἷμαί σε ποιήσειν, τῇ Ἑλλάδι, 
οὐκ εἰς μακρὰν εἷς καὶ αὐτὸς ἔσῃ τῶν πεπήλω- 
μένων ἢ κεκονιμένων' οὕτω σοι τὸ πρᾶγμα ἡδύ τε 
ἅμα καὶ λυσιτελὲς εἶναι δόξει. 


"Amare, ὦ Σόλων, t ὑμῖν ταῦτα γένοιτο τὰ ὠφέ- 
Mua καὶ τερπνά, ἐμὲ δὲ εἴ τις ὑμῶν τοιοῦτό τι 
διαθείη, εἴσεται ὡς οὐ μάτην παρεζώσμεθα τὸν 
ἀκινάκην. ἀτὰρ εἰπέ μοι, τί ὄνομα ἔθεσθε τοῖς 
γιγνομένοις, ἢ τί φῶμεν ποιεῖν αὐτούς; 


‘O μὲν χώρος αὐτός, ὦ ᾿Ανάχαρσι, γυμνάσιον 
ὑφ᾽ ἡμῶν ὀνομάξεται καὶ ἔστιν ἱερὸν ᾿Απόλλωνος 
τοῦ Λυκείου. καὶ τὸ ἄγαλμα. δὲ αὐτοῦ ὁρᾷς, τὸν 
ἐπὶ τῇ στήλῃ. κεκλιμένον, τῇ ἀριστερᾷ μὲν τὸ 
τόξον ἔχοντα, ἡ δεξιὰ δὲ ὑπὲρ τῆς κεφαλῆς ava- 



It is only natural, Anacharsis, that what they are 
doing should have that appearance to you, since it is 
unfamiliar and very much in contrast with Seythian 
customs. In like manner you yourselves probably 
have much in your education and training which 
would appear strange to us Greeks if one of us 
should look in upon it as you are doing now. But 
have no fear, my dear sir; it is not insanity, and it is 
not out of brutality that they strike one another and 
tumble each other in the mud, or sprinkle each other 
with dust. The thing has a certain usefulness, not 
unattended by pleasure, and it gives much strength 
to their bodies. As a matter of fact, if you stop for 
some time, as I think you will, in Greece, before long 
you yourself will be one of the muddy or dusty set ; 
so delightful and at the same time so profitable will 
the thing seem to you. 


Get out with you, Solon! You Greeks may have 
those benefits and pleasures. For my part, if one of 
you should treat me like that, he will find out that 
we do not carry these daggers at our belts for 
nothing! But tell me, what name do you give to 
these performances? What are we to say they are 
doing ? 


The place itself, Anacharsis, we call a gymnasium, 
and it is consecrated to Lyceian Apollo; you see his 
statue—the figure leaning againstthe pillar, with thc 
bow in his left hand; his right arm bent back above 


κεκλασμένη ὥσπερ ἐκ καμάτου μακροῦ ἀναπαυό- 
μενον δείκνυσι τὸν θεόν. τῶν γυμνασμάτων δὲ 
τούτων τὸ μὲν ἐν τῷ πηλῷ ἐκεῖνο πάλη καλεῖται, 
οἱ δ᾽ ἐν τῇ κόνει παλαίουσι καὶ αὐτοί, τὸ δὲ παίειν 
ἀλλήλους ὀρθοστάδην παγκρατιάξειν λέγομεν. 
καὶ ἄλλα δὲ ἡμῖν ἐστι γυμνάσια τοιαῦτα πυγμῆς 
καὶ δίσκου καὶ τοῦ ὑπεράλλεσθαι, ὧν ἁπάντων 
ἀγῶνας προτίθεμεν, καὶ ὁ κρατήσας ἄριστος εἶναι 
δοκεῖ τῶν καθ αὑτὸν καὶ ἀναιρεῖται τὰ ἆθλα. 

Τὰ δὲ ἆθλα τίνα ὑμῖν ταῦτά ἐστιν; 

, , bi ’ , 7 , ^ 

Ολυμπίασι μὲν στέφανος ἐκ κοτίνου, ]σθμοῖ 
δὲ ἐκ πίτυος, ἐν Νεμέᾳ δὲ σελίνων πεπλεγμένος, 
Πυθοῖ δὲ μῆλα τῶν ἱερῶν τοῦ θεοῦ, παρ᾽ ἡμῖν δὲ 
τοῖς Παναθηναίοις τὸ ἔλαιον τὸ ἐκ τῆς μορίας. 

τί ἐγέλασας, © ᾿Ανάχαρσι; 7) διότι μικρά σοι 
εἶναι ταῦτα δοκεῖ; 

Οὔκ, ἀλλὰ πάνσεμνα, ὦ Σόλων, κατέλεξας τὰ 
ἆθλα καὶ ἄξια τοῖς τε διαθεῖσιν αὐτὰ φιλοτιμεῖ- 
σθαι ἐπὶ τῇ μεγαλοδωρεᾷ καὶ τοῖς ἀγωνισταῖς 
αὐτοῖς ὑπερεσπουδακέναι περὶ τὴν ἀναίρεσιν τῶν 

1 Solon’s statement is not quite full enough. The pan- 
cratiuin included not only boxing, but kicking and wrestling, 
and was practised not only upright but on the ground. It 
was a rough and tumble affair, in which only gouging and 
biting were barred. Some, at least, of the wrestlers in the 
mud were engaged, strictly speaking, in the pancratium, as 
the choking and striking show. 



his head indicates that the god is resting, as if after 
long exertion. As for these forms of athletics, that 
one yonder in the mud is called wrestling, and the 
men in the dust are wrestling too. When they stand 
upright and strike one another, we call it the pan- 
cratium.! We have other such athletic exercises, 
too—boxing, throwing the discus, and jumping— 
in all of which we hold contests, and the winner is 
considered best in his class and carries off the prizes. 

And these prizes of yours, what are they? 


At the Olympic games, a wreath made of wild 
olive, at the Isthmian one of pine, and at the 
Nemean one of parsley, at the Pythian some of the 
apples sacred to Apollo, and with us at the 
Panathenaea, the oil from the holy olive.? What 
made you laugh, Anacharsis? Because you think 
these prizes trivial ? 


No, the prizes that you have told off are absolutely 
imposing, Solon; they may well cause those who 
have offered them to glory in their munificence and 
the contestants themselves to be tremendously eager 

2 The one planted on the Acropolis by Athena. As to the 
prize in the Pythia, it may have been apples before the re- 
organization of the games in 586. But in that year the 
competition had prizes **in kind,” spoils of the Crisaean war 
(χρηματίτης ἀπὸ λαφύρων : Marmor Parium) ; and from 582 it 
was στεφανίτης, like the other three Panhellenic Festivals, 
with a wreath of laurel. 




τηλικούτων, ὥστε μήλων ἕνεκα καὶ σελίνων τοσαῦ- 
τα προπονεῖν καὶ κινδυνεύειν ἀγχομένους πρὸς 
ἀλλήλων καὶ κατακλωμένους, ὡς οὐκ ἐνὸν ἀπραγ- 
μόνως εὐπορῆσαι μήλων ὅτῳ ἐπιθυμία ἡ σελίνῳ 
ἐστεφανῶσθαι Ù πίτυϊ μήτε πηλῷ καταχριόµενον 
τὸ πρόσωπον μήτε λακτιξόμενον εἰς τὴν γαστέρα 
ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνταγωνιστῶν. 


᾿Αλλ, ὦ ἄριστε, οὐκ εἰς ψιλὰ τὰ διδόµενα 
ἡμεῖς ἀποβλέπομεν. ταῦτα μὲν γάρ ἐστι σημεῖα 
τῆς νίκης καὶ γνωρίσματα οἵτινες οἱ κρατήσαντες. 
ἡ δὲ παρακολουθοῦσα τούτοις δόξα τοῦ παντὸς 
ἀξία τοῖς νενικηκόσιν, ὑπὲρ ἧς καὶ λακτίξεσθαι 
καλῶς ἔχει τοῖς θηρωμένοις τὴν εὔκλειαν ἐκ τῶν 
πόνων. οὐ γὰρ ἀπονητὶ προσγένοιτο ἂν αὕτη, 
ἀλλὰ χρὴ τὸν ὀρεγόμενον αὐτῆς πολλὰ τὰ δυσχερῆ 
ἀνασχόμενον ἐν τῇ ἀρχὴ τότ᾽ ἤδη τὸ λυσιτελὲς 
καὶ ἡδὺ τέλος ἐκ τῶν καμάτων περιμένειν. 

Τοῦτο φής, ὦ Σόλων, τὸ τέλος ἡδὺ καὶ λυσι- 
τελές, ὅτι πάντες αὐτοὺς ὄψονται ἐστεφανωμένους 
καὶ ἐπὶ τῇ νίκῃ ἐπαινέσονται πολὺ πρότερον 
οἰκτείραντες ἐπὶ ταῖς πληγαῖς, οἱ δὲ εὐδαιμονή- 
σουσιν ἀντὶ τῶν πόνων μῆλα καὶ σέλινα ἔχοντες. 

v Ῥ ΄ - ε ’ vy ` 
Arepos el, φημί, τῶν ἡμετέρων ἔτι μετὰ 
μικρὸν δὲ ἄλλα σοι δόξει περὶ αὐτῶν, ἐπειδὰν 



to carry off such guerdons, so that they will go 
through all these preliminary hardships and risks, 
getting choked and broken in two by one another, 
for apples and parsley, as if it were not possible for 
anyone who wants them to get plenty of apples 
without any trouble, or to wear a wreath of parsley 
or of pine without having his face bedaubed with 
mud or letting himself be kicked in the belly by 
his opponent ! 

But, my dear fellow, it is not the bare gifts that 
we have in view! They are merely tokens of the 
victory and marks to identify the winners. But the 
reputation that goes with them is worth everything 
to the victors, and to attain it, even to be kicked is 
nothing to men who seek to capture fame through 
hardships. Without hardships it cannot be acquired ; 
the man who covets it must put up with many un- 
pleasantnesses in the beginning before at last he can 
expect the profitable and delightful outcome of his 


By this delightful and profitable outcome, Solon, 
you mean that everybody will see them wearing 
wreaths and will applaud them for their victory after 
having pitied them a long time beforehand for their 
hard knocks, and that they will be felicitous to have 
apples and parsley in compensation for their hard- 


You are still unacquainted with our ways, I tell 
you. After a little you will think differently about 





εἰς τὰς πανηγύρεις ἀπιὼν ὁρᾷς τοσοῦτο πλῆθος 
ἀνθρώπων συλλεγόμενον ἐπὶ τὴν θέαν τῶν τοιού- 
των καὶ θέατρα μυρίανδρα συμπληρούμενα καὶ 
τοὺς ἀγωνιστὰς ἐπαινουμένους, τὸν δὲ καὶ νική- 
σαντα αὐτῶν ἰσόθεον νομιζόμενον. 


Αὐτὸ τοῦτο, ὦ Σόλων, καὶ τὸ οἴκτιστόν ἐστιν, 
εἰ μὴ ἐπ᾿ ὀλίγων ταῦτα πάσχουσιν, ἀλλὰ ἐν 
τοσούτοις θεαταῖς καὶ μάρτυσι τῆς ὕβρεως, οἳ 
δηλαδὴ εὐδαιμονίξουσιν αὐτοὺς αἵματι ῥαινομένους 
ὁρῶντες ἢ ἀγχομένους ὑπὸ τῶν ἀντιπάλων" ταῦτα 
yàp. τὰ εὐδαιμονέστατα πρόσεστι τῇ νίκῃ, αὐτῶν. 
παρ ἡμῖν δὲ τοῖς Σκύθαις ἤν τις, ὦ Σόλων, ἡ 
πατάξῃ τινὰ τῶν πολιτῶν ἢ 7 ἀνατρέψῃ προσπεσὼν 
ἢ θοϊμάτια. περιρρήξῃ, μεγάλας οἱ πρεσβῦται τὰς 
ζημίας ἐπάγουσι, κἂν ἐπ᾿ ὀλίγων μαρτύρων τοῦτο 
πάθη τις, οὔτι γε ἐν τηλικούτοις θεάτροις, οἷα σὺ 
διηγῇ τὸ Ἰσθμοῖ καὶ τὸ ἐν Ὀλυμπίᾳ. οὐ μὴν 
ἀλλὰ τοὺς μὲν ἀγωνιστὰς οἰκτείρειν μοι ἔπεισιν 
ὧν πάσχουσιν, τῶν δὲ θεατῶν οὓς φὴς ἁπαντα- 
χόθεν τοὺς ἀρίστους παραγίγνεσθαι εἰς τὰς πανη- 
γύρεις καὶ πάνυ θαυμάζω, εἰ τἀναγκαῖα παρέντες 
σχολάζουσιν € ἐπὶ τοῖς τοιούτοις. οὐδὲ γὰρ ἐκεῖνο 
πω δύναμαι κατανοῆσαι ὅ τι τὸ τερπνὸν αὐτοῖς, 
ὁρᾶν παιοµένους τε καὶ διαπληκτιξομένους ἀνθρώ- 
πους καὶ πρὸς τὴν γῆν ἀραττομένους καὶ συντρι- 
Bopévous ὑπ᾽ ἀλλήλων. 

Ei καιρὸς ἦν, ὦ ᾿Ανάχαρσι, Ὀλυμπίων ἢ 
᾿Ισθμίων ἢ Παναθηναίων, αὐτὸ ἄν σε τὸ γιγνό- 


them, when you go to the games and see that great 
throng of people gathering to look at such spectacles, 
and amphitheatres filling that will hold thousands, and 
the contestants applauded, and the one among them 
who succeeds in winning counted equal to the gods. 


That is precisely the most pitiable part of it, Solon, 
if they undergo this treatment not before just a few 
but in the presence of so many spectators and wit- 
nesses of the brutality, who no doubt felicitate them 
on seeing them streaming with blood or getting 
strangled by their opponents; for these are the 
extreme felicities that go with their victory! With 
us Scythians, Solon, if anyone strikes a citizen, or 
assaults him and throws him down, or tears his 
clothing, the elders impose severe penalties upon 
him, even if the offence takes place before just a 
few witnesses, not to speak of such great assemblies 
as that at the Isthmus and that at Olympia which 
you describe. I assure you, I cannot help pitying 
the contestants for what they go through, and 
I am absolutely amazed at the spectators, the 
prominent men who come, you say, from all sides 
to the games, if they neglect their urgent business 
and fritter their time away in such matters. I cannot 
yet conceive what pleasure it is to them to see 
men struck, pummelled, dashed on the ground, and 
crushed by one another. 


If it were the time, Anacharsis, for the Olympic 
or the Isthmian or the Panathenaic games, what 




μενον ἐδίδαξεν ὡς οὐ μάτην ἐσπουδάκαμεν ἐπὶ 
τούτοις. οὐ γὰρ οὕτω λέγων ἄν τις προσβι- 
βάσειέν σε τῇ ἡδονῇ τῶν ἐκεῖ δρωμένων, ὡς εἰ 
καθεζόμενος αὐτὸς ἐν μέσοις τοῖς θεαταῖς Βλέποις 
ἀρετὰς ἀνδρῶν καὶ κάλλη σωμάτων καὶ εὐεξίας 
θαυμαστὰς καὶ ἐμπειρίας δεινὰς καὶ ἐσχὺν ἄμαχον 
καὶ τόλμαν καὶ φιλοτιμίαν καὶ γνώμας ἀηττήτους 
καὶ σπουδὴν ἄλεκτον ὑπὲρ τῆς νίκης. εὖ γὰρ δὴ 
οἶδα ὡς οὐκ ἂν ἐπαύσω ἐπαινῶν καὶ ἐπιβοῶν καὶ 


Νὴ AC, ὦ Σόλων, καὶ ἐπιγελῶν ye προσέτι καὶ 
ἐπιχλευάξων" ἅπαντα γὰρ ὁπόσα κατηριθμήσω 
ἐκεῖνα, τὰς ἀρετὰς καὶ τὰς εὐεξίας καὶ τὰ κάλλη 
καὶ τόλμαν, ὁρῶ οὐδενὸς μεγάλου ἕνεκα παραπ- 
ολλυμένας ὑμῖν, οὔτε πατρίδος κινδυνενούσης 
οὔτε χώρας πορθουμένης οὔτε φίλων ἢ οἰκείων 
πρὸς ὕβριν ἀπαγομένων. ὥστε τοσούτῳ γελοιό- 
τεροι ἂν εἶεν, ἄριστοι μέν, ὡς φής, ὄντες, μάτην 
δὲ τοσαῦτα πάσχοντες καὶ ταλαιπωρούμενοι καὶ 
αἰσχύνοντες τὰ κάλλη καὶ τὰ μεγέθη τῇ ψάμμῳ 
καὶ τοῖς ὑπωπίοις, ὡς μήλου καὶ κοτίνου ἐγκρατεῖς 
γένοιντο νικήσαντες. ἡδὺ γάρ μοι ἀεὶ μεμνῆσθαι 
τῶν ἄθλων τοιούτων ov των. ἀτὰρ εἰπέ μοι, πάντες 
αὐτὰ λαμβάνουσιν οἱ ἀγωνισταί; 

Οὐδαμῶς, ἀλλὰ εἷς ἐξ ἁπάντων, ὁ κρατήσας 



takes place there would itself have taught you that 
we had not spent our energy on all this in vain, 
Just by talking about the delightfulness of the doings 
there, one cannot convince you of it as thoroughly 
as if you yourself, sitting in the midst of the spectators, 
were to see manly perfection, physical beauty, 
wonderful condition, mighty skill, irresistible 
strength, daring, rivalry, indomitable resolution, and 
inexpressible ardour for victory. I am very sure that 
you would never have stopped praising and cheering 
and clapping. 


No doubt, Solon; and laughing and gibing, into 
the bargain; for I see that all these things which 
you have enumerated—the perfection, the condition, 
the beauty, the daring—are being wasted for you 
without any great object in view, since your 
country is not in peril nor your farm-lands being 
ravaged, nor your friends and kinsmen insolently 
carried off. So the competitors are all the more 
ridiculous if they are the flower of the country, as 
you say, and yet endure so much for nothing, making 
themselves miserable and defiling their beautiful, 
great bodies with sand and black eyes to get 
possession of an apple and an olive-branch when 
they have won! You see, I like to keep mentioning 
the prizes, which are so fine! But tell me, do all 
the contestants get them ? 


Not by any means; only one among them all, the 





Kira, ὦ Σόλων, ἐπὶ τῷ ἀδήλῳ καὶ ἀμφιβόλῳ 
τῆς νίκης τοσοῦτοι πονοῦσι, καὶ ταῦτ᾽ εἰδότες ὅτι 
ὁ μὲν νικῶν εἷς ἔσται πάντως, οἱ δὲ ἡττώμενοι 
πάμπολλοι, μάτην ἄθλιοι πληγάς, οἱ δὲ καὶ τραύ- 
pata λαβόντες; 


"Eoas, ὦ ᾿Ανάχαρσι, μηδέπω ἐννενοηκέναι 
πολιτείας ὀρθῆς πέρι μηδέν" οὐ γὰρ ἂν τὰ κάλ- 
λιστα τῶν ἐθῶν ἐν ψόγῳ ἐτίθεσο. ἣν δέ σοι 
μελήσῃ ποτὲ εἰδέναι ὅπως ἂν τὰ κάλλιστα 
οἰκηθείη πόλις καὶ ὅπως ἂν ἄριστοι. γένοιντο οἱ 
πολῖται αὐτῆς, ἐπαινέση τότε καὶ τὰς ἀσκήσεις 
ταύτας καὶ τὴν φιλοτιμίαν ἢ ἣν φιλοτιμούμεθα περὶ 
αὐτάς, καὶ elon ὅτι πολὺ τὸ χρήσιμον ἔχουσιν 
ἐγκαταμεμιγμένον τοῖς πόνοις, εἰ καὶ νῦν μάτην 
σπουδάξεσθαι δοκοῦσιν. 


Kai μήν, @ Σόλων, κατ᾽ οὐδὲν ἄλλο ἀπὸ τῆς 
Σκυθίας ἥκω Tap ὑμᾶς τοσαύτην μὲν γῆν διο- 
δεύσας, μέγαν δὲ τὸν Εὔξεινον καὶ .δυσχείµερον 
περαιωθείς, 7 ὅπως νόμους τε τοὺς Ελλήνων 
ἐκμάθοιμι καὶ ἔθη τὰ παρ ὑμῖν κατανοήσαιμι. καὶ 
πολιτείαν τὴν ἀρίστην ἐκμελετήσαιμι. διὸ καὶ σὲ 
μάλιστα φίλον ἐξ ἁπάντων ᾿Αθηναίων καὶ ξένον 
προειλόμην κατὰ κλέος, ἐπείπερ ἤκουον νόμων τε 
συγγραφέα τινὰ εἶναι σε καὶ ἐθῶν τῶν ἀρίστων 
εὑρετὴν καὶ ἐπιτηδευμάτων ὠφελίμων εἰσηγητήν, 
καὶ ὅλως πολιτείας τινὸς συναρµοστήν. ὥστε οὐκ 



Then do so many undergo hardships upon the 
uncertain and precarious chance of winning, Solon, 
knowing too that there will surely be but one 
winner and very many losers, who, poor fellows, will 
have received blows and in some cases even wounds 
for nothing ? 


It seems, Anacharsis, that you have never yet 
done any thinking about the proper way to direct a 
state; otherwise you would not disparage the best 
of institutions. If ever you make it your object to 
find out how a state is to be organized in the best 
way possible, and how its citizens are to reach the 
highest degree of excellence, you will then praise 
these exercises and the rivalry which we display in 
regard to them, and you will know that they have 
much that is useful intermingled with the hardships, 
even if you now think our energy is spent on then 
for nothing. 


I assure you, Solon, I had no other object in coming 
to your country from Scythia, over such a vast 
stretch of land and across the wide and tempestuous 
Euxine, than to learn the laws of the Greeks, to 
observe your institutions, and to acquaint myself 
with the best form of polity. Thatis why I selected 
you in particular out of all the Athenians for my friend 
and host, in deference to your reputation, for I used 
to hear that you were a maker of laws, an inventor of 
excellent institutions, an introducer of advantageous 
practices, and in a word, the fashioner of a polity. So 



ἂν φθάνοις διδάσκων µε καὶ μαθητὴν ποιούµενος' 
ὡς ἔγωγε ἡδέως ἂν ἄσιτός σοι καὶ ἄποτος παρα- 
καθεζόµενος, εἰς ὅσον ἂν αὐτὸς διαρκοίης λέγων, 
κεχηνὼς ἐπακούοιμι περὶ πολιτείας τε καὶ νόμων 

15 Ta μὲν πάντα οὐ ῥάδιον, ὦ ἑταῖρε, διελθεῖν ἐν 
βραχεῖ, ἀλλὰ κατὰ μέρη ἐπιὼν εἴσῃ ἕκαστα, ola 
μὲν περὶ θεῶν, οἷα δὲ περὶ γονέων ἢ περὶ γάμων 
ἢ τῶν ἄλλων δοκεῖ ἡμῖν. ἃ δὲ περὶ τῶν νέων 
γιγνώσκομεν καὶ ὅπως αὐτοῖς χρώμεθα, ἐπειδὰν 
πρῶτον ἄρξωνται συνιέναι τε τοῦ βελτίονος καὶ 
τῷ σώματι ἀνδρίξεσθαι καὶ ὑφίστασθαι τοὺς 
πόνους, ταῦτα ἤδη σοι διέξειμι, ὡς μάθοις οὗτινος 
χάριν τὰς ἀσκήσεις ταύτας προτεθείκαμεν αὐτοῖς 
καὶ διαπονεῖν τὸ σῶμα καταναγκάξομεν, οὐ μόνον 
ἕνεκα τῶν ἀγώνων, ὅπως τὰ ἆθλα δύναιντο ἆναι- 
ρεῖσθαι---ἐπ᾽ ἐκεῖνα μὲν γὰρ ὀλίγοι πάνυ ἐξ a ἁπάν- 
των χωροῦσιν-- ἀλλὰ peilov TL ἁπάσῃ TH πόλει 
ἀγαθὸν ἐκ τούτου καὶ αὐτοῖς ἐκείνοις προσκτώ- 
μενοι. κοινὸς γάρ τις ἀγὼν ἄλλος ἅπασι τοῖς 
ἀγαθοῖς πολίταις πρόκειται καὶ στέφανος οὐ 
πίτυος οὐδὲ κοτίνου ἢ σελίνων, ἀλλ᾽ ὃς ἐν αὑτῷ 
συλλαβὼν ἔχει τὴν ἀνθρώπου εὐδαιμονίαν, οἷον 
ἐλευθερίαν λέγω αὐτοῦ τε ἑκάστου ἰδίᾳ καὶ κοινῇ 
τῆς πατρίδος καὶ πλοῦτον καὶ δόξαν καὶ , ἑορτῶν 
πατρίων ἀπόλαυσιν καὶ οἰκείων σωτηρίαν, καὶ 
συνόλως τὰ κάλλιστα ὧν ἄν τις εὔξαιτο γενέσθαι 
οἱ παρὰ τῶν θεῶν. ταῦτα πάντα τῷ στεφάνῳ ὅ ὃν 
φημι συναναπέπλεκται καὶ ἐκ τοῦ ἀγῶνος ἐκείνου 
περιγίγνεται ἐφ᾽ ὃν αἱ ἀσκήσεις αὗται καὶ οἱ πόνοι 


do be quick about teaching me and making a disciple 
of me. For my part I would gladly sit beside you 
without meat or drink as long as you could endure 
to talk, and listen to you with avidity while you 
described government and laws. 


To describe everything, my friend, in brief compass 
is not an easy task, but if you take it up a little at 
a time, you will find out in detail all the opinions 
we hold about the gods and about parents, marriage, 
and everything else. And I shall now tell you what 
we think about our young men, and how we deal 
with them from the time when they begin to know 
good from bad, to be physically mature, and to bear 
hardships, in order that you may learn why we pre- 
scribe these exercises for them and compel them to 
train their bodies. It is not simply on account of 
the contests, in order that they may be able to take 
the prizes—very few out of the entire number have 
the capacity for that—but because we seek a certain 
greater good from it for the entire state and for the 
young men themselves. There is another competition 
which is open to all good citizens in common, and 
a wreath that is not made of pine or olive or parsley, 
but contains in itself all human felicity,—that is to 
say, freedom for each individual singly and for 
the state in general, wealth, glory, enjoyment of 
ancestral feast-days, safety for one’s family, and in 
short, the fairest blessings that one could pray to 
receive from the gods. All these things are inter- 
woven in the wreath that I speak of and accrue from 
the contest to which these exercises and hardships 





Εἶτα, ὦ θαυμάσιε Σόλων, τοιαῦτά μοι καὶ 
τηλικαῦτα ἔχων ἆθλα διεξιέναι, μῆλα καὶ σέλινα 
διηγοῦ καὶ θαλλὸν ἐλαίας ἀγρίας καὶ πίτυν; 


Καὶ μήν, ὦ ᾿Ανάχαρσι, οὐδ᾽ ἐκεῖνά σοι ἔτι δόξει 
μικρὰ εἶναι, ὁπόταν ἃ λέγω κα αταμάθῃς" ἀπὸ γάρ 
τοι τῆς αὐτῆς γνώμης γίγνεται, καὶ μέρη πάντα 
ταῦτά ἐστι μικρὰ τοῦ μείζονος ἐκείνου ἀγῶνος καὶ 
τοῦ στεφάνου ὃν. κατέλεξα τοῦ πανευδαίµονος. ὁ 
δὲ λόγος, οὐκ οἶδ᾽ ὅπως ὑπερβὰς τὴν τάξιν, ἐ ἐκείνων 
πρότερον "ἐπεμνήσθη τῶν ᾿[σθ μοῦ γιγνομένων καὶ 
Ὀλυμπίασι καὶ ἐν Νεμέᾳ. πλὴν ἀλλὰ νώ--- 
σχολὴν γὰρ ἄγομεν καὶ σύ, ὡς φής, προθυμῇ 
ἀκούειν---ἀναδραμούμεθα .ῥᾳδίως πρὸς, τὴν ἀρχὴν 
καὶ τὸν κοινὸν ἀγῶνα δι ὃν φημι πάντα ταῦτα 


"Αμεινον, ὦ Σόλων, οὕτως" Kal ὁδὸν yàp à ἂν ἡμῖν 
ὁ λόγος μάλλον προχωροίη, καὶ τάχ᾽ ἂν ἴσως ἀπὸ 
τούτων πεισθείην μηδὲ ἐκείνων ἔτι καταγελᾶν, 
εἴ τινα ἴδοιμι σεμνυνόμενον κοτίνῳ À σελίνῳ 
ἐστεφανωμένον. ἀλλ. εἰ δοκεῖ, εἰς τὸ σύσκιον 
ἐκεῖσε ἀπελθόντες καθίσωμεν ἐπὶ τῶν θάκων, ὡς 
μὴ ἐνοχλοῖεν ἡμῖν ot? ἐπικεκραγότες τοῖς πα- 
λαίουσιν. ἄλλως τε---εἰρήσεται γάρ---οὐδὲ τὸν 
ἥλιον ἔτι ῥᾳδίως -ἀνέχομαι ὀξὺν καὶ Φλογμώδη 
ἐμπίπτογτα γυμνῆ τῇ κεφαλῇ. τὸν γὰρ πῖλόν 
1 πρότερον Halim: προτέρων MSS. 
2 oi Jacobs: not in MSS. 



Then, Solon, you amazing person, when you had 
such magnificent prizes to tell of, you spoke of apples 
and parsley and a sprig of wild olive and a bit 
of pine? 


But really, Anacharsis, even those prizes will no 
longer appear trivial to you when you understand what 
I mean. They originate in the same purpose, and 
are all small parts of that greater contest and of the 
wreath of complete felicity which I mentioned. Our 
conversation, departing somehow or other from the 
natural sequence, touched first upon the doings at 
the Isthmus and Olympia and Nemea. However, as 
we are at leisure and you are eager, you say, to hear, 
it will be an easy matter for us to hark back to the 
beginning, to the common competition which is, as I 
say, the object of all these practices. 


It would be better, Solon, to do so, for by keeping 
to the highway our talk would make greater progress, 
and perhaps knowing these prizes may persuade me 
never again to laugh at those others, if I should see a 
man putting on airs because he wears a wreath of wild 
olive or parsley. But if it is all the same to you, let 
us go into the shade over yonder and sit on the 
benches, so as not to be annoyed by the men who 
are shouting at the wrestlers. Besides—I may as 
well be frank !—I no longer find it easy to stand the 
sun, which is fieree and burning as it beats upon my 
bare head. I thought it best to leave my cap at 




μοι ἀφελεῖν. οἴκοθεν ἔδοξεν, ὡς μὴ μόνος ἐν ὑμῖν 
ξενίξοιμι τῷ σχήματι. ἡ δὲ ὦ Opa τοῦ ἔτους 6 TL 
περ τὸ πυρωδέστατόν ἐστι, τοῦ ἀστέρος ὃν ὑμεῖς 
κύνα φατὲ πάντα καταφλέγοντος καὶ τὸν ἀέρα 
ξηρὸν καὶ διακαῆ τιθέντος, ὅ τε ἥλιος κατὰ 
μεσημβρίαν ἤδη ù ὑπὲρ κεφαλῆς ἐπικείμενος φλογ- 
μὸν τοῦτον οὐ φορητὸν ἐπάγει τοῖς σώμασιν. 
ὥστε καὶ σοῦ θαυμάξω, ὅπως γηραιὸς ἤδη ἄν- 
θρωπος οὔτε ἰδίεις πρὸς τὸ θάλπος ὥσπερ ἐγὼ 
οὔτε ὅλως ἐνοχλουμένω ἔοικας, οὐδὲ περιβλέπεις 
σύσκιόν τι ἔνθα ὑποδύσῃ, ἀλλὰ δέχῃ τὸν ἥλιον 

Οἱ μάταιοι γὰρ οὗτοι πόνοι, ὦ ᾿Ανάχαρσι, καὶ 
αἱ συνεχεῖς ἐν τῷ πηλῷ κυβιστήσεις καὶ αἱ 
ὕπαιθροι ἐν τῇ ψάμμφ Ταλαιπωρίαι τοῦτο ἡμῖν 
τὸ ἀμυντήριον παρέχουσι πρὸς τὰς τοῦ ἡλίου 
Boras, καὶ οὐκέτι πίλου δεόμεθα ὃς τὴν ἀκτῖνα 
κωλύσει καθικνεῖσθαι τῆς κεφαλῆς. 

᾽Απίωμεν δ᾽ οὖν. καὶ ὅπως μὴ καθάπερ νόμοις 
προσέξεις οἷς ἂν λέγω πρὸς σέ, ὡς ἐξ ἅπαντος 
πιστεύειν αὐτοῖς, ἀλλ᾽ ἔνθα av σοι μὴ ὀρθῶς τι 
λέγεσθαι δοκῇ, ἀντιλέγειν εὐθὺς καὶ διευθύνειν 
τὸν .λόγον. δυοῖν γὰρ θατέρου πάντως οὐκ ἂν 
ἁμάρτοιμεν, ἢ σὲ βεβαίως πεισθῆναι ἐκχέαντα 
ὁπόσα οἴει ἀντιλεκτέα εἶναι ἢ ἐμὲ ἀναδιδαχθῆναι 
ὡς οὐκ ὀρθῶς γιγνώσκω περὶ αὐτῶν. καὶ ἐν 
τούτῳ πᾶσα ἄν σοι ἡ πόλις ἡ ᾿Αθηναίων οὐκ 

1 A great pointed cap of felt or skin was part of the 
Scythian costume. The Greeks went bare-headed, unless 



home, so as not to be the only person among you in 
a foreign costume. But the season of the yearis the 
very fieriest, for the star which you call the Dog burns 
everything up and makes the air dry and parching, 
and the sun, now hanging overhead at midday, 
produces this blazing heat, insupportable to the body. 
I wonder, therefore, how it is that you, an elderly 
man, do not perspire in the heat as I do, and do not 
seem to be troubled by it at all; you do not even 
look about for a shady spot to enter, but stand the 
sun with ease. 


These useless exertions, Anacharsis, the continual 
somersaults in the mud and the open-air struggles 
in the sand give us our immunity from the shafts of 
the sun and we have no further need of a cap to 
keep its rays from striking our heads. 

Let us go, however. And take care not to regard 
everything that I may say to you as a law, so as to 
believe it at all hazards. Whenever you think I am 
incorrect in anything that I say, contradict me at 
once and set my reasoning straight. One thing or 
the other, certainly, we cannot fail to accomplish : 
either you will become firmly convinced after you 
have exhausted all the objections that you think 
ought to be made, or else I shall be taught that I am 
not correct in my view of the matter. In that event 
the entire city of Athens could not be too quick to 

they were ill, or on a journey, or regularly exposed to bad 
weather, like sailors and farm-labourers, who wore a similar 
but smaller cap. 





ἂν φθάνοι χάριν ὁμολογοῦσα' ὅσα γὰρ ἂν ἐμὲ 
παιδεύσῃς καὶ μεταπείσῃς πρὸς τὸ Βέλτιον, 
ἐκείνην τὰ μέγιστα ἔση ὠφεληκώς, οὐδὲν γὰρ 
^ , / , / , , 3AA , . / 
ἂν ἀποκρυψαίμην αὐτὴν, ἀλλ. εὐθὺς εἰς τὸ μέσον 
καταθήσω φέρων καὶ καταστὰς ἐν τῇ πνυκὶ ἐρῶ 
πρὸς ἅπαντας, “Ανδρες ᾿Αθηναῖοι, ἐγὼ μὲν ὑμῖν 
ἔγραψα τοὺς νόμους οἷους ᾧμην ! ὠφελιμωτάτους 
Y ^ f M M , e 729 > / 
ἔσεσθαι TH πόλει, ὁ δὲ ξένος οὗτοσί '—SetEas σέ, 
- 9 / vi ΄ 7 , \ LA 
ὦ ᾿Ανάχαρσι--" Σκύθης μέν ἐστι, σοφὸς δὲ ὢν 

/ / AC HM / , ` 
μετεπαίδευσέ µε καὶ ἄλλα βελτίω µαθήµατα καὶ 
ἐπιτηδεύματα ἐδιδάξατο: ὥστε εὐεργέτης ὑμῶν 
ὁ ἀνὴρ ἀναγεγράφθω καὶ χαλκοῦν αὐτὸν ἀναστή- 
σατε παρὰ τοὺς ἐπωνύμους 7)? ἐν TONEL παρὰ τὴν 
᾿Αθηνᾶν.͵ καὶ εὖ ἴσθι ὡς οὐκ αἰσχυνεῖται ὃ ἡ 
᾿Αθηναίων πόλις παρὰ βαρβάρου καὶ ξένου τὰ 
συμφέροντα ἐκμανθάνοντες. 

Τοῦτ᾽ ἐκεῖνο ἦν ἄρα, ὃ ἐγὼ περὶ ὑμῶν ἤκουον 
τῶν ᾿Αθηναίων, ὡς εἴητε εἴρωνες ἐν τοῖς λόγοις. 
ἐπεὶ πόθεν ἂν ἐγὼ νομὰς καὶ πλάνης ἄνθρωπος, 
ἐφ᾽ ἁμάξης βεβιωκώς, ἄλλοτε ἄλλην γῆν ἀμεί- 
βων, πόλιν δὲ οὔτε οἰκήσας πώποτε οὔτε ἄλλοτε 
ἢ νῦν ἑωρακώς, περὶ πολιτείας διεξίοιμι καὶ 
διδάσκοιμι αὐτόχθονας ἄνδρας πόλιν ταύτην 
ἀρχαιοτάτην τοσούτοις ἤδη Xpovors ἐν εὐνομίᾳ 
κατῳκηκοτας, καὶ μαλιστα σέ ὦ Σόλων, ὦ τοῦτο 
ἐξ ἀρχῆς καὶ μάθημα, ὡς φασίν, ἐγένετο, ἐπί- 

1 ὤμην Cobet: ἂν ᾧμην MSS. 

? 5 O. Müller: not in MSS. 

3 αἰσχυνεῖται Fritzsche: αἰσχύνηται MSS. 
* gé vulg.: not in MSS. 


acknowledge its gratitude to you, because in so far 
as you instruct me and convert me to a better 
view, you will have conferred the greatest possible 
benefit upon her. For I could not keep anything 
from her, but shall at once contribute it all to 
the public. Taking my stand in the Pnyx, I shall 
say to everyone: “Men of Athens, I made you 
the laws which I thought would be most beneficial 
to the city, but this guest of mine" —and then 
I shall point to you, Anacharsis,—“a Scythian, 
indeed, but a man of learning, has converted me and 
taught me other better forms of education and 
training. Therefore let him be written down as 
your benefactor, aud set his statue up in bronze 
beside the Namesakes! or on the Acropolis beside 
Athena." You may be very sure that the city of 
Athens will not be ashamed to learn what is to her 
advantage from a foreign guest. 


Ah! that is just what I used to hear about you 
Athenians, that you never really mean what you say. 
For how could I, a nomad and a rover, who have lived 
my life on a wagon, visiting different lands at different 
seasons, and have never dwelt in a city or seen one 
until now—how could I hold forth upon statecraft 
and teach men sprung from the soil, who have 
inhabited this very ancient city for so many years in 
law and order? Above all, how could I teach you, 
Solon, who from the first, they say, have made it a 
special study to know how the government of a state 

! The ten Athenian tribes were named after legendary 
heroes whose statues stood in the Potters’ Quarter. 




στασθαι ὅπως ἂν ἄριστα πόλις οἰκοῖτο καὶ 
οἷστισιν νόμοις χρωμένη εὐδαιμονήσειε; πλὴν 
ἀλλὰ καὶ τοῦτο ὡς νομοθέτῃ πειστέον σοι, καὶ 
ἀντερῶ ἤν τί μοι δοκῇ μὴ ὀρθῶς λέγεσθαι, ὡς 
βεβαιότερον μάθοιμι. 

Καὶ ἰδοὺ γὰρ ἤδη ἐκφυγόντες τὸν ἥλιον ἐν τῷ 
συνηρεφεῖ ἐσμεν, καὶ καθέδρα μάλα ἡδεῖα καὶ 
εὔκαιρος ἐπὶ ψυχροῦ τοῦ λίθου. λέγε οὖν τὸν 
λόγον ἐξ ἀρχῆς καθ ὅ τι τοὺς νέους παραλα- 

ὄντες ἐκ παίδων εὐθὺς διαπονεῖτε, καὶ ὅπως 
ὑμῖν ἄριστοι ἄνδρες ἀποβαίνουσιν ἐκ τοῦ πηλοῦ 
καὶ τῶν ἀσκημάτων τούτων, καὶ τί ἡ κόνις καὶ 
τὰ κυβιστήματα συντελεῖ πρὸς ἀρετὴν αὐτοῖς. 
τοῦτο γὰρ δὴ μάλιστα ἐξ ἀρχῆς εὐθὺς ἐπόθουν 
ἀκοῦσαι" τὰ δ᾽ ἄλλα εἰς ὕστερον διδάξη με κατὰ 
καιρὸν ἕκαστον ἐν τῷ μέρει. ἐκείνου μέντοι, ὦ 
Σόλων, μέμνησό μοι παρὰ την ῥῆσιν, ὅτι πρὸς 
ἄνδρα βάρβαρον € ἐρεῖς. λέγω δὲ ὡς μὴ περιπλέκῃς 
μηδὲ ἀπομηκύνῃς. τοὺς λόγους" δέδια γὰρ μὴ 
ἐπιλανθάνωμαι τῶν πρώτων, εἰ τὰ μετὰ ταῦτα 
πολλὰ ἐπιρρέοι.᾽ 


Σὺ τοῦτο, ὦ ᾿Ανάχαρσι, ταμιεύση ἄμεινον, 
ἔνθα ἄν σοι δοκῇ μὴ πάνυ σαφὴς ὁ λόγος εἶναι ἢ 
πόρρω ποι ἀποπλανᾶσθαι εἰκῆ ῥέων" ἐρήσῃ γὰρ 
μεταξὺ Ü τι ἂν ἐθέλῃς καὶ διακόψεις αὐτοῦ τὸ 
μῆκος. ἦν μέντοι μὴ ἐξαγώνια μηδὲ πόρρω τοῦ 
σκοποῦ τὰ λεγόμενα 7, κωλύσει οὐδέν, οἶμαι, εἰ 
καὶ μακρὰ λέγοιτο, ἐπεὶ καὶ τῇ βουλῇ τῇ ἐξ 

1 ἐπιρρέοι Lehmann: ἐπιρρέῃ MSS, 


can be conducted best and what laws it should 
observe to be prosperous? However, in this too, 
since you are a law-giver, I must obey you; so 1 
shall contradict you if I think that you are incorrect 
in anything that you say, in order that I may learn 
my lesson more thoroughly. 

See, we have escaped the sun and are now in the 
shade; here is a very delightful and opportune seat 
on the cool stone. So begin at the beginning and 
tell why you take your young men in hand and train 
them from their very boyhood, how they turn out 
excellent men as a result of the mud and the 
exercises, and what the dust and the somersaults 
contribute to their excellence. That is what I was 
most eager to hear at the beginning: the rest you 
shall teach me later, as opportunity offers, each 
particular in its turn. But bear this in mind, please, 
Solon, throughout your talk, that you will be 
speaking to a foreigner. I say this in order that 
you may not make your explanations too involved or 
too long, for I am afraid that I may forget the 
commencement if the sequel should be too profuse 
in its flow. 


You yourself, Anacharsis, can regulate that better, 
wherever you think that my discussion is not fully 
clear, or that it is meandering far from its channel 
in a random stream; for you can interpose any 
question that you will, and cut it short. But if 
what I say is not foreign to the case and beside the 
mark, there will be nothing, I suppose, to hinder, 
even if I should speak at length, since that is the 



᾿Αρείου πάγου, ἥπερ τὰς φονικὰς ἡμῖν δίκας 
δικάζει, πάτριον οὕτω ποιεῖν. ὁπόταν γὰρ ἀνελ.- 
θοῦσα εἰς τὸν πάγον συγκαθέξηται φόνου ἡ 
τραύματος ἐκ προνοίας ἢ πυρκαϊᾶς δικάσοντες, 
ἀποδίδοται λόγος ,ἑκατέρῳ τῶν κρινομένων καὶ 
λέγουσιν. ἐν τῷ μέρει ὁ μὲν διώκων ὁ δὲ φεύγων, 
7 αὐτοὶ 5 ῥήτορας ἀναβιβάξονται τοὺς ἐροῦντας 
ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν. οἱ δὲ ἔ ἔστ᾽ ἂν μὲν περὶ τοῦ πράγ- 
ματος λέγωσιν, ἀνέχεται ἡ ἡ Βουλὴ καθ᾽ ἡσυχίαν 
ἀκούουσα" ἦν δέ τις ἢ φροίμιον εἴπη πρὸ, τοῦ 
λόγου, ὡς εὐνουστέρους ἀπεργάσαιτο αὐτούς, 7 
οἶκτον 7) δείνωσιν ἔξωθεν mayn! τῷ πράγµατι--- 
οἷα πολλὰ ῥητόρων παῖδες ἐπὶ τοὺς δικαστὰς 
μηχανῶνται---παρελθὼν ὁ κῆρυξ κατεσιώπησεν 
εὐθύς, οὐκ ἐῶν ληρεῖν. πρὸς τὴν βουλὴν καὶ περι- 
πέττειν τὸ πρᾶγμα ἐν τοῖς λόγοις, ὡς γυμνὰ τὰ 
γεγενημένα οἱ ᾿Αρεοπαγῖται βλέποιεν. 

“Qore καὶ σέ, ὦ ᾿Ανάχαρσι, ᾿Αρεοπαγίτην ἐν 
τῷ παρόντι ποιοῦμαι ἔγωγε, καὶ κατὰ τὸν τῆς 
βουλῆς µου νόμον ἄκουε, καὶ σιωπᾶν κέλευε, ἦν 
αἴσθῃ καταρρητορευόµενος ἄχρι δ᾽ ἂν οἰκεῖα τῷ 
πράγματι λέγηται, ἐξέστω ἀπομηκύνειν. οὐδὲ 
γὰρ ὑφ᾽ ἡλίῳ ἔτι ποιησόμεθα τὴν συνουσίαν, ὡς 
ἄχθεσθαι εἰ ἀποτείνοιτο ἡ ῥῆσις, ἀλλὰ Tj τε σκιὰ 
πυκνὴ καὶ ἡμεῖς σχολὴν ἄγομεν. 


Εὐγνώμονά σου ταῦτα, ὦ Σόλων, καὶ ἔγωγε 
ἤδη χάριν ov μικρὰν οἶδά σοι καὶ ἐπὶ τούτοις, 
ὅτι πάρεργον τοῦ λόγου καὶ τὰ ἐν ᾿Αρείῳ πάγῳ 

1 ἐπάγῃ Fritzsche: ἐπάγοι MSS. 


tradition in the court of the Areopagus, which 
judges our cases of manslaughter. Whenever it 
goes up to the Areopagus and holds a sitting to 
judge a case of manslaughter or premeditated 
wounding or arson, an opportunity to be heard is 
given to each party to the case, and the plaintiff and 
defendant plead in turn, either in person or through 
professional speakers whom they bring to the bar to 
plead in their behalf. As long as they speak about 
the case, the court tolerates them and listens in 
silence ; butif anyone prefaces his speech with an in- 
troduction in order to make the court more favourable, 
or brings emotion or exaggeration into the case— 
tricks that are often devised by the disciples of 
rhetoric to influence the judges,—then the crier 
appears and silences them at once, preventing them 
from talking nonsense to the court and from 
tricking the case out in words, in order that the 
Areopagites may see the facts bare. 

So, Anacharsis, I make you an Areopagite for the 
present. Listen to me according to the custom of 
the court and tell me to be silent if you perceive 
that I am plying you with rhetoric. But as long as 
what I say is germane to the case, let me have the 
right to speak at length. Besides, we are not going 
to converse in the sun now, so that you would find 
it burdensome if my talk were prolonged; the shade 
is thick, and we have plenty of time. 


What you say is reasonable, Solon, and already | 
am more than a little grateful to you for incidentally 
teaching me about what takes place in the Areopagus, 



γιγνόμενα ἐδιδάξω με, θαυμάσια ὡς ἀληθῶς καὶ 
ἀγαθῶν βουλευτῶν ἔ ἔργα πρὸς ἀλήθειαν οἰσόντων 
τὴν ψ ῆφον. ἐπὶ τούτοις οὖν ἤδη λέγε, καὶ ὁ 
᾿Αρεοπαγίτης ἐγὼ-- τοῦτο γὰρ ἔθου µε--κατὰ 
σχῆμα τῆς βουλῆς ἀκούσομαί σου. 


90 Οὐκοῦν διὰ βραχέων προακοῦσαι χρή σε ἃ 
περὶ πόλεως καὶ πολιτῶν ἡμῖν δοκεῖ. πόλιν γὰρ 
ἡμεῖς οὐ τὰ οἰκοδομήματα ἡγούμεθα εἶναι, οἷον 
τείχη καὶ ἱερὰ καὶ νεωσοίκους, ἀλλὰ ταῦτα μὲν 
ὥσπερ σῶμά τι ἑδραῖον καὶ ἀκίνητον ὑπάρχειν 
eis ὑποδοχὴν καὶ ἀσφάλειαν τῶν πολιτευομένων, 
τὸ δὲ πᾶν κῦρος ἐν τοῖς πολίταις τιθέμεθα: 
τούτους γὰρ εἶναι τοὺς ἀναπληροῦντας. καὶ δια- 
τάττοντας καὶ ἐπιτελοῦντας᾽ ἕκαστα καὶ .φυλάτ- 
τοντας, οἷόν τι ἐν ἡμῖν ἑκάστῳ ἐστὶν ἡ ψυχή. 
τοῦτο δὴ τοίνυν κατανοήσαντες ἐπιμελούμεθα 
μέν, ὡς ὁρᾶς, καὶ τοῦ σώματος τῆς πόλεως, κατα- 
κοσμοῦντες αὐτὸ ὡς κάλλιστον ἡμῖν εἴη, ἔνδοθέν 
τε οἰκοδομήμασιν κατεσκευασμένον καὶ ταῖς 
ἔκτοσθεν ταύταις περιβολαῖς εἰς τὸ ἀσφαλέ- 
στατον πεφραγμένον. μάλιστα δὲ καὶ ἐξ à ἅπαντος 
τοῦτο προνοοῦμεν, ὅπως οἱ πολῖται ἀγαθοὶ μὲν 
τὰς ψυχάς, ἰσχυροὶ δὲ τὰ σώματα γίγνοιντο: 
τοὺς γὰρ τοιούτους σφίσι τε αὐτοῖς καλῶς χρή- 
σεσθαι ἐν εἰρήνῃ συμπολιτευομένους καὶ ἐκ πολέ- 
μου σώσειν τὴν πόλιν καὶ ἐλευθέραν καὶ εὐδαί- 
μονα διαφυλάξειν. 

Τὴν μὲν δὴ πρώτην ἀνατροφὴν αὐτῶν μητράσι 
καὶ τίτθαις καὶ παιδαγωγοῖς ἐπιτρέπομεν ὑπὸ 



which is truly admirable and what good judges 
would do, who intend to cast their ballot in 
accordance with the facts. On these conditions, 
therefore, proceed, and in my capacity of 
Areopagite, since you have made me that, I shall 
give you a hearing in the manner of that court. 


Then you must first let me tell you briefly what 
our ideas are about a city and its citizens. We 
consider that a city is not the buildings, such as walls 
and temples and docks. These constitute a firm-set, 
immovable body, so to speak, for the shelter and 
protection of the community, but the whole 
significance is in the citizens, we hold, for it is they 
who fill it, plan and carry out everything, and keep 
it safe; they are something like what the soul is 
within the individual. So, having noted this, we 
naturally take care of the city's body, as you see, 
beautifying it so that it may be as fair as possible, 
not only well furnished inside with buildings but 
most securely fenced with these external ramparts. 
But above all and at all hazards we endeavour to 
insure that the citizens shall be virtuous in soul and 
strong in body, thinking that such men, joined 
together in public life, will make good use of them- 
selves in times of peace, will bring the city safe 
out of war, and will keep it always free and 

Their early upbringing we entrust to mothers, 
nurses, and tutors, to train and rear them with 



παιδείαις ἐλευθερίοις ἄ ἄγειν τε καὶ τρέφειν αὐτούς, 
ἐπειδὰν δὲ συνετοὶ ἤδη γίγνωνται τῶν καλῶς 
ἐχόντων, καὶ αἰδὼς καὶ ἐρύθημα καὶ φόβος καὶ 
ἐπιθυμία τῶν ἀρίστων ἀναφύηται αὐτοῖς, καὶ 
αὐτὰ ἤδη τὰ σώματα ἀξιόχρεα δοκῇ πρὸς τοὺς 

πόνους παγιώτερα γιγνόµενα καὶ πρὸς TO ἰσχυρό- 
τερον συνιστάμενα, τηνικαῦτα ἤδη παραλαβόντες 
αὐτοὺς διδάσκοµεν, ἄλλα μὲν τῆς ψυχῆς μαθή- 
pata καὶ γυμνάσια προτιθέντες, ἄλλως δὲ πρὸς 
τοὺς πόνους καὶ τὰ σώματα ἐθίξοντες. οὐ γὰρ 
ἱκανὸν ἡμῖν ἔδοξε τὸ μόνον φῦναι ὡς ἔφυ ἕκαστος 
ἤτοι κατὰ τὸ σῶμα 7 κατὰ τὴν ψυχήν, ἀλλὰ καὶ 
παιδεύσεως καὶ μαθημάτων ἐπ᾽ αὐτοὺς δεόμεθα, 
ὑφ᾽ ὧν τά τε εὐφυῶς διακείμενα βελτίω παρὰ 
πολὺ γίγνοιτο ἂν καὶ τὰ φαύλως ἔχοντα μετα- 
κοσμοῖτο πρὸς τὸ βέλτιον. καὶ τὸ παράδειγµα 
ἡμῖν παρὰ τῶν γεωργῶν, οἳ τὰ φυτὰ μέχρι μὲν 
πρόσγεια καὶ νήπιά ἐστι, σκέπουσιν καὶ περι- 
φράττουσιν ὡς μὴ βλάπτοιντο ὑπὸ τῶν πνευ- 
μάτων, ἐπειδὰν δὲ ἤδη παχύνηται τὸ ἔρνος, 
τηνικαῦτα περιτέμνουσίν τε τὰ περιττὰ καὶ 
παραδιδόντες αὐτὰ τοῖς ἀνέμοις δονεῖν καὶ δια- 
σαλεύειν καρπιμώτερα ἐξεργάξονται. 

Τὴν μὲν τοίνυν ψυχὴν μουσικῇ τὸ πρῶτον καὶ 
ἀριθμ ητικῇ. ἀναρριπίζομεν, καὶ γράμματα γρά- 
ψασθαι καὶ τορῶς αὐτὰ ἐπιλέξασθαι διδάσκομεν: 
προϊοῦσιν δὲ ἤδη σοφῶν ἀνδρῶν γνώμας καὶ 
ἔργα παλαιὰ καὶ λόγους ὠφελίμους ἐν μέτροις 
κατακοσμήσαντες, ὡς μᾶλλον μνημονεύοιεν, pa- 
ψᾠδοῦμεν αὐτοῖς. οἱ δὲ καὶ ἀκούοντες ἀριστείας 
τινὰς καὶ πράξεις ἀοιδίμους ὀρέγονται κατὰ 



liberal teachings; but when at length they become 
able to understand what is right, when modesty, 
shame, fear, and ambition spring up in them, and 
when at length their very bodies seem well fitted 
for hardships as they get firmer and become more 
strongly compacted, then we take them in hand and 
teach them, not only prescribing them certain dis- 
ciplines and exercises for the soul, but in certain 
other ways habituating their bodies also to hard- 
ships. We have not thought it sufficient for each 
man to be as he was born, either in body or 
in soul, but we want education and disciplines 
for them by which their good traits may be much 
improved and their bad altcred for the better. We 
take example from the farmers, who shelter and 
enclose their plants while they are small and young, 
so that they may not be injured by the breezes: 
but when the stalk at last begins to thicken, they 
prune away the excessive growth and expose them 
to the winds to be shaken and tossed, in that way 
making them more fruitful. 

Their souls we fan into flame with music and 
arithmetic at first and we teach them to write their 
letters and to read them trippingly. As they 
progress, we recite for them sayings of wise men, 
deeds of olden times, and helpful fictions, which we 
have adorned with metre that they may remember 
them better. Hearing of certain feats of arms and 
famous exploits, little by little they grow covetous 



μικρὸν καὶ πρὸς pinow ἐπεγείρονται, ὡς καὶ αὐτοὶ 
ἄδοιντο καὶ θαυμάξοιντο i ὑπὸ τῶν ὕστερον. οἷα 
πολλὰ Ἡσίοδός τε ἡμῖν καὶ "Όμηρος ἐ ἐποίησαν. 

᾿Επειδὰν δὲ πλησιάξωσι πρὸς τὴν πολιτείαν 
καὶ δέη αὐτοὺς ἤδη μεταχειρίζεσθαι τὰ κοινά--- 
καίτοι ἔξω τοῦ ἀγῶνος ἴσως ταῦτα" οὐ yàp ὅπως 
τὰς ψυχὰς αὐτῶν ἀσκοῦμεν ἐξ ἀρχῆς προὔκειτο 
εἰπεῖν, ἀλλὰ δι ὅ τι τοῖς τοιούτοις πόνοις κατα- 
γυμνάξειν αὐτοὺς ἀξιοῦμεν. ὥστε αὐτὸς ἐμαυτῷ 
σιωπᾶν προστάπτω, οὐ περιμείνας τὸν κήρυκα 
οὐδὲ τὸν ᾿Αρεοπαγίτην σέ, ὃς ὑπ᾽ αἰδοῦς, οἶμαι, 
ἀνέχῃ ληροῦντα ἤδη τοσαῦτα ἔξω τοῦ πράγματος. 

Εἰπέ μοι, ὦ Σόλων, πρὸς δὲ δὴ τοὺς τὰ ἀναγ- 
καιότατα μὴ λέγοντας ἐν ᾿Αρείῳ πάγῳ, ἀλλὰ 
ἀποσιωπῶντας, οὐδὲν τῇ βουλῇ πρόστιμον ἐπι- 

Ti τοῦτο ἤρου ue; οὐδέπω γὰρ δῆλον. 
Ἴρου p yap on 


Ὅτι τὰ κάλλιστα καὶ ἐμοὶ ἀκοῦσαι ἥδιστα 
παρείς, τὰ περὶ τῆς ψυχῆς, τὰ ἧττον ἀναγκαῖα 
λέγειν διανοῇ, γυμνάσια καὶ διαπονήσεις τῶν 


Μέμνημαι γάρ, ὦ γενναῖε, τῶν ἀπ᾽ ἀρχῆς 
προρρήσεων καὶ ἀποπλανᾶν οὐ βούλομαι τὸν 



and are incited to imitate them, in order that they 
too may be sung and admired by men of after time. 
Both Hesiod and Homer have composed much 
poetry of that sort for us. 

When they enter political life and have at length 
to handle public affairs—but this, no doubt, is foreign 
to the case, as the subject proposed for discussion at 
the outset was not how we discipline their souls, but 
why we think fit to train their bodies with hardships 
like these. Therefore I order myself to be silent, 
without waiting for the crier to do it, or for you, the 
Areopagite; it is out of deference, I suppose, that 
you tolerate my saying so much that is beside the 


Tell me, Solon, when people do not say what is 
most essential in the Areopagus, but keep it to 
themselves, has the court devised no penalty for 

Why did you ask me that question? I do not 

Because you propose to pass over what is best 
and for me most delightful to hear about, what 
concerns the soul, and to speak of what is less 
essential, gymnastics and physical exercises. 


Why, my worthy friend, I remember your admoni- 
tions in the beginning and do not wish the discussion 





λόγον, µη σου «ἐπιταράξῃ τὴν μνήμην ἐπιρρέων. 
πλὴν. ἀλλὰ καὶ ταῦτα ἐρῶ διὰ βραχέων, ὡς οἷόν 
TE TÒ yàp ἀκριβὲς τῆς περὶ αὐτῶν διασκέψεως 
ἑτέρου ἂν εἴη λόγου. 

Ῥυθμίζομεν οὖν τὰς γνώμας αὐτῶν νόμους τε 
τοὺς κοινοὺς ἐκδιδάσκοντες, ot δημοσία πᾶσι 
προκεινται ἀναγιγνώσκειν μεγάλοις γράμμασιν 
ἀναγεγραμμένοι, κελεύοντες ἅ ἅ τε χρὴ ποιεῖν καὶ 
ὧν ἀπέχεσθαι, καὶ ἀγαθῶν ἀνδρῶν συνουσίαις, 
παρ᾽ ὧν λέγειν τὰ δέοντα ἐκμανθάνουσι καὶ 
πράττειν τὰ δίκαια καὶ ἐκ τοῦ ἴσου ἀλλήλοις 
συμπολιτεύεσθαι καὶ μὴ ἐφίεσθαι τῶν αἰσχρῶν 
καὶ ὀρέγεσθαι τῶν καλῶν, βίαιον δὲ μηδὲν ποιεῖν. 
οἱ δὲ ἄνδρες οὗτοι σοφισταὶ καὶ φιλόσοφοι πρὸς 
ἡμῶν ὀνομάξονται. καὶ μέντοι καὶ εἰς τὸ θέατρον 
συνάγοντες αὐτοὺς δημοσίᾳ παιδεύομεν ὑπὸ κω- 
μῳδίαις καὶ τραγωδίαις a ἀρετάς τε ἀνδρῶν παλαιῶν 
καὶ κακίας θεωμένους, ὡς τῶν μὲν ἀποτρέποιντο, 
ἐπ᾽ ἐκεῖνα δὲ σπεύδοιεν. τοῖς δέ γε κωμῳδοῖς καὶ 
λοιδορεῖσθαι καὶ ἀποσκώπτειν ἐφίεμεν. εἰς τοὺς 
πολίτας οὓς ἂν αἰσχρὰ καὶ ἀνάξια τῆς πόλεως 
ἐπιτηδεύοντας αἴσθωνται, αὐτῶν τε ἐκείνων χάριν, 
ἀμείνους γὰρ οὕτω γίγνονται ὀνειδιζόμενοι, καὶ 
τῶν πολλῶν, ὡς φεύγοιεν τὸν ἐπὶ τοῖς ὁμοίοις 


Εἶδον, ὦ Σόλων, οὓς φὴς, TOUS τραγῳδοὺς καὶ 
κωμῳδούς, εἴ γε ἐκεῖνοί εἰσιν, ὑποδήματα μὲν 
βαρέα καὶ ὑψηλὰ ὑποδεδεμένοι, χρυσαῖς δὲ Tat- 
viais τὴν ἐσθῆτα πεποικιλμένοι, κράνη δὲ ἐπικεί- 



to meander out of its channel for fear of confusing your 
memory with its flow. However, I shall discuss this, 
too, in brief, as best I can. To consider it carefully 
would be matter for another conversation. 

We harmonize their minds by causing them to 
learn by heart the laws of the community, which are 
exposed in public for everyone to read, written in 
large letters, and tell what one should do and what 
one should refrain from doing ; also by caasing them 
to hold converse with good men, from whom they 
learn to say what is fitting and do what is right, to 
associate with one another on an equal footing, not to 
aim at what is base, to seek what is noble, and to do 
no violence. These men we call sophists and philoso- 
phers. Furthermore, assembling them in the theatre, 
we instruct them publicly through comedies and 
tragedies, in which they behold both the virtues and 
the vices of the ancients, in order that they may 
recoil from the vices and emulate the virtues. The 
comedians, indeed, we allow to abuse and ridicule 
any citizens whom they perceive to be following 
practices that are base and unworthy of the city, not 
only for the sake of those men themselves, since they 
are made better by chiding, but for the sake of the 
general publie, that they may shun castigation for 
similar offences. 


I have seen the tragedians and comedians that 
you are speaking of, Solon, if I am not mistaken ; 
they! had on heavy, high footgear, clothing that 
was gay with gold stripes, and very ludicrous head- 

1 The tragedians. There may be a lacuna in the text. 



μενοι παγγέλοια κεχηνότα παμμέγεθες: αὐτοὶ δὲ 
ἔνδοθεν μεγάλα τε ἐκεκράγεσαν καὶ διέβαινον οὐκ 
οἶδ᾽ ὅ ὅπως ἀσφαλῶς ἐν τοῖς ὑποδήμασιν. Διονύσῳ, 
δὲ οἶμαι τότε ἡ πόλις ἑώρταξεν. οἱ δὲ κωμῳδοὶ 
βραχύτεροι μὲν ἐκείνων καὶ πεξοὶ καὶ ἀνθρωπι- 
νώτεροι καὶ ἧττον ἐβόων, κράνη δὲ πολὺ yeot- 
Tepa. καὶ τὸ θέατρον γοῦν ἅπαν ἐγέλα ἐπ᾽ ᾽αὐτοῖς" 
ἐκείνων δὲ τῶν ὑψηλῶν σκυθρωποὶ ἅπαντες 
ἤκουον, οἰκτείροντες, οἶμαι, αὐτοὺς πέδας τηλι- 
καύτας ἐπισυρομένους. | 


Οὐκ ἐκείνους, ὠγαθέ, ὤκτειρον, ἀλλὰ ποιητὴς 
ἴσως ἀρχαίαν τινὰ συμφορὰν ἐπεδείκνυτο τοῖς 
εαταῖς καὶ ῥήσεις οἰκτρὰς ἐτραγῴδει πρὸς τὸ 
θέατρον ὑφ᾽ ὧν εἰς δάκρυα κατεσπῶντο οἱ ἀκού- 
ovres. εἰκὸς δέ σε καὶ αὐλοῦντας ἑωρακέναι τινὰς 
τότε καὶ ἄλλους συνάδοντας ἐν κύκλῳ συνεστῶτας. 
οὐδ᾽ αὐτά, ὦ ᾿Αναχαρσι, ἀχρεῖα ἄσματα καὶ 

Τούτοις δ οὖν ἅπασι καὶ τοῖς τοιούτοις παρα- 
θηγόµενοι τὰς ψυχὰς -ἀμείνους ἡμῖν γίγνονται. 

24 Τὰ δὲ δὴ σώματα, ὅπερ μάλιστα ἐπόθεις ἀκοῦ- 
cat, ὧδε καταγυμνάζοµεν. ἀποδύσαντες αὑτά, ὡς 
ἔφην, οὐκέτι ἁπαλὰ καὶ τέλεον ἀσυμπαγῆ ὄντα, 
πρῶτον μὲν ἐθίξειν ἀξιοῦμεν πρὸς τὸν ἀέρα, συνοι- 
κειοῦντες αὐτὰ ταῖς ὥραις ἑκάσταις, ὡς μήτε 
θάλπος δυσχεραίνειν μήτε πρὸς κρύος ἀπαγο- 
ρεύειν, ἔπειτα δὲ Xpiopev ἐλαίῳ καὶ καταμαλάτ- 
τομεν, ὡς εὐτονώτερα γίγνοιτο: ἄτοπον γάρ, εἰ 
τὰ μὲν σκύτη νομίξομεν ὑπὸ τῷ ἐλαίῳ μαλαττό- 
peva δυσραγέστερα καὶ πολλῷ διαρκέστερα γίγνε- 


pieces with great, gaping mouths; they shouted 
loudly from out of these, and strode about in the 
footgear, managing somehow or other to do it safely. 
The city was then holding a feast, in honour, I think, 
of Dionysus. The comedians were shorter, nearer 
to the common level, more human, and less given 
to shouting, but their headpieces were far more 
ludicrous. In fact the whole audience laughed at 
them; but they all wore long faces while they 
listened to the tall fellows, pitying them, I suppose, 
because they were dragging such clogs about! 


It was not the actors that they pitied, my dear 
fellow. No doubt the poet was presenting some 
calamity of old to the spectators and declaiming 
mournful passages to the audience by which his 
hearers were moved to tears. Probably you also saw 
flute-players at that time, and others who sang in 
concert, standing in a circle. Even singing and 
flute-playing is not without value, Anacharsis. 

By all these means, then, and others like them, 
we whet their souls and make them better. 

As to their bodies—for that is what you were 
especially eager to hear about—we train them as 
follows. When, as I said,! they are no longer soft 
and wholly strengthless, we strip them, and think it 
best to begin by habituating them to the weather, 
making them used to the several seasons, so as not 
to be distressed by the heat or give in to the cold. 
Then we rub them with olive-oil and supple them 
in order that they may be more elastic, for since 
we believe that leather, when softened by oil, is 
harder to break and far more durable, lifeless as it 

1 p. 33 



σθαι νεκρά. γε ἤδη ὄντα, τὸ δ᾽ ἔτι ζωῆς. μετέχον 
σῶμα μὴ ἂν ἄμεινον ἡγοίμεθα ὑπὸ τοῦ ἐλαίου 

Τοὐντεῦθεν ποικίλα τὰ γυμνάσια ἐπινοήσαντες 
καὶ διδασκάλους ἑκάστων ἐπιστήσαντες τὸν μέν 
τινα πυκτεύειν, τὸν δὲ παγκρατιάξειν διδάσκομεν, 
ὡς τούς τε πόνους καρτερεῖν ἐθίξοιντο καὶ ὁμόσε 
χωρεῖν ταῖς πληγαῖς μηδὲ ἀποτρέποιντο δέει τῶν 
τραυμάτων. τοῦτο δὲ ἡμῖν δύο τὰ ὠφελιμώτατα 
ἐξεργάξεται € ἐν αὐτοῖς, θυμοειδεῖς τε παρασκευάξον 
εἰς τοὺς κινδύνους καὶ τῶν σωμάτων ἀφειδεῖν καὶ 
προσέτι ἐρρῶσθαι καὶ καρτεροὺς εἶναι. 

"Ὅσοι δὲ αὐτῶν κάτω συννενευκότες παλαίουσιν, 
καταπίπτειν τε ἀσφαλῶς μανθάνουσι καὶ ἀνί- 
στασθαι εὐμαρῶς καὶ ὠθισμοὺς καὶ περιπλοκὰς καὶ 
λυγισμοὺς καὶ ἄγχεσθαι δύνασθαι καὶ εἰς ὕψους 
ἀναβαστάσαι τὸν ἀντίπαλον, οὐκ ἀχρεῖα οὐδὲ 
οὗτοι ἐκμελετῶντες, ἀλλὰ ἓν μὲν τὸ πρῶτον καὶ 
μέγιστον ἀναμφιβόλως κτώμενοι: δυσπαθέστερα 
γὰρ καὶ καρτερώτερα. τὰ σώματα γίγνονται av- 
τοῖς διαπονούμενα. ἕτερον δὲ οὐδὲ αὐτὸ µικρον' 
ἔμπειροι γὰρ δὴ ἐκ τούτου καθίστανται, εἴ ποτε 
ἀφίκοιντο εἰς χρείαν τῶν μαθημάτων τούτων ἐν 
ὅπλοις: δῆλον γὰρ ὅτι καὶ πολεμίῳ ἀνδρὶ ὁ 
τοιοῦτος συμπλακεὶς καταρρίψει τε θᾶττον ὑπο: 
σκελίσας καὶ καταπεσὼν εἴσεται ὡς ῥᾷστα ἐξανί- 
στασθαι. πάντα γὰρ ταῦτα, à ᾿Ανάχαρσι, ἐπ᾽ 
ἐκεῖνον τὸν ἀγῶνα ποριξόμεθα τὸν ἐν τοῖς ὅπλοις 
καὶ ἡγούμεθα πολὺ ἀμείνοσι χρήσασθαι τοῖς 
οὕτως ἀσκηθεῖσιν, ἐπειδὰν πρότερον αὐτῶν γυμνὰ 
τὰ σώματα καταμαλάξαντες καὶ διαπονήσαντες 
ἐρρωμενέστερα καὶ ἀλκιμώτερα ἐξεργασώμεθα καὶ 


is, it would be extraordinary if we should not think 
that the living body would be put in better condition 
by the oil. 

After that, having invented many forms of ath- 
letics and appointed teachers for each, we teach one, 
for instance, boxing, and another the pancratium, in 
order that they may become accustomed to endure 
hardships and to meet blows, and not recoil for fear 
of injuries. This helps us by creating in them two 
effects that are most useful, since it makes them not 
only spirited in facing dangers and unmindful of 
their bodies, but healthy and strong into the 

Those of them who put their bent heads together 
and wrestle learn to fall safely and get up easily, to 
push, grip and twist in various ways, to stand being 
choked, and to lift their opponent high in the air. 
They too are not engaging in useless exerciscs; on 
the contrary, they indisputably acquire one thing, 
which is first and greatest: their bodies become less 
susceptible and more vigorous through being exercised 
thoroughly. There is something else, too, which 
itself is not trivial: they become expert as a result 
of it, in case they should ever come to need what 
they have learned in battle. Clearly such a man, 
when he closes with an enemy, will trip and throw 
him more quickly, and when he is down, will know 
how to get up again most easily. For we make all 
these preparations, Anacharsis, with a view to that 
contest, the contest under arms, and we expect to 
find men thus disciplined far superior, after we have 
suppled and trained their bodies naked, and so 
have made them healthier and stronger, light and 



κοῦφα καὶ εὔτονα καὶ τὰ αὐτὰ βαρέα τοῖς ἀντα- 

᾿Εννοεῖς γάρ, οἶμαι, τὸ μετὰ τοῦτο, οἵους εἰκὸς 
σὺν ὅπλοις ἔσεσθαι τοὺς καὶ γυμνοὺς ἂν φόβον 
τοῖς δυσμενέσιν ἐμποιήσαντας, οὐ πολυσαρκίαν 
ἀργὸν καὶ λευκὴν ἢ ἀσαρκίαν μετὰ ὠχρότητος 
ἐπιδεικνυμένους οἷα γυναικῶν σώματα ὑπὸ OKLA 
μεμαρασμένα, τρέμοντα ἱδρῶτί τε TOAND εὐθὺς 
ῥεόμενα καὶ ἀσθμαίνοντα ὑπὸ τῷ κράνει, καὶ 
μάλιστα ἣν καὶ ὁ ἥλιος ὥσπερ νῦν τὸ Ba ς 
νὸν ἐπιφλέγῃ. οἷς τί ἄν τις χρήσαιτο διψῶσι 
καὶ τὸν κονιορτὸν οὐκ ἀνεχομένοις καὶ εἰ αἷμα 
ἴδοιεν, εὐθὺς ταραττομένοις καὶ è προαποθνήσκουσι 
πρὶν ἐντὸς Βέλους γενέσθαι καὶ εἰς χεῖρας ἐλθεῖν 
τοῖς πολεμίοις; 

Οὗτοι δὲ ἡμῖν ὑπέρυθροι εἰς τὸ μελ.άντερον ὑπὸ 
τοῦ ἡλίου κεχρωσμένοι καὶ ἀρρενωποί, πολὺ τὸ 
ἔμψυχον καὶ θερμὸν καὶ ἀνδρῶδες ἐπιφαίνοντες, 
τοσαύτης εὐεξίας ἀπολάμποντες,᾽ οὔτε ῥικνοὶ καὶ 
κατεσκληκοτες οὔτε περιπληθεῖς εἰς βάρος, ἀλλὰ 
εἰς τὸ σύμμετρον περιγεγραμμένοι, τὸ μὲν ἀχρεῖον 
τῶν σαρκῶν καὶ περιττὸν τοῖς ἱδρῶσιν ἐξαναλω- 
κότες, ὃ δὲ ἰσχὺν καὶ τόνον παρεῖχεν ἀμιγὲς τοῦ 
φαύλου περιλελειμμένον ἐρρωμένως. φυλάττοντες. 
ὅπερ γὰρ δὴ οἱ λικμῶντες τὸν πυρόν, τοῦτο ἡμῖν 
καὶ τὰ γυμνάσια ἐργάξεται ἐν τοῖς σώμασι, τὴν 
μὲν ἄχνην καὶ τοὺς ἀθέρας ἀποφυσῶντα, καθαρὸν 
δὲ τὸν καρπὸν διευκρινοῦντα καὶ προσωρεύοντα. 

Καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ὑγιαίνειν τε ἀνάγκη καὶ ἐπὶ 
μήκιστον διαρκεῖν ἐν τοῖς καμάτοις' ὀψέ τε ἂν 

1 ἀπολάμποντες J. F. Reitz: ἀπολάμπτοντες TE, ἀπολαύοντες 
Ν, να]ρ. 



elastic, and at the same time too heavy for their 

You can imagine, I suppose, the consequence— 
what they are likely to be with arms in hand when 
even unarmed they would implant fear in the enemy. 
They show no white and ineffective corpulence or 
pallid leanness, as if they were women's bodies 
bleached out in the shade, quivering and streaming 
with profuse sweat at once and panting beneath the 
helmet, especially if the sun, as at present, blazes 
with the heat of noon. What use could one make 
of men like that, who get thirsty, who cannot stand 
dust, who break ranks the moment they catch sight 
of blood, who lie down and die before they get 
within a spear's cast and come to grips with the 
enemy ? 

But these young men of ours have a ruddy 
skin, coloured darker by the sun, and manly faces ; 
they reveal great vitality, fire, and courage; they 
are aglow with such splendid condition; they are 
neither lean and emaciated nor so full-bodied as 
to be heavy, but symmetrical in their lines; they 
have sweated away the useless and superfluous part 
of their tissues, but what made for strength and 
elasticity is left upon them uncontaminated by what 
is worthless, and they maintain it vigorously. In fact, 
athletics do in our bodies just what winnowers do to 
wheat: they blow away the husks and the chaff, but 
separate the grain out cleanly and accumulate it for 
future use. 

Consequently a man like that cannot help keeping 
well and holding out protractedly under exhausting 
labours; it would be long before he would begin 




ἰδίειν 0 τοιοῦτος ἄρξαιτο καὶ ὀλιγάκις ἂν ἀσθενῶν 
φανείη. ὥσπερ ἂν εἰ πῦρ τις φέρων ἅμα ἐμβάλοι 
εἰς πυρὸν αὐτὸν καὶ εἰς τὴν καλάμην αὐτοῦ καὶ 
εἰς τὴν ἄχνην-- αὖθις γὰρ ἐπὶ τὸν λικμῶντα 
ἐπάνειμι-- θᾶττον ἄν, οἶμαι, παρὰ πολὺ ἡ καλάμη 
ἀναφλεγείη, ὁ δὲ πυρὸς. κατ᾽ ὀλίγον οὔτε φλογὸς 
μεγάλης ἀνισταμένης οὔτε ὑπὸ μιᾷ τῇ ὁρμῆ, ἀλλὰ 
κατὰ μικρὸν ὑποτυφόμενος χρόνῳ ὕστερον καὶ 
αὐτὸς ἂν κατακαυθείη. 

Οὐ τοίνυν οὐδὲ νόσος οὐδὲ κάματος εἰς τοιοῦτο 
σῶμα ἐμπεσόντα ῥᾳδίως ἐλέγξειεν ἂν οὐδ᾽ ἐπικρα- 
τήσειεν εὐμαρῶς: ἔνδοθέν τε γὰρ εὖ παρεσκεύα- 
σται αὐτῷ καὶ τὰ ἔξω para καρτερῶς πέφρακται 
πρὸς αὐτά, ὡς μὴ παριέναι εἰς τὸ εἴσω, μηδὲ 
παραδέχεσθαι μήτε ἥλιον αὐτὸν μήτε κρύος ἐπὶ 
λύμη τοῦ σώματος. πρὸς τε τὸ ἐνδιδὸν ἐν τοῖς 
πόνοις πολὺ τὸ θερμὸν τὸ ἔνδοθεν ἐπιρρέον, ἅτε 
ἐκ πολλοῦ προπαρεσκευασμένον καὶ εἰς τὴν 
ἀναγκαίαν χρείαν ἀποκείμενον, ἀναπληροῖ εὐθὺς 
ἐπάρδον τη ἀκμῇ καὶ ἀκαμάτους ἐπὶ πλεῖστον 
παρέχεται' τὸ γὰρ προπονῆσαι πολλὰ καὶ προ- 
καμεῖν οὐκ ἀνάλωσιν τῆς ἰσχύος, ἀλλ᾽ ἐπίδοσιν 
ἐργάξεται, καὶ ἀναρριπιζομένη πλείων γίγνεται. 

Καὶ μὴν καὶ δρομικοὺς εἶναι ἀσκοῦμεν αὐτοὺς 
εἰς μῆκός τε διαρκεῖν ἐθίζοντες καὶ εἰς τὸ ἐν βραχεῖ 
ὠκύτατον ἐπικουφίζοντες" καὶ ὁ δρόμος οὐ πρὸς 
τὸ στερρὸν καὶ ὠντίτυπον, ἀλλὰ ἐν ψάμμῳ βαθείᾳ, 
ἔνθα οὔτε βεβαίως ἀπερεῖσαι τὴν βάσιν οὔτε 
ἐπιστηρίξαι ῥάδιον ὑποσυρομένου πρὸς τὸ ὑπεῖκον 
τοῦ ποδός. ἀλλὰ καὶ ὑπεράλλεσθαι τάφρον, εἰ 
δέοι, ἢ εἴ τι ἄλλο ἐμπόδιον, καὶ πρὸς τοῦτο 
ἀσκοῦνται ἡμῖν, ἔτι καὶ µολυβδίδας χειροπληθεῖς 


to sweat, and he would rarely be found ill. It 
is as if you should take firebrands and throw them 
simultaneously into the wheat itself and into its 
straw and chafl—for I am going back again to the 
winnower. The straw, I take it, would blaze up 
far more quickly, while the wheat would burn 
slowly, not with a great blaze springing up nor 
at a single burst, but smouldering gradually, until in 
course of time it too was totally consumed. 

Neither illness nor fatigue, then, could easily 
invade and rack such a body, or readily overmaster 
it; for it has been well stocked within and very 
strongly fortified against them without, so as not 
to admit them, nor yet to receive either sun itself 
or frost to the detriment of the body. To prevent 
giving way under hardships, abundant energy that 
gushes up from within, since it has been made 
ready long beforehand and stored away for the 
emergency, fills them at once, watering them with 
vigour, and makes them unwearying for a very long 
period, for their great preliminary hardships and 
fatigues do not squander their strength but increase 
it; the more you fan its flame, the greater it 

Furthermore, we train them to be good runners, 
habituating them to hold out for a long distance, 
and also making them light-footed for extreme 
speed in a short distance. And the running is not 
done on hard, resisting ground but in deep sand, 
where it is not easy to plant one's foot solidly 
or to get a purchase with it, since it slips from under 
one as the sand gives way beneath it. We also 
train them to jump a ditch, if need be, or any other 
obstacle, even carrying lead weights as large as they 




ἐν ταῖν χεροῖν ἔχοντες. εἶτα περὶ ἀκοντίου βολῆς 
eis μῆκος ἁμιλλῶνται. εἶδες δὲ καὶ ἄλλο τι ἐν 
τῷ γυμνασίῳ χαλκοῦν περιφερές, ἀσπίδι μικρᾷ 
ἐοικὸς ὄχανον οὐκ ἐχούσῃ οὐδὲ τελαμῶνας, καὶ 
ἐπειράθης γε αὐτοῦ κειμένου ἐν τῷ μέσῳ καὶ ἐδόκει 
σοι βαρὺ καὶ δύσληπτον ὑπὸ λειότητος. ἐκεῖνο 
τοίνυν ἄνω τε ἀναρριπτοῦσιν εἰς τὸν ἀέρα καὶ 
εἰς τὸ πόρρω, φιλοτιμούμενοι ὅστις ἐπὶ μήκιστον 
ἐξέλθοι καὶ τοὺς ἄλλους ὑπερβάλοιτο' καὶ ὁ πόνος 
οὗτος ὤμους τε αὐτῶν κρατύνει καὶ τόνον τοῖς 
ἄκροις ἐντίθησιν. 

Ὁ πηλὸς δὲ καὶ 7) κόνις, ἅπερ σοι γελοιότερα 
ἐξ ἀρχῆς ἔδοξεν, ἄκουσον, ὦ θαυμάσιε, ὅ ὅτου ἕνεκα 
ὑποβέβληται. πρῶτον μέν, ὡς μὴ ἐπὶ τὸ κρα- 
ταιὸν ἡ πτῶσις αὐτοῖς γίγνοιτο, ἀλλ ἐπὶ τὸ 
μαλακὸν ἀσφαλῶς πίπτοιεν' ἔπειτα καὶ τὸν ὅλι- 
σθον ἀνάγκη πλείω γίγνεσθαι, ἱδρούντων ἐν τῷ 
THO, ὃ σὺ ταῖς ἐγχέλεσιν εἴκαξες, οὐκ ἀχρεῖον 
οὐδὲ γελοῖον ὄν, ἀλλὰ καὶ τοῦτο eis ἰσχὺν καὶ 
τόνον οὐκ ὀλίγα συντελεῖ, ὁπόταν οὕτως ἐχόντων 
ἀλλήλων ἀναγκάζωνται ἐγκρατῶς ἀντιλαμβά- 
νεσθαι καὶ συνέχειν διολισθάνοντας" αἴρεσθαί τε 
ἐν πηλῷ ἱδρωκότα μετ᾽ ἐλαίου, ἐκπεσεῖν καὶ διαρ- 
ρυῆναι τῶν χειρῶν σπουδάζοντα, μὴ μικρὸν εἶναι 
νόμιζε. καὶ ταῦτα πάντα, ὥσπερ ἔφ ην ἔμπροσθεν, 
εἰς τοὺς πολέμους καὶ χρήσιμα, εἰ δέοι φίλον 
τρωθέντα ῥαδίως ἀράμενον ὑπεξενεγκεῖν ἢ καὶ 
πολέμιον συναρπάσαντα ἥκειν μετέωρον κομί- 
ἕοντα. καὶ διὰ τοῦτο εἰς ὑπερβολὴν ἀσκοῦμεν, 
τὰ χαλεπώτερα προτιθέντες ὡς τὰ μικρότερα 
μακρῷ εὐκολώτερον φέροιεν. 



can grasp. Then too they compete in throwing 
the javelin for distance. And you saw another 
implement in the gymnasium, made of bronze, cir- 
cular, resembling a little shield without handle or 
straps; in fact, you tested it as it lay there, and 
thought it heavy and hard to hold on account of 
its smoothness. Well, they throw that high into the 
air and also to a distance, vying to see who can 
go the farthest and throw beyond the rest. This 
exercise strengthens their shoulders and puts muscle 
into their arms and legs. 

As for the mud and the dust, which you thought 
rather ludicrous in the beginning, you amazing 
person, let me tell you why it is put down. In 
the first place, so that instead of taking their 
tumbles on a hard surface they may fall with im- 
punity on a soft one; secondly, their slipperiness 
is necessarily greater when they are sweaty and 
muddy. This feature, in which you compared them 
to eels, is not useless or ludicrous; it contrib- 
utes not a little to strength and muscle when 
both are in this condition and each has to grip 
the other firmly and hold him fast while he 
tries to slip away. And as for picking up a 
man who is muddy, sweaty, and oily while he 
does his best to break away and squirm out of 
your hands, do not think it a trifle! All this, 
as I said before, is of use in war, in case one 
should need to pick up a wounded friend and carry 
him out of the fight with ease, or to snatch up 
an enemy and come back with him in one's arms. 
So we train them beyond measure, setting them 
hard tasks that they may manage smaller ones with 
far greater ease. 



29 Tiv μέντοι κόνιν ἐπὶ τὸ ἐναντίον χρησίμην 
οἰόμεθα εἶναι, ὡς μὴ διολισθάνοιεν συμπλεκόμενοι. 
ἐπειδὰν γὰρ ἐν τῷ πηλῷ ἀσκηθῶσιν συνέχειν τὸ 
διαδιδρᾶσκον ὑπὸ γλισχρότητος, ἐθίξονται ἐκφεύ- 
γειν αὐτοὶ ληφθέντες ἐκ τῶν χειρῶν, καὶ ταῦτα 
ἐν ἀφύκτῳ ἐχόμενοι. καὶ μὴν καὶ τὸν ἱδρῶτα 
συνέχειν δοκεῖ ἡ κόνις ἀθρόον ἐκχεόμενον ἐπι- 
παττομένη, καὶ ἐπὶ πολὺ διαρκεῖν ποιεῖ τὴν 
δύναμιν, καὶ κώλυμα γίγνεται μὴ βλάπτεσθαι 
ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνέμων ἀραιοῖς τότε καὶ ἀνεῳγόσιν τοῖς 
σώμασιν ἐμπιπτόντων. ἄλλως τε καὶ τὸν ῥύπον 
ἀποσμῆ καὶ στιλπνότερον ποιεῖ τὸν ἄνδρα. καὶ 
ἔγωγε ἡδέως ἂν παραστησάμενος πλησίον τῶν τε 
λευκῶν τινα ἐκείνων καὶ ὑπὸ σκιᾷ δεδιῃτημένων 
καὶ ὃν ἂν ἕλη τῶν ἐν τῷ Λυκείῳ γυμναζομένων, 
ἀποπλύνας! τὴν κόνιν καὶ τὸν πηλόν, ἐροίμην ἄν 
σε ποτέρῳ ἂν ὅμοιος εὔξαιο γενέσθαι" οἶδα γὰρ 
ὡς αὐτίκα ἕλοιο ἂν ἐκ πρώτης προσόψεως, ei καὶ 
μὴ ἐπὶ τῶν ἔργων πειραθείης ἑκατέρου, συνε- 
στηκὼς καὶ συγκεκροτημένος εἶναι μᾶλλον ἢ 
θρύπτεσθαι καὶ διαρρεῖν καὶ λευκὸς εἶναι ἀπορίᾳ 
καὶ φυγῇ εἰς τὰ εἴσω τοῦ αἵματος. 

30 Ταῦτ᾽ ἔστιν, ὦ ᾿Ανάχαρσι, ἃ τοὺς νέους ἡμεῖς 
ἀσκοῦμεν οἰόμενοι φύλακας ἡμῖν τῆς πόλεως 
ἀγαθοὺς γενέσθαι καὶ ἐν ἐλευθερίᾳ βιώσεσθαι δι 
αὐτούς, κρατοῦντες μὲν τῶν δυσμενῶν εἰ ἐπίοιεν, 
φοβεροὶ δὲ τοῖς περιοίκοις ὄντες, ὡς ὑποπτήσσειν 
τε καὶ ὑποτελεῖν ἡμῖν τοὺς πλείστους αὐτῶν. ἐν 
εἰρήνῃ τε αὖ πολὺ ἀμείνοσιν αὐτοῖς χρώμεθα περὶ 
μηδὲν τῶν αἰσχρῶν φιλοτιμουμένοις μηδ᾽ ὑπ 

1 ἀποπλύνας Dindorf: ἀποπλῦναι MSS. 



The dust we think to be of use for the opposite 
purpose, to prevent them from slipping away when 
they are grasped. After they have been trained 
in the mud to hold fast what eludes them because 
of its oiliness, they are given practice in escaping 
out of their opponent’s hands when they themselves 
are caught, even though they are held in a sure grip. 
Moreover, the dust, sprinkled on when the sweat is 
pouring out in profusion, is thought to check it; it 
makes their strength endure long, and hinders them 
from being harmed by the wind blowing upon their 
bodies, which are then unresisting and have the 
pores open. Besides, it rubs off the dirt and makes 
the man cleaner. I should like to put side by side 
one of those white-skinned fellows who have lived 
in the shade and any one you might select of the 
athletes in the Lyceum, after 1 had washed off the 
mud and the dust, and to ask you which of the two 
you would pray to be like. I know that even 
without testing each to see what he could do, you 
would immediately choose on first sight to be firm 
and hard rather than delicate and mushy and white 
because your blood is scanty and withdraws to the 
interior of the body. 

That, Anacharsis, is the training we give our 
young men, expecting them to become stout 
guardians of our city, and that we shall live in 
freedom through them, conquering our foes if they 
attack us and keeping our neighbours in dread of us, 
so that most of them will cower at our feet and pay 
tribute. In peace, too, we find them far better, 
for nothing that is base appeals to their ambitions 

? λευκὸς C. C. Reitz: λευκὸν MSS. 




ἀργίας εἰς ὕβριν τρεπομένοις, ἀλλὰ Trepi τὰ τοιαῦτα 
διατρίβουσιν καὶ ἀσχόλοις οὖσιν ἐν αὐτοῖς. καὶ 
ὅπερ ἔφην τὸ κοινὸν ἀγαθὸν καὶ τὴν ἄκραν πόλεως 
εὐδαιμονίαν, τοῦτ᾽ ἔστιν, ὁπότε] εἰς τε εἰρήνην 
καὶ εἰς πόλεμον τὰ ἄριστα παρεσκευασμένη phai- 
VOLTO ἡ νεότης περὶ τὰ κάλλιστα ἡμῖν σπουδά- 


Οὐκοῦν, ὦ Σόλων, ἤν ποτε ὑμῖν ἐπίωσιν οἱ 
πολέμιοι, χρισάμενοι τῷ ἐλαίῳ καὶ κονισάμενοι 
πρόιτε καὶ αὐτοὶ πὺξ τὰς χεῖρας ἐπ᾽ αὐτοὺς προ- 
βεθλημένοι, κἀκεῖνοι δηλαδὴ ὑποπτήσσουσιν ὑμᾶς 
καὶ φεύγουσιν δεδιότες μὴ σφίσι κεχηνόσι πώσσητε 
τὴν ψάμμµον εἰς τὸ στόμα ἢ περιπηδήσαντες, ὡς 
κατὰ νώτου γένησθε, περιπλέξητε αὐτοῖς τὰ σκέλη 
περὶ τὴν γαστέρα καὶ διάγχητε ὑπὸ τὸ κράνος 
ὑποβαλόντες τὸν πῆχυν. καὶ νὴ Ar οἱ μὲν τοξεύ- 
σουσι δῆλον ὅ ὅτι καὶ ἀκοντιοῦσιν, ὑμῶν δὲ ὦ ὥσπερ 
ἀνδριάντων οὐ καθίξεται τὰ θέλη κεχρωσμένων 
πρὸς τὸν ἥλιον καὶ πολὺ τὸ αἷμα πεπορισμένων. 
οὐ γὰρ καλάμη καὶ ἀθέρες ὑμεῖς ἐστε, ὡς τώχιστα 
ἐνδιδόναι πρὸς τὰς πληγάς, ἀλλὰ ὀψέ ποτε ἂν 
καὶ μόλις κατατεμνόμενοι βαθέσι τοῖς τραύμασιν 
αἷμα ὀλίγον ὑποδείξαιτε." τοιαῦτα yap φής, εἶ 
μὴ πάνυ παρήκουσα τοῦ παραδείγματος. ἢ τὰς 
πανοπλίας ἐκείνας τότε ἀναλήψεσθε τὰς τῶν 
κωμῳδῶν τε καὶ τραγωδῶν, καὶ ἦν προτεθῇ ὑμῖν 
ἔξοδος, ἐκεῖνα τὰ κράνη περιθήσεσθε τὰ κεχηνότα, 

1 ὁπότε Dindorf: ὁπόταν MSS. 
2 ὑποδείξαιτε Fritzsche: ὑποδείξετε MSS, 



and idleness does not incline them to arrogance, 
but exercises such as these give them diversion and 
keep them occupied. The chief good of the public 
and the supreme felicity of the state, which I 
mentioned before, are attained when our young men, 
striving at our behest for the fairest objects, have been 
most efficiently prepared both for peace and for 


Then if the enemy attack you, Solon, you your- 
selves will take the field rubbed with oil and 
covered with dust, shaking your fists at them, and 
they, of course, will cower at your feet and run away, 
fearing that while they are agape in stupefaction 
you may sprinkle sand in their mouths, or that after 
jumping behind them so as to get on their backs, 
you may wind your legs about their bellies and 
strangle them by putting an arm under their 
helmets. Yes, by Zeus, they will shoot their arrows, 
naturally, and throw their spears, but the missiles 
will not affect you any more than as if you were 
statues, tanned as you are by the sun and supplied 
in abundance with blood. You are not straw or 
chaff, so as to give in quickly under their blows; 
it would be only after long and strenuous effort, when 
you are all cut up with deep wounds, that you 
would show a few drops of blood. ‘This is the gist 
of what you say, unless I have completely mis- 
understood your comparison. Or else you will 
then assume those panoplies of the comedians and 
tragedians, and if a sally is proposed to you, you 
will put on those wide-mouthed headpieces in order 



ὡς φοβερώτεροι εἴητε τοῖς ἐναντίοις μορμολυττό- 
μενοι αὐτούς, καὶ ὑποδήσεσθε τὰ ὑψηλὰ ἐκεῖνα 
δηλαδή: φεύγουσί τε γάρ, ἣν δέῃ, κοῦφα, καὶ ἣν 
διώκητε, ἄφυκτα τοῖς πολεμίοις ἔσται, ὑμῶν οὕτω 
μεγάλα διαβαινόντων ἐπ᾽ αὐτούς. 
᾿Αλλ᾽ ὅρα μὴ ταῦτ ἐν ὑμῖ ; 1 
pa pn a μὲν ὑμῖν τὰ κομψά 
λῆρος 7 καὶ παιδιὰ ἄλλως καὶ διατριβαὶ ἀργοῦ- 
σι καὶ ῥᾳθυμεῖν ἐθέλουσι τοῖς νεανίσκοις. εὖ δὲ 
βούλεσθε πάντως ἐλεύθεροι καὶ εὐδαίμονες εἶναι, 
ἄλλων ὑμῖν. γυμνασίων δεήσει καὶ ἀσκήσεως 
ἀληθινῆς τῆς ἐν τοῖς ὅπλοις, καὶ ἡ ἅμιλλα 
οὐ πρὸς ἀλλήλους μετὰ παιδιᾶς, ἀλλὰ πρὸς 
τοὺς δυσμενεῖς ἔσται μετὰ κινδύνων μελετῶσι 
τὴν ἀρετήν. ὥστε ἀφέντας τὴν κόνιν καὶ τὸ 
ἔλαιον δίδασκε αὐτοὺς τοξεύειν καὶ ἀκοντίζειν μὴ 
κοῦφα διδοὺς τὰ ἀκόντια καὶ οἷα διαφέρεσθαι 
πρὸς τὸν ἄνεμον, ἀλλ᾽ ἔστω λόγχη βαρεῖα μετὰ 
συριγμοῦ ἑλιττομένη καὶ λίθος χειροπληθὴς καὶ 
σάγαρις καὶ γέρρον ἐν τῇ ἀριστερᾷ καὶ θώραξ καὶ 

33 ‘Os δὲ νῦν ἔχετε, θεῶν τινος εὐμενείᾳ σώξεσθαί 
μοι δοκεῖτε, οἳ μηδέπω ἀπολώλατε ὑπό τινων 
ὀλίγων ψιλῶν ἐπιπεσόντων. ἰδού γέ τοι qv. σπα- 
σάμενος TO μικρὸν τοῦτο ξιφίδιον τὸ παρὰ τὴν 
ζώνην μόνος ἐπεισπέσω τοῖς νέους ὑμῶν ἅπασιν, 
αὐτοβοεὶ ἂν ἕλοιμι τὸ γυμνάσιον φυγόντων 
ἐκείνων καὶ οὐδενὸς ἀντιβλέπειν τῷ σιδήρῳ TON- 
μῶντος, ἀλλὰ περὶ τοὺς ἀνδριάντας à ἂν περιιστά- 
μενοι καὶ περὶ τοὺς κίονας κατακρυπτόμενοι 
γέλωτα ἄν μοι παράσχοιεν δακρύοντες οἱ πολλοὶ 
καὶ τρέμοντες. καὶ ror’ ἂν ἴδοις οὐκέτι ἐρυθ ριῶν- 
τας αὐτοὺς τὰ σώματα οἷοι νῦν εἶσιν, ἀλλὰ 



that you may be more formidable to your opponents 
by playing bogey-man, and will of course wear those 
high shoes, for they will be light to run away in, 
if need be, and hard for the enemy to escape from, 
if you go in pursuit, when you take such great strides 
in chase of them. 

No, I am afraid that all these clever tricks of 
yours are silliness, nothing but child’s play, amuse- 
ments for your young men who have nothing to do 
and want to lead an easy life. If you wish, whatever 
betides, to be free and happy, you will require other 
forms of athletics and real training, that is to say, 
under arms, and you will not compete against each 
other in sport, but against the enemy, learning 
courage in perilous conflict. So let them give up 
the dust and the oil; teach them to draw the bow 
and throw the spear; and do not give them light 
javelins that can be deflected by the wind, but let 
them have a heavy lance that whistles when it is 
hurled, a stone as large as they can grasp, a double 
axe, a target in their left hand, a breastplate, and 
a helmet. 

In your present condition, it seems to me that 
you are being saved by the grace of some god or 
other, seeing that you have not yet been wiped out 
by the onfall of a handful of light-armed troops. 
Look here, if I should draw this little dirk at my belt 
and fall upon all your young men by myself, I should 
capture the gymnasium with a mere hurrah, for they 
would run away and not one would dare to face the 
steel ; no, they would gather about the statues and 
hide behind the pillars, making me laugh while 
most of them cried and trembled. Then you would 
see that they were no longer ruddy-bodied as they 




ὠχροὶ ἅπαντες αὐτίκα γένοιντ᾽ ἂν ὑπὸ τοῦ δέους 
μεταβαφέντες. οὕτως ὑμᾶς ἡ εἰρήνη διατέθεικε 
Babeta οὖσα, ὡς μὴ ἂν ῥᾳδίως ἀνασχέσθαι λόφον 
ἕνα κράνους πολεμίου ἰδόντας. 


Ov ταῦτα ἔφασαν, ὦ ᾿Ανάχαρσι, Θρᾳκῶν τε 
ὅσοι μετ᾽ Εὐμόλπου ἐφ᾽ ἡμᾶς ἐστράτευσαν καὶ αἱ 
γυναῖκες ὑμῶν αἱ μετὰ Ἱππολύτης ἐλάσασαι ἐπὶ 
τὴν πόλιν οὐδὲ οἱ ἄλλοι ὅσοι ἡμῶν ἐν ὅπλοις 
ἐπειράθησαν. ἡμεῖς γάρ, ὦ μακάριε, οὐκ ἐπείπερ 
οὕτω γυμνὰ τὰ σώματα ἐκπονοῦμεν τῶν νέων, διὰ 
τοῦτο καὶ ἄνοπλα ἐξάγομεν ἐπὶ τοὺς κινδύνους, 
ἀλλ᾽ ἐπειδὰν καθ᾽ αὐτοὺς ἄριστοι γένωνται, 
ἀσκοῦνται τὸ μετὰ τοῦτο σὺν τοῖς ὅπλοις, 
καὶ πολὺ ἄμεινον χρήσαιντ᾽ ἂν αὐτοῖς οὕτω 

Καὶ ποῦ τοῦτο ὑμῖν ἐστι τὸ γυμνάσιον τὸ ἐν 
τοῖς ὅπλοις; οὐ γὰρ εἶδον ἔγωγε ἐν τῇ πόλει τοι- 
οὗτον οὐδέν, ἅπασαν αὐτὴν ἐν κύκλῳ περιελθών. 


᾿Αλλὰ ἴδοις ἄν, ὦ ᾿Ανά αρσι, ἐπὶ πλέον ἡμῖν 
συνδιατρίψας, καὶ ὅπλα ἑκάστῳ μάλα πολλά, 
οἷς χρώμεθα ὁ ὁπόταν ἀναγκαῖον 7, καὶ λόφους καὶ 
φάλαρα καὶ ἵππους, καὶ ἱππέας σχεδὸν τὸ τέταρ- 
τον τῶν πολιτῶν. τὸ μέντοι ὁπλοφορεῖν ἀεὶ καὶ 
ἀκινάκην παρεξῶσθαι περιττὸν ἐν εἰρήνῃ. οἰόμεθα 
εἶναι, καὶ πρόστιμόν y ἔστιν, ὅστις ἐν ἄστει 



are now; they would all turn pale on the instant, 
dyed to another hue by fright. Profound peace has 
brought you to such a pass that you could not easily 
endure to see a single plume of a hostile helmet. 


The Thracians who campaigned against us with 
Eumolpus did not say so, Anacharsis, nor your 
women who marched against the city with 
Hippolyta,! nor any others who have tested us under 
arms. It does not follow, my unsophisticated friend, 
that because our young men’s bodies are thus naked 
while we are developing them, they are therefore 
undefended by armour when we lead them out 
into dangers. When they become efficient in them- 
selves, they are then trained with arms and can 
make far better use of them because they are so well 


Where do you do this training under arms? I 
have not seen anything of the sort in the city, 
though I have gone all about the whole of it. 


But you would see it, Anacharsis, if you should 
stop with us longer, and also arms for every man in 
great quantity, which we use when it is necessary, 
and crests and trappings and horses, and cavalrymen 
amounting to nearly a fourth of our citizens. But 
to bear arms always and carry a dirk at one's belt is, 
we think, superfluous in time of peace ; in fact, there 
is a penalty prescribed for anyone who carries 

1 The Amazons. 




σιδηροφοροίη μηδὲν δέον 7) ὅπλα ἐξενέγκοι 1 εἰς τὸ 
ημόσιον. ὑμεῖς δὲ συγγνωστοὶ ἐν ὅπλοις ἀεὶ 
βιοῦντες" τό τε γὰρ ἐν ἀφράκτω οἰκεῖν ῥάδιον εἰς 
ἐπιβουλήν, καὶ οἱ πὀολεμοιξ μάλα πολλοί, καὶ 
ἄδηλον ὁπότε τις ἐπιστὰς κοιμώμενον κατα- 
σπάσας ἀπὸ τῆς ἁμάξης φονεύσειεν" į τε πρὸ, 
ἀλλήλους ἀπιστία, αὐθαιρέτως καὶ μὴ ἐν νόμῳ 
συμπολιτευομένων, ἀναγκαῖον ἀεὶ τὸν σίδηρον 
ποιεῖ, ὡς πλησίον εἶναι ἀμυνοῦντα, εἴ τις βιάζοιτο. 


Eira, ὦ Σόλων, σιδηροφορεῖν μὲν οὐδενὸς 
ἀναγκαίου ἕνεκα περιττὸν ὑμῖν δοκεῖ, καὶ τῶν 
ὅπλων φείδεσθε, ὡς μὴ. διὰ χειρὸς ὄντα φθείροιτο, 
ἀλλὰ φυλάττετε ἀποκείμενα ὡς χρησόμενοι τότε, 
τῆς χρείας ἐπιστάσης' τὰ δὲ σώματα τῶν νέων 
οὐδενὸς δεινοῦ ἐπεύγοντος καταπονεῖτε παίοντες 
καὶ ὑπὸ τῶν ἱδρώτων καταναλίσκοντες, οὐ τα- 
μιευόμενοι. πρὸς τὸ ἀναγκαῖον τὰς ἀλκὰς αὐτῶν, 
ἀλλ. εἰκῆ ἐν τῷ πηλῷ καὶ τῇ κόνει ἐκχέοντες; 


"Eoas, ὦ ᾿Ανάχαρσι, τοιόνδε τι δυνάμεως πέρι 
ἐννοεῖν, ὡς οἴνῳ ἢ ὕδατι ἡ ἄλλῳ τῶν ὑγρῶν 
ὁμοίαν αὐτὴν οὖσαν. δέδιας οὖν μὴ ὥσπερ ἐξ 
ἀγγείου κεραμεοῦ λάθῃ διαρρυεῖσα ἐν τοῖς πόνοις 

: ; ἐξενέγκοι vulg.: ἐξενέγκῃ MSS. 

3 πολέμιοι du Soul. But the allusion is to the tribal 
struggles so familiar to readers of Horace. Cf. Herod. 4, 65. 



weapons unnecessarily within the city limits or brings 
armour out into a public place. As for your people, 
you may be pardoned for always living under arms. 
Your dwelling in unfortified places makes it easy to 
attack you, and your wars are very numerous, and 
nobody knows when someone may come upon him 
asleep, drag him down from his wagon, and kill him. 
Besides, your distrust of one another, inasmuch as 
your relations with each other are adjusted by 
individual caprice and not by law, makes steel always 
necessary, so as to be at hand for defence if anyone 
should use violence. 


Then is it possible, Solon, that while you think it 
superfluous to carry weapons without urgent reason, 
and are careful of your arms in order that they may 
not be spoiled by handling, keeping them in store 
with the intention of using them some day, when 
need arises; yet when no danger threatens you wear 
out the bodies of your young men by mauling them 
and wasting them away in sweat, not husbanding 
their strength until it is needed but expending it 
fruitlessly in the mud and dust? 


Apparently, Anacharsis, you think that strength 
is like wine or water or some otherliquid: Anyhow, 
you are afraid that during exertions it may leak 
away unnoticed as if from an earthen jar, and then 

3 φείδεσθε du Soul: φείδεσθαι MSS. 

VOL. IV. ο 


κάτα ἡμῖν κενὸν καὶ Enpov οἴχηται τὸ σῶμα 
καταλιποῦσα ὑπὸ μηδενὸς ἔνδοθεν ἀναπληρού- 
μενον. τὸ δὲ οὐχ οὕτως ἔχει σοι, ἀλλὰ ὅσῳ τις 
ἂν αὐτὴν ἐξαντλῇ τοῖς πόνοις, τοσῷδε μᾶλλον 
ἐπιρρεῖ κατὰ τὸν περὶ τῆς “Ύδρας μῦθον, εἴ τινα 
ἤκουσας, ὡς ἀντὶ μιᾶς κεφαλῆς τμηθείσης δύ᾽ 
ἀεὶ ἄλλαι ἀνεφύοντο. ἦν δὲ a ἀγύμναστος ἐξ a ἀρχῆς 
καὶ ἄτονος Ù μηδὲ διαρκῆ τὴν ὕλην ἔχῃ ὑπο- 
βεβλημένην, τότε ὑπὸ τῶν ,καμάτων βλάπτοιτο 
ἂν καὶ καταμαραίνοιτο, οἷόν τι ἐπὶ πυρὸς καὶ 
λύχνου γίγνεται. ὑπὸ γὰρ τῷ αὐτῷ φυσήματι 
τὸ μὲν πῦρ ἀνακαύσειας ἂν καὶ μεῖζον ἐν βραχεῖ 
ποιήσειας παραθήγων τῷ πνεύματι, καὶ τὸ τοῦ 
λύχνου φῶς ἀποσβέσειας οὐκ ἔχον. ἀποχρῶσαν 
τῆς ὕλης τὴν χορηγίαν, ὡς διαρκῆ | εἶναι πρὸς τὸ 
ἀντιπνέον' οὐ γὰρ ἀπ᾽ ἰσχυρᾶς, οἶμαι, τῆς ῥίζης 


36 Ταυτὶ uév,! ὦ Σόλων, οὐ πάνυ συνίημι" λεπτό- 
τερα yap ἢ κατ᾽ ἐμὲ εἴρηκας, ἀκριβοῦς τινος 
φροντίδος καὶ διανοίας ὀξὺ δεδορκυίας δεόµενα. 
ἐκεῖνο δέ μοι πάντως εἰπέ, τίνος ἕνεκα οὐχὶ καὶ 
ἐν τοῖς ἀγῶσι. τοῖς Ὀλυμπίασι καὶ ᾿Ισθμοῖ καὶ 
Πυθοῖ καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις, ὁπότε πολλοί, ὡς φής, 
συνίασιν ὀψόμενοι τοὺς νέους ἀγωνιξομένους,Σ 
οὐδέποτε ἐν ὅπλοις ποιεῖσθε τὴν ἅμιλλαν, ἀλλὰ 
γυμνοὺς εἰς τὸ μέσον παραγαγόντες λακτιξο- 
μένους καὶ παιομένους ἐπιδείκνυτε καὶ νικήσασι 
μῆλα καὶ κότινον δίδοτε; ἄξιον γὰρ εἰδέναι τοῦτό 
γε, οὗτινος ἕνεκα οὕτω ποιεῖτε. 



be gone, leaving our bodies empty and dry, since 
they are not filled up again with anything from 
within. As a matter of fact, this is not the case, my 
friend: the more one draws it out by exertions, the 
more it flows in, like the fable of the Hydra, if you 
have heard it, which says that when one head was 
cut off, two others always grew up in its place. 
But if a man is undeveloped from the beginning, and 
untempered, and has an insufficient substratum of 
reserve material, then he may be injured and reduced 
in flesh by exertions. Something similar is the case 
with a fire and a lamp; for with one and the same 
breath you can start the fire afresh and speedily 
make it greater, stimulating it with your blowing, 
and you can put out the light of the lamp, which 
has not an adequate supply of fuel to maintain itself 
against the opposing blast: the root from which it 
sprang was not strong, I suppose. 


I do not understand this at all, Solon; what you 
have said is too subtle for me, requiring keen intellect 
and penetrating discernment. But do by all means 
tell me why it is that in the Olympic and Isthmian 
and Pythian and the other games, where many, you 
say, come together to see the young men competing, 
you never match them under arms but bring them 
out naked and show them receiving kicks and blows, 
and when they have won you give them apples and 
parsley. It is worth while to know why you do so. 

! μὲν Dindorf : yap MSS. 
3 ἀγωνιζομένους Jacobitz: ἀγωνισομένους MSS. 





‘Hyovpeba γάρ, ὦ ᾿Ανάχαρσι, τὴν εἰς τὰ 
γυμνάσια προθυμίαν οὕτως ἂν πλείω ἐγγενέσθαι 
αὐτοῖς, εἰ τοὺς ἀριστεύοντας ἐν τούτοις ἴδοιεν 
τιμωμένους καὶ ἀνακηρυττομένους ἐν μέσοις τοῖς 
"Ελλησι. καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ὡς εἰς τοσούτους 
ἀποδυσόμενοι εὐεξίας τε ἐπιμελοῦνται, ὡς μὴ 
αἰσχύνοιντο γυμνωθέντες, καὶ -ἀξιονικότατον 
ἕκαστος αὑτὸν ἀπεργάξεται. καὶ τὰ ἆθλα, ὥσπερ 
ἔμπροσθεν εἶπον, οὐ μικρά, ὁ ἔπαινος ὁ παρὰ τῶν 
θεατῶν καὶ τὸ ἐπισημότατον γενέσθαι καὶ δεί- 
κνυσθαι τῷ δακτύλῳ a ἄριστον εἶναι τῶν καθ᾽ αὑτὸν 
δοκοῦντα. τοιγάρτοι πολλοὶ τῶν θεατῶν, οἷς καθ᾽ 
ἡλικίαν ἔτι ἄσκησις, ἀπίασιν οὐ μετρίως ἐκ τῶν 
τοιούτων ἀρετῆς καὶ πόνων ἐρασθέντες. ὡς εἴ γέ 
τις, ὦ ᾿Ανάχαρσι, τὸν τῆς εὐκλείας ἔρωτα ἐκβά- 
λοι ἐκ τοῦ βίου, τί ἂν ἔτι ἀγαθὸν ἡμῖν γένοιτο, 
? τίς ἄν τι λαμπρὸν ἐργάσασθαι ἐπιθυμήσειεν; 
νῦν δὲ καὶ ἀπὸ τούτων εἰκάζειν παρέχοιεν ἄν σοι, 
ὁποῖοι ἐν πολέμοις ὑπὲρ πατρίδος καὶ παίδων καὶ 
γυναικῶν καὶ ἱερῶν γένοιντ᾽ ἂν ὅπλα ἔχοντες οἱ 
κοτίνου πέρι καὶ μήλων γυμνοὶ τοσαύτην προ- 
θυμίαν εἰς τὸ νικῶν εἰσφερόμενοι. 

Καίτοι τί ἂν πάθοις, εἰ θεάσαιο καὶ ὀρτύγων 
καὶ ἀλεκτρυόνων ἀγῶνας παρ᾽ ἡμῖν καὶ σπουδὴν 
ἐπὶ τούτοις οὐ μικρά»; ? γελάσῃ δῆλον ὅτι, καὶ 
μάλιστα ἦν μάθης ὡς ὑπὸ νόμῳ αὐτὸ δρῶμεν 
καὶ προστέτακται πᾶσι τοῖς ἐν ἡλικία παρεῖναι 
καὶ ὁρᾶν τὰ ὄρνεα διαπυκτεύοντα μέχρι τῆς 
ἐσχάτης ἀπαγορεύσεως; ἀλλ᾽ οὐδὲ τοῦτο γελοῖον" 
ὑποδύεται γάρ τις ἠρέμα ταῖς ψυχαῖς ὁρμὴ εἰς 




We think, Anacharsis, that their zeal for the 
athletic exercises will be increased if they see those 
who excel in them receiving honours and having 
their names proclaimed before the assembled Greeks. 
For this reason, expecting to appear unclothed 
before so many people, they try to attain good 
physical condition so that they may not be ashamed 
of themselves when they are stripped, and each 
makes himself as fit to win as he can. Furthermore, 
the prizes, as ] said before, are not trivial—to be 
praised by the spectators, to become a man of mark, 
and to be pointed at with the finger as the best of 
one's class. Therefore many of the spectators, who 
are still young enough for training, go away im- 
moderately in love with manfulness and hard work 
as a result of all this. Really, Anacharsis, if the 
love of fame should be banished out of the world, 
what new blessing should we ever acquire, or who 
would want to do any glorious deed? But as things 
are, even from these conteststhey give you an oppor- 
tunity to infer what they would be in war, defending 
country, children, wives, and fanes with weapons 
and armour, when contending naked for parsley and 
apples they bring into it so much zeal for victory. 

What would your feelings be if you should see 
quail-fights and cock-fights here among us, and no 
little interest taken in them? You would laugh, of 
course, particularly if you discovered that we do it in 
compliance with law, and that all those of military age 
are required to present themselves and watch the 
birds spar to the uttermost limit of exhaustion. Yet 
this is not laughable, either: their souls are gradually 
penetrated by an appetite for dangers, in order that 



τοὺς κινδύνους, ὡς μὴ ἀγεννέστεροι καὶ ἀτολμό- 
τεροι, φαίνοιντο τῶν ἀλεκτρυόνων μηδὲ προαπα- 
γορεύοιεν ὑπὸ τραυμάτων ἢ καμάτου ἢ του ἄλλου 
δυσχερ οὓς. 

Τὸ δὲ δὴ. ἐν ὅπλοις πειρᾶσθαι αὐτῶν καὶ ὁρᾶν 
τυτρωσκομένους---ἄπαγε' θηριῶδες γὰρ καὶ δεινῶς 
σκαιὸν καὶ προσέτι γε ἀλυσιτελὲς ἀποσφάττειν 
τοὺς ἀρίστους καὶ οἷς ἄν τις ἄμεινον χρήσαιτο 
κατὰ τῶν δυσμενῶν. 

38 ᾿Επεὶ δὲ φής, ὦ ᾿Ανάχαρσι, καὶ τὴν ἄλλην EN- 
λάδα ἐπελεύσεσθαι, μέμνησο ἦν ποτε καὶ εἰς Λακε- 
δαίμονα ἔλθῃς, μὴ καταγελάσαι μηδὲ € ἐκείνων μηδὲ 
οἴεσθαι μάτην πονεῖν αὐτούς, ὁπόταν ἢ σφαίρας 
πέρι ἐν τῷ θεάτρῳ συμπεσόντες παίωσιν ἀλλήλους 
ù, εἰς χωρίον εἰσελθόντες ὕδατι περιγεγραμμένον, 
εἰς φάλαγγα διαστάντες, τὰ πολεμίων ἀλλήλους 
ἐργάξωνται γυμνοὶ καὶ αὐτοί, ἄχρις ἂν ἐκβάλωσι 
τοῦ περιγράµµατος τὸ ἕτερον σύνταγμα οἱ ἕτεροι, 
τοὺς κατὰ Λυκοῦργον οἱ καθ᾽ Ἡρακλέα ἢ ἔμ- 
παλιν, συνωθοῦντες εἰς τὸ ὕδωρ' τὸ γὰρ ἀπὸ 
τούτου εἰρήνη λοιπὸν καὶ οὐδεὶς ἂν ἔτι. παίσειε. 
μάλιστα δὲ ἣν ὁρᾷς μαστιγουμένους αὐτοὺς ἐπὶ 
τῷ βωμῷ καὶ αἵματι ῥεομένους, πατέρας δὲ καὶ 
μητέρας παρεστώσας οὐχ ὅπως ἀνιωμένας ἐπὶ 
τοῖς γιγνομένοις ἀλλὰ καὶ ἀπειλούσας, εἰ μὴ 
ἀντέχοιεν πρὸς τὰς πληγάς, καὶ ἱκετευούσας ἐπὶ 
μήκιστον διαρκέσαι πρὸς τὸν πόνον καὶ ἐγκαρ- 
τερῆσαι τοῖς δεινοῖς. πολλοὶ γοῦν καὶ ἐναπέ- 
θανον τῷ ἀγῶνι μὴ ἀξιώσαντες ἀπαγορεῦσαι 
ζῶντες. ἔτι ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖς τῶν οἰκείων μηδὲ εἶξαι 
τοῖς σώμασιν' ὧν καὶ τοὺς ἀνδριάντας ὄψει τιµω- 
μένους δημοσίᾳ ὑπὸ τῆς Σπάρτης ἀνασταθέντας. 


they may not seem baser and more cowardly than 
the cocks, and may not show the white feather early 
on account of wounds or weariness or any other 

As for testing them under arms, and watching 
them get wounded—no! It is bestial and terribly 
cruel and, more than that, unprofitable to kill off 
the most efficient men who can be used to better 
advantage against the enemy. 

As you say that you intend to visit the rest of 
Greece, Anacharsis, bear it in mind if ever you go to 
Sparta not to laugh at them, either, and not to sup- 
pose that they are exerting themselves for nothing 
when they rush together and strike one another in 
the theatre over a ball, or when they go into a place 
surrounded by water, divide into companies and treat 
one another like enemies, naked as with us, until one 
company drives the other out of the enclosure, 
crowding them into the water—the Heraclids driving 
out the Lycurgids, or the reverse—after which there 
is peace in future and nobody would think of striking 
a blow. Above all, do not laugh if you see them 
getting flogged at the altar and dripping blood while 
their fathers and mothers stand by and are so far 
from being distressed by what is going on that they 
actually threaten to punish them if they should not 
bear up under the stripes, and beseech them to 
endure the pain as long as possible and be staunch 
under the torture. As a matter of fact, many have 
died in the competition, not deigning to give in before 
the eyes of their kinsmen while they still had life in 
them, or even to move a muscle of their bodies; you 
will see honours paid to their statues, which have 
been set up at public cost by the state of Sparta. 



"Ocav τοίνυν ὁρᾷς κἀκεῖνα, μήτε μαίνεσθαι 
ὑπολάβῃς αὐτοὺς μήτε εἴπῃς, ὡς οὐδεμιᾶς ἕ ἕνεκα 
αἰτίας ἀναγκαίας ταλαιπωροῦσι, μήτε τυράννου 
βιαξομένου μήτε πολεμίων διατιθέντων. εἴποι 
yap av σοι καὶ ὑπὲρ ἐκείνων Λυκοῦργος ὁ νομο- 
θέτης αὐτῶν πολλὰ τὰ εὔλογα καὶ ἃ συνιδὼν 
κολάξει αὐτούς, οὐκ ἐχθρὸς ὢν οὐδὲ ὑπὸ μίσους 
αὐτὸ δρῶν οὐδὲ τὴν νεολαίαν τῆς πόλεως εἰκῆ 
παραναλίσκων, ἀλλὰ καρτερικωτάτους καὶ παν- 
τὸς δεινοῦ κρείττονας ἀξιῶν εἶναι. τοὺς σώζειν 
μέλλοντας τὴν πατρίδα. καίτοι κἂν μὴ 0 Av- 
κοῦργος εἴπη, ἐννοεῖς, οἶμαι, καὶ αὐτὸς ὡς οὐκ 
ἄν ποτε ληφθεὶς ὁ ὁ τοιοῦτος ἐν πολέμῳ ἀπόρρητόν 
τι ἐξείποι τῆς Σπάρτης αἰκιζομένων τῶν ἐχθρῶν, 
ἀλλὰ καταγελῶν αὐτῶν μαστιγοῖτο ἂν ἁμιλλώ- 
μενος πρὸς τὸν παίοντα, ὁπότερος) ἀπαγορεύσειεν. 

39 ʻO Λυκοῦργος δὲ καὶ αὐτός, ὦ Σόλων, ἐμαστι- 
^ 3 > ο f 4 , [4 A » ^ 
γοῦτο ἐφ᾽ ἡλικίας, ἢ ἐκπρόθεσμος ὢν ἤδη τοῦ 
ἀγῶνος ἀσφαλῶς τὰ τοιαῦτα ἐνεανιεύσατο; 


Πρεσβύτης ἤδη å ὢν ἔγραψε τοὺς νόμους αὐτοῖς 
Κρήτηθεν ἀφικόμενος. ἀποδεδημήκει δὲ παρὰ 
τοὺς Κρῆτας, ὅτι ἤκουεν εὐνομωτάτους εἶναι, 
Μίνωος τοῦ Διὸς νομοθετήσαντος ἐν αὐτοῖς. 

1 ὁπότερος A.M.H.: ὧς πρότερος MSS. 


When you see all that, do not suppose them crazy, 
and do not say that they are undergoing misery with- 
out any stringent reason, since it is due neither to a 
tyrant's violence nor to an enemy's maltreatment. 
Lycurgus, their law-giver, could defend it by telling 
you many good reasons which he has discerned for 
punishing them; he is not unfriendly to them, 
and does not do it out of hatred, nor is he 
wantonly wasting the young blood of the city, but 
he desires that those who are destined to preserve 
their country should be tremendously staunch and 
superior to every fear. Yet, even if Lycurgus does 
not say so, you see for yourself, I suppose, that such 
a man, on being captured in war, would never betray 
any Spartan secret under torture inflicted by the 
enemy, but would laugh at them and take his 
whipping, matching himself against his flogger to see 
which would give in. 


But how about Lycurgus himself, Solon? Did he 
get flogged in his youth, or was he then over the age. 
limit for the competition, so that he could introduce 
such an innovation with impunity ? 


He was an old man when he made the laws for 
them on his return from Crete. He had gone to 
visit the Cretans because he was told that they 
enjoyed the best laws, since Minos, a son of Zeus, 
had been their law-giver. 




Τί οὖν, ὦ Σόλων, οὐχὶ καὶ σὺ ἐμιμήσω Λυ- 
κοῦργον καὶ μαστιγοῖς τοὺς νέους; καλὰ γὰρ καὶ 
ταῦτα καὶ ἄξια ὑμῶν ἐστιν. 

ej e ^ [d / > , ’ - X 
Οτι ἡμῖν ἱκανά, ὦ ᾿Ανάχαρσι, ταῦτα τὰ 
^ y ^ \ 
γυμνάσια οἰκεῖα ὄντα' ζηλοῦν δὲ τὰ ξενικὰ οὐ 
πάνυ ἀξιοῦμεν. 


Οὔκ; ἀλλὰ συνίης, οἶμαι, οἷόν τί ἐστι µαστι- 
γοῦσθαι γυμνὸν ἄνω τὰς χεῖρας ἐπαίροντα μηδενὸς 
ἕνεκα ὠφελίμου ἢ αὐτῷ ἑκάστῳ ἢ κοινῇ τῇ πόλει. 
ὡς ἔγωγε ἦν ποτε ἐπιδημήσω τῇ Σπάρτῃ καθ᾿ 
ὃν καιρὸν ταῦτα δρῶσι, δοκῶ por τάχιστα κατα- - 
λευσθήσεσθαι δημοσίᾳ πρὸς αὐτῶν, ἐπιγελῶν 
ἑκάστοις, ὁπόταν ὁρῶ τυπτοµένους καθάπερ 
κλέπτας ἢ λωποδύτας 1j HT ἄλλο τοιοῦτον ἐργα- 
σαμένους. ἀτεχνῶς γὰρ ἐλλεβόρου δεῖσθαί «μοι 
δοκεῖ ἡ πόλις αὐτῶν καταγέλαστα ὑφ᾽ αὑτῆς 


Μὴ ἐρήμην, ὦ γενναῖε, μηδὲ τῶν ἀνδρῶν ἀπόν- 
των μόνος αὐτὸς λέγων οἴου κρατεῖν" ἔσται γάρ 
τις ὁ καὶ ὑπὲρ ἐκείνων σοι τὰ εἰκότα ἐν Σπάρτη 

Πλὴν ἀλλὰ ἐπείπερ ἐγὼ τὰ ἡμέτερα. σοι διεξε- 
λήλυθα, σὺ δὲ οὐ πάνυ ἀρεσκομένῳ αὐτοῖς 
ἔοικας, οὐκ ἄδικα αἰτήσει» ἔοικα παρὰ σοῦ ὡς 
καὶ αὐτὸς ἐν τῷ μέρει διεξέλθῃς πρός με ὃν 




Then why is it, Solon, that you have not imitated 
Lycurgus and do not flog your young men? It isa 
splendid practice, and worthy of you Athenians ! 


Because we are content, Anacharsis, with these 
exercises, which are our own; we do not much care 
to copy foreign fashions. 


No: you understand, I think, what it is like to be 
flogged naked, holding up one’s arms, for no advan- 
tage either to the individual himself or to the city in 
general. Oh, if ever I am at Sparta at the time 
when they are doing this, I expect I shall very soon 
be stoned to death by them publicly for laughing at 
them every time I see them getting beaten like 
robbers or sneak-thieves or similar malefactors. 
Really, it seems to me that the city stands in need 
of hellebore 1 if it mishandles itself so ridiculously. 


Do not think, my worthy friend, that you are win- 
ning your case by default, or in the absence of your 
adversaries, as the only speaker. There will be 
someone or other in Sparta who will reply to you 
properly in defence of this. 

However, as I have told you about our ways and 
you do not seem to be much pleased with them, I do 
not think it will be unfair to ask you to tell me in 

1 The specific for insanity. 



τρόπον ὑμεῖς οἱ Σκύθαι διασκεῖτε τοὺς νέους τοὺς 
παρ᾽ ὑμῖν καὶ οἷστισι γυμνασίοις ἀνατρέφετε καὶ 
όπως ὑμῖν ἄνδρες ἀγαθοὶ γίγνονται. 


Δικαιότατα μὲν οὖν, ὦ Σόλων, καὶ ἔγωγε 
διηγήσομαι. τὰ Σκυθῶν νόμιμα, οὐ σεμνὰ ἴσως 
οὐδὲ καθ᾽ ὑμᾶς, οἵ ye οὐδὲ κατὰ κόρρης πατα- 
x? ἦναι τολμήσαιμεν ἂν μίαν TAUTA δειλοὶ yap 
ἐσμεν' ἀλλὰ εἰρήσεταί γε ὁποῖα ἂν ae εἰς αὔριον 
μέντοι, εἰ δοκεῖ, ὑπερβαλώμεθα τὴν συνουσίαν, 
ὡς ἅ τε αὐτὸς ἔφης ἔτι μᾶλλον ἐννοήσαιμι καθ' 
ἡσυχίαν a τε χρὴ εἰπεῖν συναγάγοιμι τῇ μνήμῃ 
ἐπελθών. τὸ δὲ νῦν ἔχον ἀπίωμεν ἐπὶ τούτοις: 
ἑσπέρα γὰρ ἤδη. 

1} Fritzsche; εἴη MSS, 



your turn how you Scythians discipline your young 
men, what exercises you use in bringing them up, 
and how you make them good men. 


It is entirely fair, to be sure, Solon, and [ shall tell 
you the Scythian customs, which are not imposing, 
perhaps, or on the same plane as yours, since we 
should not dare to receive a single blow in the face ; 
we are cowards! They shall be told, however, no 
matter what they are. But let us put off the 
discussion, if you will, till to-morrow, so that I may 
quietly ponder a little longer over what you have 
said, and get together what I must say, going over 
it in my memory. At present, let us go away 
with this understanding, for it is now evening. 


Uy Με 


MENIPPUS, who in the /caromenippus (II. 267) described 
his ascent to Heaven to discover the truth about the nature 
of the universe, now tells the story of his descent into Hades 
to find out the right way to live. Utterly perplexed by the 
philosophers, who neither agree in their doctrines nor practise 
what they preach, he goes below to consult Teiresias, who 
tells him to disregard them; that the ordinary man’s way of 
living is best. 

The unity of the dialogue is badly marred because Lucian 
has given it a double point, aiming it not only at the 
philosophers but at the rich. Indced, it is not the philo- 
sophers but the rich and powerful who are getting on badly 
in Hades, and against whom a decree is naan by the assembly 
of the dead. 

This curious defect arises, I believe, from the way in 
which Lucian adapted his model, the Necyia of the real 
Menippus. Helm argues, to be sure, that the Menippus is a 
mere epitome and revision of the Necyia, but in my opinion 
the Necyia must have been a satire against wealth and power, 
in which Menippus told how he (or someone else) had 
learned, by his own observation and from the lips of Teire- 
sias, that kings and millionaires fared ill in the hereafter, and 
that the life of the ordinary man was preferable to theirs. This 
Cynic sermon Lucian parodies and turns against the philo- 
sophers, retaining the response of Teiresias, but twisting its 
point so that the ‘‘ordinary man” is now contrasted, not 
with kings and plutocrats, but with philosophers. He ought 
to have carried out this idea by recasting the whole show in 
Hades ; but he wanted to work in a decree of the dead, which 
could not be directed against the philosophers without steal- 
ing the thunder of Teiresias. So he aimed it at the rich, and 
retained the stage setting of Menippus to lead up to it. 

The dialogue probably was written in A.D. 161—162 (p. 90, 
note) Helm’s discussion (Lucian und Menipp, 15 ff.) contains 
much valuable comment, especially upon the magic ritual. 

On Menippus, see the /ndex. 




"OQ χαῖρε μέλαθρον πρὀπυλά θ᾽ ἑστίας ἐμῆς, 
ὡς ἄσμενος σ᾽ ἐσεῖδον ἐς φάος uoXov. 

Οὐ Μένιππος οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ κύων ; οὐ μὲν οὖν 
ἄλλος, εἰ μὴ ἐγὼ παραβλέπω' Μένιππος ὅλος.] 
τί οὖν αὐτῷ Βούλεται τὸ ἀλλόκοτον τοῦ σχήματος, 
πῖλος καὶ λύρα καὶ -λεοντὴ ; ; πλὴν ἀλλὰ προσιτέον 
γε αὐτῷ. χαῖρε, Q Μένιππε' πόθεν ἡ ἡμῖν ἀφῖξαι ; 
πολὺς γὰρ χρόνος οὐ πέφηνας ἐν τῇ πόλει." 

"Hw νεκρῶν κευθμῶνα καὶ σκότου πύλας 
’ 65) 0 1 » ^ 
λιπών, ἵν᾽ “Atdns χωρὶς wkiorat θεῶν. 
“Ἡράκλεις, ἐλελήθει Μένιππος ἡμᾶς ἀποθα- 
vov, Kata ἐξ ὑπαρχῆς ἀναβεβίωκεν ; 
Available in photographs T, ΡΝ, 
1 Graevius: Μενίππους ὅλους 78. 

2 Cf. Dial. Meretr. 10. 1. : οὐ γὰρ ἑωρακα πολὺς ἤδη χρόνοι 
αὐτὸν παρ᾽ ὑμῖν. 




All hail, ye halls and portals of my home! 
What joy you give mine eyes, to light returned !! 


Isn't this Menippus the Cynic? Assuredly nobody 
else, unless ] cannot see straight ; Menippus all over. 
Then what is the meaning of that strange costume— 
a felt cap, a lyre, and a lion's skin? Anyhow, I must 
go up to him. Good day, Menippus; where under 
the sun have you come from? It is a long time since 
you have shown yourself in the city. 


I come from Dead Men's Lair and Darkness Gate 
Where Hades dwells, remote from other gods.? 


Heracles! Did Menippus die without our knowing 
it, and has he now come to life all over again? 

! Euripides, Hercules Furens, 593-4. 
? Euripides, Hecuba, 1; spoken by Polydorus as prologue. 



Οὐκ, ἀλλ᾽ ἔτ᾽ ἔμπνουν ᾿Αἴδης p ἐδέξατο. 

Τίς δὴ αἰτία σοι τῆς καινῆς καὶ παραδόξου 
ταύτης ἀποδημίας ; 

/ , 9 ^ * s ^ ^ / 
Νεότης μ᾽ ἐπῆρε καὶ θράσος τοῦ νοῦ πλέον. 


Παῦσαι, μακάριε, τραγῳδῶν καὶ λέγε οὑτωσί 
πως ἁπλῶς καταβὰς ἀπὸ τῶν ἰαμβείων, τίς ἡ 
στολή ; ; τί σοι τῆς κάτω πορείας ἐδέησεν ; ; ἄλλως 
γὰρ οὐχ ἡδεῖά τις οὐδὲ ἀσπάσιος ἡ ὁδός. 


"Q φιλότης, χρειώ με κατήγαγεν εἰς ᾿Αἴδαο 
ψυχῇ χρησόμενον Θηβαίου Τειρεσίαο. 


Οὗτος, ἀλλ᾽ ἡ παραπαίεις' οὐ γὰρ ἂν οὕτως 
ἐμμέτρως ἐρραψώδεις πρὸς ἄνδρας φίλους. 


Μὴ θαυμάσης, ὦ ἑταῖρε' νεωστὶ γὰρ Εὐριπίδη 
καὶ Ὁμήρῳ συγγενόμενος οὐκ οἷδ᾽ ὅπως ἀνεπλή- 
σθην τῶν ἐπῶν καὶ αὐτόματά μοι τὰ μέτρα ἐπὶ 

1 Attributed to Euripides; play unknown, perhaps the 
Peirithous (Nauck, Trag. Graec. Fragm., p. 663). 

2 Perhaps from the lost Andromeda of Euripides (Nauck, 
p. 403). 

3 Odyssey 11, 164. Lucian substitutes ‘‘ Friend” for 
Homer's ** Mother.” 



Nay, I was living when I went to Hell.1 


What reason had you for this novel and surprising 
Youth spurred me, and I had more pluck than 

My dear fellow, do stop your play-acting; come 
off your blank-verse, and tell me in plain language 
like mine what your costuine is, and why you had 
to go down below. Certainly it is not a pleasant 
and attractive journey! 


Friend, 'twas necessity drew me below to the 
kingdom of Hades, 

There to obtain, from the spirit of Theban 
Teiresias, counsel.3 


Man, you are surely out of your mind, or you 
would not recite verse in that way to your friends! 


Don't be surprised, my dear fellow. I have just 
been in the company of Euripides and Homer, so 
that somehow or other I have become filled with 
poetry, and verses come unbidden to my lips.4 

t The Greek words form a trimeter, possibly borrowed 
from some comedy. 



^ \ 
2 τὸ στόμα ἔρχεται. ἀτὰρ εἰπέ μοι, πῶς τὰ ὑπὲρ 
γῆς ἔχει καὶ τί ποιοῦσιν οἱ ἐν τῇ πόλει ; 

Καινὸν οὐδέν, ἀλλ. οἷα καὶ πρὸ τοῦ' ἁυπάξου- 
σιν, ἐπιορκοῦσιν, τοκογλυφοῦσιν, ὀβολοστα- 

"Αθλιοι καὶ κακοδαίµονες' οὐ γὰρ ἴσασιν οἷα 
ἔναγχος κεκύρωται παρὰ τοῖς κάτω καὶ οἷα 
κεχειροτόνηται τὰ ψηφίσματα κατὰ τῶν πλου- 
σίων, ἃ μὰ τὸν Κέρβερον οὐδεμία μηχανὴ τὸ 
διαφυγεῖν αὐτούς. 


Ti dys; δέδοκταί τι νεώτερον τοῖς κάτω περὶ 
τῶν ἐνθάδε ; 


Νὴ Δία, καὶ πολλά yer ἀλλ᾽ οὐ θέμις ἐκφέρειν 
αὐτὰ πρὸς ἅπαντας οὐδὲ ἐξαγορεύειν τὰ ἀπόρρητα, 
μὴ καί τις ἡμᾶς γράψηται γραφὴν ἀσεβείας ἐπὶ 
τοῦ “Ῥαδαμάνθυος. 


Μηδαμῶς, ὦ Μένιππε, πρὸς τοῦ Διός, μὴ 
φθονήσῃς τῶν λόγων φίλῳ ἀνδρί πρὸς γὰρ, εἰδότα 
σιωπᾶν ἐρεῖς, τά T. ἄλλα καὶ πρὸς μεμυημένον. 

Χαλεπὸν μὲν ἐπιτάττεις τὸ ἐπίταγμα καὶ οὐ 
πάντη εὐσεβές: πλὴν ἀλλὰ σοῦ γε ἕνεκα 
τολμητέον. ἔδοξε δὴ τοὺς πλουσίους τούτους 


But tell me, how are things going on earth, and 
what are they doing in the city ? 


Nothing new ; just what they did before—stealing, 
lying under oath, extorting usury, and weighing 


Poor wretches! They do not know what decisions 
have been made of late in the lower world, and 
what ordinances have been enacted against the rich ; 
by Cerberus, they cannot possibly evade them! 


What is that? | Has any radical legislation been 
passed in the lower world affecting the upper? 


Yes, by Zeus, a great deal; but it is not right to 
publish it broadcast and expose their secrets. Some- 
one might indict me for impiety in the court of 


Oh, no, Menippus! In Heaven's name don't 
withhold your story from a friend! You will be 
telling à man who knows how to keep his mouth 
shut, and who, moreover, has been initiated into 

the mysteries. 

It is a perilous demand that you are imposing 
upon me, and one not wholly consistent with piety. 
However, for your sake I must be bold. The 
motion, then, was passed that these rich men with 



«ai πολυχρημάτους καὶ τὸ χρυσίον κατάκλειστον 
ὥσπερ τὴν Δανάην φυλάττοντας--- 


Μὴ πρότερον εἴπῃς, ὦγαθέ, τὰ δεδογμένα πρὶν 
ἐκεῖνα διελθεῖν ἃ μάλιστ᾽ ἂν ἡδέως ἀκούσαιμί 
σου, τίς ἡ ἐπίνοιά σοι τῆς καθόδου ἐγένετο, τίς δ᾽ 
ὁ τῆς πορείας ἡγεμών, εἶθ᾽ ἑξῆς ἅ τε εἶδες ἅ τε 
ἤκουσας παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς: εἰκὸς yàp. δὴ φιλόκαλον 
ὄντα σε μηδὲν τῶν ἀξίων θέας ἢ ἀκοῆς παρα- 



3 Ὑπουργητέον καὶ ταῦτά cot τί γὰρ ἂν καὶ 
πάθοι τις, ὁπότε φίλος ἀνὴρ βιάζοιτο ; καὶ δὴ 
πρῶτά σοι δίειμι τὰ περὶ τῆς γνώμης τῆς ἐμῆς, 
ὅθεν ὡρμήθην πρὸς τὴν κατάβασιν. ἐγὼ γάρ, 
ἄχρι μὲν ἐν παισὶν ἦν, ἀκούων Ὁμήρου καὶ 
Ἡσιόδου πολέμους καὶ στάσεις διηγουμένων οὐ 
μόνον τῶν ἡμιθέων, ἀλλὰ καὶ αὐτῶν ἤδη τῶν θεῶν, 
ἔτι δὲ καὶ μοιχείας αὐτῶν καὶ βίας καὶ ἁρπα- 
yas καὶ δίκας καὶ πατέρων ἐξελάσεις καὶ ἀδελφ v 
γάμους, πάντα ταῦτα ἐνόμιζον εἶναι καλὰ καὶ οὐ 
παρέργως ἐκινούμην πρὸς αὐτά. ἐπεὶ δὲ εἰς 
ἄνδρας τελεῖν ἠρξάμην, πάλιν av ἐνταῦθα 
ἤκουον τῶν νόμων τἀναντία τοῖς ποιηταῖς 
κελευόντων, μήτε μοιχεύειν μήτε στασιάζειν μήτε 
ἁρπάξειν. ἐν μεγάλῃ οὖν καθειστήκειν ἀμφι- 
βολίᾳ, οὐκ εἰδὼς ὅ ὅ τι χρησαίμην ἐμαυτῷ" οὔτε 
γὰρ ἄν ποτε τοὺς θεοὺς μοιχεῦσαι καὶ στασιάσαι 
πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἡγούμην εἰ μὴ ὡς περὶ καλῶν 
τούτων ἐγίγνωσκον, οὔτ᾽, ἂν τοὺς νομοθέτας 
τἀναντία παραινεῖν εἰ μὴ λυσιτελεῖν ὑπελάμβα- 



great fortunes who keep their gold locked up as 
closely as Danae-—— 


Don't quote the motion, my dear fellow, before 
telling me what I should be especially glad to hear 
from you; that is to say, what was the purpose of 
your going down, who was your guide for the 
journey, and then, in due order, what vou saw and 
heard there; for it is to be expected, of course, that 
as a man of taste you did not overlook anything 
worth seeing or hearing. 


I must meet your wishes in that, too, for what 
is a man to do when a friend constrains him? 
First, then, I shall tell you about my decision— 
what impelled me to go down. While I was a 
boy, when I read in Homer and Hesiod about wars 
and quarrels, not only of the demigods but of the 
gods themselves, and besides about their amours and 
assaults and abductions and lawsuits and banishing 
fathers and marrying sisters, I thought that all these 
things were right, and I felt an uncommon impulsion 
toward them. But when I came of age, I found 
that the laws contradicted the poets and forbade 
adultery, quarrelling, and theft. So I was plunged 
into great uncertainty, not knowing how to deal 
with my own case; for the gods would never have 
committed adultery and quarrelled with each other, 
I thought, unless they deemed these actions right, 
and the lawgivers would not recommend the opposite 
course unless they supposed it to be advantageous. 



vov. ἐπεὶ δὲ διηπόρουν, ἔδοξέ µοι ἐλθόντα παρὰ 
τοὺς καλουμένους τούτους φιλοσόφους ἐγχειρίσαι 
τε ἐμαυτὸν καὶ δεηθῆναι αὐτῶν χρῆσθαί μοι ὅ τι 
βούλοιντο καί τινα ὁδὸν ἁπλῆν καὶ βέβαιον ὑπο- 
δεῖξαι τοῦ Βίου. 
Ταῦτα μὲν δὴ φρονῶν προσῄειν αὐτοῖς, ἐλελή- 
ειν Ò ἐμαυτὸν εἰς αὐτό, paci, τὸ πῦρ ἐκ τοῦ 
καπνοῦ βιαζόμενος. παρὰ γὰρ δὴ τούτοις 
μάλιστα εὕρισκ.,ν ἐπισκοπῶν τὴν ἄγνοιαν καὶ 
τὴν ἀπορίαν πλείονα, ὥστε μοι τάχιστα χρυσοῦν 
ἀπέδειξαν οὗτοι τὸν τῶν ἰδιωτῶν τοῦτον βίον. 
᾿Αμέλει ὁ μὲν αὐτῶν παρήνει τὸ πᾶν ἥδεσθαι 
καὶ μόνον τοῦτο ἐκ παντὸς μετιέναι' τοῦτο γὰρ 
εἶναι τὸ εὔδαιμον. ὁ δέ τις ἔμπαλιν, πονεῖν τὰ 
πάντα καὶ μοχθεῖν καὶ τὸ σῶμα καταναγκάξειν 
ῥυπῶντα καὶ αὐχμῶντα καὶ πᾶσι δυσαρεστοῦντα 
κοὶ λοιδορούμενον, συνεχὲς ἐπιρραψωδῶν τὰ 
τάνδημα ἐκεῖνα τοῦ Ἡσιόδου περὶ τῆς ἀρετῆς 
ἔπη καὶ τὸν ἱδρῶτα καὶ τὴν ἐπὶ τὸ ἄκρον 
ἀνάβασιν. ἄλλος καταφρονεῖν χρημάτων παρ- 
εκελεύετο καὶ ἀδιάφορον οἴεσθαι τὴν κτῆσιν 
αὐτῶν' ὁ δέ τις ἔμπαλιν ἀγαθὸν εἶναι καὶ τὸν 
πλοῦτον ἀπεφαίνετο. περὶ μὲν γὰρ τοῦ κόσμου 
τί χρὴ καὶ λέγειν; ὅς γε ἰδέας καὶ ἀσώματα καὶ 
ἀτόμους καὶ κενὰ καὶ τοιοῦτόν τινα ὄχλον ὀνομά- 
των ὁσημέραι παρ᾽ αὐτῶν. ἀκούων ἐναυτίων. καὶ 
τὸ πάντων ἀτοπώτατον, ὅτι περὶ τῶν ἐναντιωτά- 
των ἕκαστος αὐτῶν λέγων σφόδρα νικῶντας καὶ 
πιθανοὺς λόγους ἐπορίζετο, ὥστε µήτε τῷ θερμὸν 
τὸ αὐτὸ πρᾶγμα λέγοντι μήτε τῷ ψυχρὸν ἀντι- 

* Works and Days, 287 sq.; Lucian is always making fun 
of the philosophers for quoting this. 


Since I was in a dilemma, I resolved to go to the 
men whom they call philosophers and put myself into 
their hands, begging them to deal with me as they 
would, and to show me a plain, solid path in life. 

That was what I had in mind when I went to 
them, but I was unconsciously struggling out of the 
smoke, as the proverb goes, right into the fire! For 
I found in the course of my investigation that among 
these men in particular the ignorance and the per- 
plexity was greater than elsewhere, so that they 
speedily convinced me that the ordinary man’s way 
of living is as good as gold. 

For instance, one of them would recommend me 
to take my pleasure always and to pursue that under 
all circumstances, because that was happiness; but 
another, on the contrary, would recommend me to 
toil and moil always and to subdue my body, going 
dirty and unkempt, irritating everybody and calling 
names; and to clinch his argument he was per- 
petually reciting those trite lines of Hesiod’s about 
virtue, and talking of “sweat,” and the “climb to 
the summit.” ! Another would urge me to despise 
money and think it a matter of indifference whether 
onc has it or not, while someone else, on the con- 
trary, would demonstrate that even wealth was 
good. As to the universe, what is the use of talking 
about that?  * Ideas," *incorporealities," ‘atoms,’ 
* voids," and a multitude of such terms were dinned 
into my ears by them every day until it made me 
queasy. And the strangest thing was that when 
they expressed the most contradictory of opinions, 
each of them would produce very effective and 
plausible arguments, so that when the selfsame 
thing was called hot by one and cold by another, 




/ y M ^ 9) , ’ ^ e , 5 
λέγειν ἔχειν, καὶ ταῦτ᾽ εἰδότα σαφῶς ὡς οὐκ ἄν 
^ y ` . , , ^ / 
ποτε θερμὸν εἴη τι καὶ ψυχρὸν ἐν ταὐτῷ χρόνῳ. 
9 ^ » ^ 4 
ἀτεχνῶς οὖν ἔπασχον τοῖς νυστάξουσι τούτοις 
ὅμοιον, ἄρτι μὲν ἐπινεύων, ἄρτι δὲ ἀνανεύων 

Πολλῷ δὲ τούτων ἐκεῖνο ἀλογώτερον' τοὺς γὰρ 
αὐτοὺς τούτους εὕρισκον ἐπιτηρῶν ἐναντιώτατα 
- - f ^ 
τοῖς αὑτῶν λόγοις ἐπιτηδεύοντας. τοὺς γοῦν 
καταφρονεῖν παραινοῦντας χρημάτων ἑώρων ἀπρὶξ 
ἐχομένους αὐτῶν καὶ περὶ τόκων διαφερομένους 
καὶ ἐπὶ μισθῶ παιδεύοντας καὶ πάντα ἕνεκα 

τούτων ὑπομένοντας, τούς τε τὴν δόξαν aro- 
βαλλομένους αὐτῆς ταύτης χάριν τὰ πάντα καὶ 
πράττοντας καὶ λέγοντας, ἡδονῆς τε αὖ σχεδὸν 
- / \ / 
ἅπαντας κατηγοροῦντας, ἰδίᾳ δὲ μόνῃ ταύτῃ 
^ ^ [4 ^ 

Σφαλεὶς οὖν καὶ τῆσδε τῆς ἐλπίδος ἔτι μᾶλλον 
ἐδυσχέραινον, ἠρέμα παραμυθούμενος ἐμαυτὸν 
ο M ^ N ^ N / US 
ὅτι μετὰ πολλῶν καὶ σοφῶν καὶ σφόδρα ἐπὶ 

/ / 
συνέσει διαβεβοηµένων ἀνόητός τέ εἰμι καὶ 
τἀληθὲς ἔτι ἀγνοῶν περιέρχομαι. καί μοί ποτε 
^ 4 e Ld > ^ 

διαγρυπνοῦντι τούτων ἕνεκα ἔδοξεν εἰς Βαβυλῶνα 
ἐλθόντα δεηθῆναί τινος τῶν μάγων τῶν Ζωροά- 
στρου μαθητῶν καὶ διαδόχων’ ἤκουον È αὐτοὺς 
ἐπῳδαῖς τε καὶ τελεταῖς τισιν ἀνοίγειν τοῦ Αιδου 

M / M 4 ^ A / , ^ 
τὰς πύλας καὶ κατάγειν ὃν ἂν βούλωνται ἀσφαλῶς 
καὶ ὀπίσω αὖθις ἀναπέμπειν. ἄριστον οὖν 
ἡγούμην εἶναι παρά τινος τούτων διαπραξάμενον 



it was impossible for me to controvert either of 
them, though I knew right well that nothing could 
ever be hot and cold at the same time. So in good 
earnest I acted like a drowsy man, nodding now this 
way and now that.! 

But there was something else, far more unreason- 
able than that. I found, upon observing these same 
people, that their practice directly opposed their 
preaching. For instance, I perceived that those who 
recommended scorning money clove to it tooth and 
nail, bickered about interest, taught for pay, and 
underwent everything for the sake of money; and 
that those who were for rejecting public opinion 
aimed at that very thing not only in all that they 
did, but in all that they said. Also that while 
almost all of them inveighed against pleasure, they 
privately devoted themselves to that alone. 

Disappointed, therefore, in this expectation, I was 
still more uncomfortable than before, although I con- 
soled myself somewhat with the thought that if I 
was still foolish and went about in ignorance of the 
truth, at all events I had the company of many wise 
men, widely renowned for intelligence. So one time, 
while I lay awake over these problems, I resolved to 
go to Babylon and address myself to one of the 
Magi, the disciples and successors of Zoroaster, as 
I had heard that with certain charms and ceremonials 
they could open the gates of Hades, taking down in 
safety anyone they would and guiding him back again. 
Consequently I thought best to arrange with one of 

1 More literally, “now inclining my head forward, and 
now tossing it backward ” ; that is, assenting one moment 
and dissenting the next. To express disagreement, the head 
was (and in Greece is now) thrown back, not shaken. 



τὴν κατάβασιν ἐλθόντα παρὰ Τειρεσίαν τὸν 
Βοιώτιον μαθεῖν παρ αὐτοῦ ἅτε μάντεως καὶ 
σοφοῦ, τίς ἐστιν ὁ ἄριστος βίος καὶ ὃν ἄν τις 
ἕλοιτο εὖ φρονῶν. 

Καὶ δὴ ἀναπηδήσας ὡς εἶχον τάχους ἔτεινον 
εὐθὺ Βαβυλῶνος: ἐλθὼν δὲ συγγίγνομαί τινι 
τῶν Χαλδαίων σοφῷ ἀνδρὶ καὶ θεσπεσίῳ τὴν 
τέχνην, πολιῷ μὲν τὴν κόμην, γένειον δὲ μάλα 
σεμνὸν καθειμένῳ, τοὔνομα δὲ ἦν αὐτῷ Μιθρο- 
βαρξάνη». δεηθεὶς δὲ καὶ καθικετεύσας μόγις 
ἐπέτυχον Tap αὐτοῦ, ἐφ᾽ ὅτῳ βούλοιτο μισθῷ, 
καθηγήσασθαί μοι τῆς ὁδοῦ. παραλαβὼν δέ με 
ὁ ἀνὴρ πρῶτα μὲν ἡμέρας ἐννέα καὶ εἴκοσιν ἅμα 
τῇ σελήνη ἀρξάμενος ἔλουε κατάγων ἕωθεν ἐπὶ 

τὸν Εὐφράτην πρὸς ἀνίσχοντα τὸν ἥλιον, ῥῆσίν 

τινα μακρὰν ἐπιλέγων ἧς οὐ σφόδρα κατήκονον" 
ὥσπερ γὰρ οἱ φαῦλοι τῶν ἐν τοῖς ἀγῶσι κηρύκων 
ἐπίτροχόν τι καὶ ἀσαφὲς ἐφθέγγετο. πλὴν ἐῴκει 
γέ τινας ἐπικαλεῖσθαι δαίμονας. μετὰ δ᾽ οὖν 
τὴν ἐπῳδὴν τρὶς ἄν μου πρὸς τὸ πρόσωπον 
ἀποπτύσας, ἐπανῇει πάλιν οὐδένα. τῶν ἀπαντών- 
των προσβλέπων. καὶ σιτία μὲν ἦν ἡμῖν τὰ 
ἀκρόδρυα, ποτὸν δὲ γάλα καὶ μελίκρατον καὶ τὸ 
τοῦ Χοάσπου ὕδωρ, εὐνὴ δὲ ὑπαίθριος ἐπὶ τῆς 

᾿Επεὶ δ᾽ ἅλις εἶχε τῆς προδιαιτήσεως, περὶ 
μέσας νύκτας ἐπὶ τὸν Τίγρητα ποταμὸν ἀγαγὼν 
ἐκάθηρέν τέ µε καὶ ἀπέμαξε καὶ περιήγνισεν 
δαδὶ καὶ σκίλλῃ, καὶ ἄλλοις πλείοσιν, ἅμα καὶ 
τῆν ἐπῳδὴν ἐκείνην ὑποτονθορύσας. εἶτά µε 
ὅλον καταμαγεύσας καὶ περιελθῶν, ἵνα μὴ 
βλαπτοίμην ὑπὸ τῶν φασμάτων, ἐπανάγει εἰς 


these men for my going down, and then to call upon 
Teiresias of Boeotia and find out from him in his 
capacity of prophet and sage what the best life was, 
the life that a man of sense would choose. 

Well, springing to my feet, I made straight for 
Babylon as fast as I could go. On my arrival l 
conversed with one of the Chaldeans, a wise man of 
miraculous skill, with grey hair and a very majestic 
beard; his name was Mithrobarzanes. By dint of 
supplications and entreaties, I secured his reluctant 
consent to be my guide on the journey at whatever 
price he would. So the man took me in charge, and 
first of all, for twenty-nine days, beginning with the 
new moon, he took me down to the Euphrates in the 
early morning, toward sunrise, and bathed me; 
after which he would make a long address which I 
could not follow very well, for like an incompetent 
announcer at the games, he spoke rapidly and indis- 
tinctly. It is likely, however, that he was invoking 
certain spirits. Anyhow, after the incantation he 
would spit in my face thrice and then go back again 
without looking at anyone whom he met. We ate 
nuts, drank milk, mead, and the water of the 
Choaspes, and slept out of doors on the grass. 

When he considered the preliminary course of 
dieting satisfactory, taking me to the Tigris river 
at midnight he purged me, cleansed me, and con- 
secrated me with torches and squills and many other 
things, murmuring his incantation as he did so. Then 
after he had becharmed me from head to foot and 
walked all about me, that I might not be harmed 
by the phantoms, he took me home again, just as 



τὴν οἰκίαν, ὡς εἶχον, ἀναποδίζοντα, καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν 
ἀμφὶ πλοῦν εἴχομεν. αὐτὸς μὲν οὖν μαγικήν 
τινα ἐνέδυ στολὴν τὰ πολλὰ ἐοικυῖαν τῇ Μηδικῇ, 
ἐμὲ δὲ τουτοισὶ φέρων ἐνεσκεύασε, τῷ πίλῳ καὶ 
τῇ λεοντῇ καὶ προσέτι τῇ λύρᾳ, καὶ παρεκελεύ- 
σατο, ἤν τις ἔρηταί µε τοὔνομα, Μένιππον μὴ 
λέγειν, “Ἡρακλέα δὲ ἢ Ὀδυσσέα ἢ Ὀρφέα. 


Ὡς δὴ τί τοῦτο, ὦ Μένιππε ; οὐ γὰρ συνίημι 
τὴν αἰτίαν οὔτε τοῦ σχήματος οὔτε τῶν 


Καὶ μὴν πρὀδηλόν γε τοῦτο καὶ οὐ παντελῶς 
ἀπόρρητον" ἐπεὶ γὰρ οὗτοι πρὸ ἡμῶν ζῶντες εἰς 
"Αιδου κατεληλύθεσαν, ἡγεῖτο, εἴ µε ἀπεικάσειεν 
αὐτοῖς, ῥᾳδίως ἂν τὴν τοῦ Αἰακοῦ φρουρὰν δια- 
λαθεῖν καὶ ἀκωλύτως ἂν παρελθεῖν ἅτε συνηθέ- 
στερον, τραγικῶς μάλα παραπεμπόμενον ὑπὸ τοῦ 

Ἤδη & οὖν ὑπέφαινεν ἡμέρα, καὶ κατελθόντες 
ἐπὶ τὸν ποταμὸν περὶ ἀναγωγὴν ἐγιγνόμεθα. 
παρεσκεύαστο δ᾽ αὐτῷ καὶ σκάφος καὶ ἱερεῖα καὶ 
μελίκρατον καὶ ἄλλα ὅσα πρὸς τὴν τελετὴν 
χρήσιμα. ἐμβαλόμενοι οὖν ἅπαντα τὰ παρε- 
σκευασµένα οὕτω δὴ καὶ αὐτοὶ 

, , Ld λ , 
βαίνομεν ἀχνύμενοι, θαλερὸν κατὰ δάκρυ 



[ was, walking backward. After that, we made 
ready for the journey. He himself put on a 
magician’s gown very like the Median dress, and 
speedily costumed me in these things which you 
see—the cap, the lion’s skin, and the lyre besides ; 
and he urged me, if anyone should ask my name, 
not to say Menippus, but Heracles or Odysseus or 


What was his object in that, Menippus? I do 
not understand the reason either for the costume 
or for the names. 


Why, that, at any rate, is obvious and not at all 
shrouded in mystery. Since they had been before 
us in going down to Hades alive, he thought that 
if he should make me look like them, I might easily 
slip by the frontier-guard of Aeacus and go in un- 
hindered as something of an old acquaintance ; for 
thanks to my costume they would speed me along 
on my journey just as they do in the plays.! 

Well, day was just beginning to break when we 
went down to the river and set about getting under 
way. He had provided a boat, victims, mead, and 
everything else that we should need for the ritual. 
So we shipped all the stores, and at length ourselves 

* Gloomily hied us aboard, with great tears falling 
profusely.” 3 

1 There were many comedies with this motive. The only 
one extant is the Frogs of Aristophanes, where Dionysus 
descends in the costume of Heracles. 

3 Odyssey, 11, 5. 



Kai μέχρι μέν τινος ὑπεφερόμεθα ἐ ἐν τῷ TOTAM, 
εἶτα δὲ εἰσεπλεύσαμεν εἰς τὸ ἕλος καὶ THY λίμνην 
εἰς ἣν o Εὐφράτης ἀφανίξεται. περαιωθέντες δὲ 
καὶ ταύτην ἀφικνούμεθα εἰς τι χωρίον ἔρημον καὶ 
ὑλῶδες καὶ ἀνήλιον, εἰς ὃ καὶ δὴ ἀποβάντες--- 
ἡγεῖτο δὲ ὁ Μιθροβαρξάνης---βόθρον τε ὠρυξάμεθα 
καὶ τὰ μῆλα κατεσφάξαμεν καὶ τὸ αἷμα περὶ 
αὐτὸν ἐσπείσαμεν. ὁ δὲ μάγος ἐν τοσούτῳ δᾷδα 
καιομένην ἔχων οὐκέτ᾽ ἠρεμαίᾳ τῇ φωνῇ, παμ- 
μέγεθες᾽ δέ, ὡς οἷός τε ἦν, ἀνακραγὼν δαίμονάς T€ 
ὁμοῦ πάντας ἐπεβοᾶτο καὶ Ποινὰς καὶ ᾿Ερινύας 

καὶ αν Ἑκάτην καὶ ἐπαινὴν M epaiei ieia 
παραμιγνὺς ἅμα βαρβαρικά τινα καὶ ἄσημα 
ὀνόματα καὶ πολυσύλλαβα. 

ΙΟ [ὐθὺς οὖν ἅπαντα ἐκεῖνα ἐσαλεύετο καὶ ὑπὸ 
τῆς ἐπῳδῆς τοὔδαφος ἀνερρήγνυτο καὶ ὑλακὴ τοῦ 
Κερβέρου πόρρωθεν ἠκούετο καὶ τὸ πρᾶγμα 
ὑπερκατηφὲς ἦν καὶ σκυθρωπὀν. 

ἔδδεισεν δ᾽ ὑπένερθεν ἄναξ ἐνέρων ᾿Αἰδωνεύς---- 
κατεφαίνετο γὰρ ἤδη τὰ πλεῖστα, καὶ ἡ λίμνη καὶ 
ὁ Ἡνριφλεγέθων. καὶ τοῦ Πλούτωνος τὰ βασίλεια. 
κατελθόντες Ò ὅμως διὰ τοῦ χάσματος τὸν μὲν 
“Ῥαδάμανθυν εὕρομεν τεθνεῶτα μικροῦ δεῖν ὑπὸ 
τοῦ δέους: 0 δὲ Κέρβερος ὑλάκτησε μέν τι καὶ 
παρεκίνησε, ταχὺ δέ μου. κρούσαντος τὴν λύραν 
παραχρῆμα ἐκηλήθη ὑπὸ τοῦ μέλους. ἐπεὶ δὲ 
πρὸς τὴν λίμνην ἀφικόμεθα, μικροῦ μὲν οὐδὲ 
ἐπεραιώθημεν' ἦν γὰρ πλῆρες ἤδη, τὸ πορθμεῖον 
καὶ οἰμωγῆς ἀνάπλεων, τραυματίαι δὲ πάντες 


1 Source of the verse unknown. 2 Iliad, 20, 61. 


For a space we drifted along in the river, and 
then we sailed into the marsh and the lake in which 
the Euphrates loses itself. After crossing this, we 
came to a deserted, woody, sunless place. There 
at last we landed with Mithrobarzanes leading the 
way; we dug a pit, we slaughtered the sheep, and 
we sprinkled their blood about it. Meanwhile the 
magician held a burning torch and no longer 
muttered in a low tone but shouted as loudly as 
he could, invoking the spirits, one and all, at the 
top of his lungs; also the Tormentors, the Furies, 

* Hecate, queen of the night, and eery Perse- 
phoneia." 1 

With these names he intermingled a number 
of foreign-sounding, meaningless words of many 

In a trice the whole region began to quake, 
the ground was rent asunder by the incantation, 
barking of Cerberus was audible afar off, and 
things took on a monstrously gloomy and sullen 

* Aye, deep down it affrighted the king of the 
dead, Aidoneus’’—? 

for by that time we could see almost everything— 
the Lake, and the Hiver of Burning Fire, and the 
palace of Pluto. But in spite of it all, we went 
down through the chasm, finding Rhadamanthus 
almost dead of fright. Cerberus barked a bit, to be 
sure, and stirred slightly, but when I hastily 
touched my lyre he was at once bewitched by the 
music. When we reached the lake, however, we 
came near not getting across, for the ferry was 
already crowded and full of groaning. Only 





ἐπέπλεον, 0 μὲν τὸ σκέλος, ὁ δὲ τὴν κεφαλήν, 0 
δὲ ἄλλο τι συντετριμμένος, ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν, ἔκ τινος 
πολέμου παρόντες. 
/ > 
"Όμως 8 οὖν ὁ βέλτιστος Χάρων ὡς εἶδε τὴν 
^ ’ 
λεοντῆν, οἰηθείς µε τὸν Ἡρακλέα εἶναι, εἰσεδέξατο 
καὶ διεπόρθμευσέν τε ἄσμενος καὶ ἀποβᾶσι 
διεσήμηνε τὴν ἀτραπόν. ἐπεὶ δὲ ἦμεν ἐν τῷ 
’ / ` e / ε / M 
σκότῳ, προῄει μὲν ὁ Μιθροβαρζάνης, εἱπόμην δὲ 
ἐγὼ κατόπιν ἐχόμενος αὐτοῦ, ἕως πρὸς λειμῶνα 
΄ 3 4 ^ 3 , £ 
μέγιστον ἀφικνούμεθα τῷ ἀσφοδέλῳ κατάφυτον, 
ἔνθα δὴ περιεπέτοντο ἡμᾶς τετριγυῖαι τῶν νεκρῶν 
αἱ σκιαί. κατ᾽ ὀλίγον δὲ προϊόντες παραγιγνό- 
^ f 
μεθα πρὸς τὸ τοῦ Μίνωος δικαστήριον' ἐτύγχανε 
M € M 3^. X / ΔΝ e ^ / 
δὲ ὁ μὲν ἐπὶ θρόνου τινὸς ὑψηλοῦ καθήμενος, 
/ s 5 ^ M , / N 
παρειστήκεσαν δὲ αὐτῷ Ποιναὶ καὶ ᾿Βρινύες καὶ 
'AXdaTopes. ἑτέρωθεν δὲ προσήγοντο πολλοί 
, ^ e ΄ ^ / $4. / 
τινες ἐφεξῆς, ἁλύσει μακρᾷ δεδεµένοι' ἐλέγοντο 
δὲ εἶναι μοιχοὶ καὶ πορνοβοσκοὶ καὶ τελῶναι καὶ 
κόλακες καὶ συκοφάνται καὶ τοιοῦτος ὅμιλος τῶν 
^ / 
πάντα κυκώντων ἐν τῷ βίῳ. χωρὶς δὲ οὗ τε 
πλούσιοι καὶ τοκογλύφοι προσῄεσαν ὠχροὶ καὶ 
΄ , ^ 
προγάστορες καὶ ποδαγροί, κλοιὸν ἕκαστος αὐτῶν 
καὶ κόρακα διτάλαντον ἐπικείμενος. ἐφεστῶτες 
οὖν ἡμεῖς ἑωρῶμέν τε τὰ γιγνόμενα καὶ ἠκούομεν 
τῶν ἀπολογουμένων: κατηγόρουν δὲ αὐτῶν καινοί 
τινες καὶ παράδοξοι ῥήτορες. 

1 Supposed to refer to the disasters of A.D. 161 in the 
Parthian war. 



wounded men were aboard, one injured in the 
leg, another in the head, and so on. They 
were there, in my opinion, through some war 
or other.! 

However, when good old Charon saw the lion-skin 
he thought that I was Heracles, so he took me in, 
and not only ferried me across gladly but pointed 
out the path for us when we went ashore. Since we 
were in the dark, Mithrobarzanes led the way and 
I followed after, keeping hold of him, until we 
reached a very large meadow overgrown with 
asphodel, where the shades of the dead flitted 
squeaking about us. Going ahead little by little, 
we came to the court of Minos. As it chanced, 
he himself was sitting on a lofty throne, while 
beside him stood the Tormentors, the Furies, and 
the Avengers. From one side a great number of 
men were being led up in line, bound together 
with a long chain; they were said to be adulterers, 
procurers, tax-collectors, toadies, informers, and all 
that crowd of people who create such confusion in 
life. In a separate company the millionaires and 
the money-lenders came up, pale, pot-bellied, and 
gouty, each of them with a neck-iron and a 
hundred-pound “crow” upon him.? Standing by, 
we looked at what was going on, and listened to 
the pleas of the defendants, who were prosecuted 
by speakers of a novel and surprising sort. 

2 We are left to conjecture as to the nature of Lucian’s 
“crow,” for the word does not seem to be used elsewhere 
in a similar application. The extreme weight, however, 
suggests something resembling a ball-and-chain, a weight 
attached by a hook to a chain which perhaps was fastened 
to the neck-iron. It would have to be carried in the 





Τίνες οὗτοι, πρὸς Διός; μὴ γὰρ ὀκνήσης καὶ 
τοῦτο εἰπεῖν. 

Οἶσθά που ταυτασὶ τὰς πρὸς τὸν ἥλιον aro- 
. ^ 
τελουμένας σκιὰς ὑπὸ τῶν σωμάτων ; 


Πάνν μὲν οὖν. 


Αὗται τοίνυν, ἐπειδὰν ἀποθάνωμεν, κατη- 
Ὑοροῦσί τε καὶ καταμαρτυροῦσι καὶ διελέγχουσι 
τὰ πεπραγμένα ἡμῖν παρὰ τὸν βίον, καὶ σφόδρα 
τινὲς ἀξιόπιστοι δοκοῦσιν ἅτε ἀεὶ συνοῦσαι καὶ 

μηδέποτε ἀφιστάμεναι τῶν σωμάτων. 

Ὁ 8 οὖν Μίνως ἐπιμελῶς ἐξετάζων ἀπέπεμπεν 
ἕκαστον εἰς τὸν τῶν ἀσεβῶν χῶρον δίκην ὑφέξοντα 
κατ ἀξίαν τῶν τετολ.μημένων, καὶ μάλιστα 
ἐκείνων ἥπτετο τῶν ἐπὶ πλούτοις τε καὶ ἀρχαῖς 
τετυφωμένων καὶ μονονουχὶ καὶ προσκυνεῖσθαι 
περιµενόντων, τήν τε ὀλιγοχρόνιον ἀλαξονείαν 
αὐτῶν. καὶ τὴν ὑπεροψίαν μυσαττόμενος, καὶ ὅτι 
μὴ ἐμέμνηντο θνητοί τε ὄντες αὐτοὶ καὶ θνητῶν 
ἀγαθῶν τετυχηκύτες. οἳ δὲ ἀποδυσάμενοι τὰ 
λαμπρὰ ἐκεῖνα πάντα, πλούτους λέγω καὶ γένη 
καὶ δυναστείας, γυμνοὶ κάτω νενευκότες παρει- 
στήκεσαν ὥσπερ τινὰ ὄνειρον ἀναπεμπαξόμενοι 
τὴν παρ᾽ ἡμῖν εὐδαιμονίαν: ὥστ᾽ ἔγωγε ταῦτα 
ὀρῶν ὑπερέχαιρον κ καὶ εἴ τινα γνωρίσαιμι αὐτῶν, 
προσιὼν ἂν ἡσυχῆ πως ὑπεμίμνησκον οἷος ἣν 
παρὰ τὸν βίον καὶ ἡλίκον ἐφύσα τότε, ἡνίκα 




Who were they, in Heaven’s name? Don’t 
hesitate to tell me that also. 


You know these shadows that our bodies cast in 
the sunshine? 

Why, to be sure! 


Well, when we die, they prefer charges and give 
evidence against us, exposing whatever we have 
done in our lives; and they are considered very 
trustworthy because they always keep us company 
and never leave our bodies. 

But to resume, Minos would examine each man 
carefully and send him away to the Place of the 
Wicked, to be punished in proportion to his crimes ; 
and he dealt most harshly with those who were 
swollen with pride of wealth and place, and almost 
expected men to bow down and worship them; for 
he resented their short-lived vainglory and super- 
ciliousness, and their failure to remember that they 
themselves were mortal and had become possessed 
of mortal goods. So, after stripping off all their 
quondam splendour—wealth, I mean, and lineage 
and sovereignty—they stood there naked, with 
hanging heads, reviewing, point by point, their 
happy life among us as if it had been a dream. For 
ny part I was highly delighted to see that, and 
whenever I recognized one of them, I would go up 
and quietly remind him what he used to be in life 
and how puffed up he had been then, when many men 





M \ [:d 4... ^ ’ ’ 
πολλοὶ μὲν ἕωθεν ἐπὶ τῶν πυλώνων παρειστήκεσαν 
\ / ^ ΄ 
τὴν πρόοδον αὐτοῦ περιμένοντες ὠθούμενοί τε καὶ 
ἀποκλειόμενοι πρὸς τῶν οἰκετῶν: ὁ δὲ μόλις ἄν 
ποτε ἀνατείλας αὐτοῖς πορφυροῦς τις ἢ περίχρυσος 
/ , 

ἢ διαποίκιλος εὐδαίμονας dero καὶ μακαρίους 
ἀποφαίνειν τοὺς προσειπόντας, εἰ 1 τὸ στῆθος ἡ 
A \ / ^ ^ 
τὴν δεξιὰν προτείνων δοίη καταφιλεῖν. ἐκεῖνοι 

μὲν οὖν ἠνιῶντο ἀκούοντες. 

Τῷ δὲ Μίνῳ μία τις καὶ πρὸς χάριν ἐδικάσθη: 

b! ΄ 4 z / . 
τὸν γάρ τοι Σικελιώτην Διονύσιον πολλά γε καὶ 
δεινὰ καὶ ἀνόσια ὑπό τε Δίωνος κατηγορηθέντα 
καὶ ὑπὸ τῆς σκιᾶς καταμαρτυρηθέντα παρελθὼν 
᾿Αρίστιππος ὁ Κυρηναῖος---ἄγουσι ὃ αὐτὸν ἐν 
τιμῇ καὶ δύναται μέγιστον ἐν τοῖς κάτω---μικροῦ 
δεῖν τῇ Χιμαίρᾳ προσδεθέντα ἕ παρέλυσε τῆς 
καταδίκης λέγων πολλοῖς αὐτὸν τῶν πεπαιδευ- 
μένων πρὸς ἀργύριον γενέσθαι δεξιόν. 

᾿Αποστάντες δὲ ὅμως τοῦ δικαστηρίου πρὸς τὸ 

κολαστήριον ἀφικνούμεθα. ἔνθα δή, ὦ φιλότης, 
M \ 3 \ . . > ^ ` > ^ 

πολλὰ καὶ ἐλεεινὰ ἦν καὶ ἀκοῦσαι καὶ ἰδεῖν: 
μαστίγων τε γὰρ ὁμοῦ ψόφος ἠκούετο καὶ οἰμωγὴ 
τῶν ἐπὶ τοῦ πυρὸς ὀπτωμένων καὶ στρέβλαι καὶ 
κύφωνες καὶ τροχοί, καὶ ἡ Χίμαιρα ἐσπάραττεν 

ASIN 7: 20 7 > ΄ / e 
καὶ ὁ Κέρβερος ἐδάρδαπτεν. ἐκολάζοντό τε ἅμα 
πάντες, βασιλεῖς, δοῦλοι, σατράπαι, πένητες, 
πλούσιοι, πτωχοί, καὶ μετέμελε πᾶσι τῶν TE- 

^ , 

τολμημένων. ἐνίους δὲ αὐτῶν καὶ ἐγνωρίσαμεν 

1 ei Dindorf : ἢ B, ἣν y. 

? προτεθέντα Seager, Fritzsche, But compare Horace 
Carm. i. 27, 23-24: 

Vix illigatum te triformi 
Pegasus expediet Chimaera. 



stood at his portals in the early morning awaiting 
his advent, hustled about and locked out by his 
servants, while he himself, bursting upon their 
vision at last in garments of purple or gold or gaudy 
stripes, thought that he was conferring happiness 
and bliss upon those who greeted him if he 
proffered his right hand or his breast, to be covered 
with kisses. They chafed, I assure you, as they 
listened ! 

But to return to Minos, he gave one decision by 
favour; for Dionysius of Sicily had been charged 
with many dreadful and impious crimes by Dion as 
prosecutor and the shadow as witness, but Aristippus 
of Cyrene appeared—they hold him in honour, and 
he has very great influence among the people of 
the lower world—and when Dionysius was within 
an ace of being chained up to the Chimera, he got 
him let off from the punishment by saying that 
many men of letters had found him obliging in 
the matter of money.! 

Leaving the court reluctantly, we came to the 
place of punishment, where in all truth, my friend, 
there were many pitiful things to hear and to see. 
The sound of scourges could be heard, and there- 
withal the wails of those roasting on the fire; there 
were racks and pillories and wheels; Chimera tore 
and Cerberus ravened. They were being punished 
all together, kings, slaves, satraps, poor, rich, and 
beggars, and all were sorry for their excesses. Some 
of them we even recognized when we saw them, all 

! Aristippus had lived at the court of Dionysius the 
Younger. Among the men of letters there present were 
Plato, Xenocrates, Speusippos, and Aeschines the Socratic. 




ἰδόντες, ὁπόσοι ἦσαν τῶν ἔναγχος τετελευτηκότων' 
οἱ δὲ ἐνεκαλύπτοντό τε καὶ ἀπεστρέφοντο, εἶ δὲ 
καὶ προσβλέποιεν, μάλα δουλοπρεπές τι καὶ 
κολακευτικὀν, καὶ ταῦτα πῶς οἴει βαρεῖς ὄντες 
καὶ ὑπερόπται παρὰ τὸν βίον ; τοῖς μέντοι 
πένησιν ἡμιτέλεια τῶν κακῶν ἐδίδοτο, καὶ 
διαναπαυόμενοι πάλιν ἐκολάζοντο. καὶ μὴν 
κἀκεῖνα εἶδον τὰ μυθώδη, τὸν ᾿Ιξίονα καὶ τὸν 
Σίσυφον καὶ τὸν Φρύγα T άνταλον, χαλεπῶς γε 
ἔχοντα, καὶ τὸν γηγενῆ Τιτυόν, Ἡράκλεις oos 
ἔκειτο γοῦν τόπον ἐπέχων ἀγροῦ. 

Διελθόντες δὲ καὶ τούτους els TO πεδίον 
εἰσβάλλομεν τὸ ᾿Αχερούσιον, εὑρίσκομέν τε 
αὐτόθι τοὺς ἡμιθέους τε καὶ τὰς npwivas καὶ τὸν 
ἄλλον ὅμιλον τῶν νεκρῶν κατὰ ἔθνη καὶ κατὰ 
φῦλα διαιτωµένους, τοὺς μὲν, παλαιούς τινας καὶ 
εὐρωτιῶντας καὶ ὥς φησιν | Όμηρος, ἀμενηνούς, 
τοὺς δ᾽ ἔτι νεαλεῖς καὶ συνεστηκότας, καὶ μάλιστα 
τοὺς Αἰγυπτίους αὐτῶν διὰ τὸ πολυαρκὲς τῆς 
ταριχείας. τὸ μέντοι διαγιγνώσκειν ἕκαστον οὐ 
πάνυ τι ἦν ῥῴδιον'. ἅπαντες γὰρ ἀτεχνῶς ἀλλήλοις 
γίγνονται ὅμοιοι τῶν ὀστῶν γεγυμνωμένων. πλὴν 
ἀλλὰ μόγις τε καὶ διὰ πολλοῦ ἀναθεωροῦντες 
αὐτοὺς ἐγιγνώσκομεν. ἔκειντο © ἐπ᾽ ἀλλήλοις 
ἀμαυροὶ καὶ ἄσημοι καὶ οὐδὲν ἔτι τῶν παρ᾽ ἡμῖν 
καλῶν φυλάττοντες. ἀμέλει πολλῶν ἐν ταὐτῷ 
σκελετῶν κειμένων καὶ πάντων ὁμοίως φοβερόν τι 
καὶ διάκενον δεδορκότων καὶ γυμνοὺς τοὺς ὀδόντας 


1 χαλεπῶς ye ἔχοντα A. M.H. : χαλεπῶς τε ἔχοντα T. Not 
in PN. Fritzsche reads χαλέπ᾽ ἄλγε᾽ ἔχοντα. 

! A reflection (purposely bald and prosaic, in order to 



that were recently dead. But they covered their 
faces and turned away, and if they so much as 
cast a glance at us, it was thoroughly servile and 
obsequious, even though they had been unimaginably 
oppressive and haughty in life. Poor people, how- 
ever, were getting only half as much torture and 
resting at intervals before being punished again, 
Moreover, I saw all that is told of in the legends— 
Ixion, Sisyphus, Tantalus the Phrygian, who was 
certainly in a bad way, and earthborn Tityus— 
Heracles, how big he was! Indeed, he took up land 
enough for a farm as he lay there !2 

After making our way past these people also, we 
entered the Acherusian Plain, where we found the 
demigods and the fair women and the whole crowd 
of the dead, living by nations and by clans, some of 
them ancient and mouldy, and, as Homer says, 
“impalpable,” while others were still well preserved 
and substantial, particularly the Egyptians, thanks 
to the durability of their embalming process. It 
was not at all easy, though, to tell them apart, for 
all, without exception, become precisely alike when 
their bones are bare. However, with some difficulty 
and by dint of long study we made them out. But 
they were lying one atop of another, ill-defined, 
unidentified, retaining no longer any trace of earthly 
beauty. So, with many skeletons lying together, 
all alike staring horridly and vacuously and baring 

fetch a smile) of Homer's χαλέπ᾽ ἄλγὲ ἔχοντα (Odyssey, 11, 

2 He covered nine pelethra; Odyssey, 11, 577; unfortunately 
we do not know how mnch a Homeric pelethron was. But 
when Athena took the measure of Ares, who could shout as 
loud as nine or ten thousand soldiers, it was but seven 
pelethra (77. 5, 860; 21, 407). 



προφαινόντων, ἠπόρουν πρὸς ἐμαυτὸν ᾧτινι δία- 
κρίναιμι τὸν Θερσίτην ἀπὸ τοῦ καλοῦ Nig£os ἡ 7) 
τὸν μεταίτην " Ipov a ἀπὸ τοῦ Φαιάκων βασιλέως 1) 
Πυρρίαν τὸν μάγειρον ἀπὸ τοῦ ᾿Αγαμέμνονος. 
οὐδὲν γὰρ ἔτι τῶν παλαιῶν γνωρισμάτων αὐτοῖς 
παρέμενεν, ἀλλ᾽ ὅμοια τὰ ὀστᾶ Hv, ἄδηλα καὶ av- 
επίγραφα καὶ ὑπ᾽ οὐδενὸς ἔτι διακρίνεσθαι δυνά- 

16 Τοιγάρτοι ἐκεῖνα ὁρῶντί μοι ἐδόκει ὁ τῶν 
ἀνθρώπων Bios πομπῇ τινι μακρᾷ προσεοικέναι, 
χορηγεῖν δὲ καὶ διατάττειν ἕκαστα ἡ Τύχη, διά- 
φορα καὶ ποικίλα τοῖς πομπευταῖς τὰ σ ήματα 
προσάπτουσα' τὸν μὲν γὰρ λαβοῦσα, εἰ τύχοι, 
βασιλικῶς διεσκεύασεν, τιάραν τε ἐπιθεῖσα καὶ 
δορυφόρους παραδοῦσα. καὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν στέψασα 
τῷ διαδήματι, τῷ δὲ οἰκέτου σχῆμα περιέθηκεν" 
τὸν δέ τινα καλὸν εἶναι ἐκόσμησεν, τὸν δὲ ἄμορφον 
καὶ γελοῖον παρεσκεύασεν: παντοδαπὴν yap, 
οἶμαι, δεῖ γενέσθαι τὴν θέαν. πολλάκις δὲ καὶ 
διὰ μέσης τῆς πομπῆς μετέβαλε τὰ ἐνίων σχήματα 
οὐκ ἐῶσα εἰς τέλος διαπομπεῦσαι ὡς ἐτάχθησαν, 
ἀλλὰ μεταμφιέσασα τὸν μὲν Ν.ροῖσον ἡ ἠνάγκασε 
τὴν τοῦ οἰκέτου καὶ αἰχμαλώτου σκευὴν ἀναλα- 
βεῖν, τὸν δὲ Μαιάνδριον τέως ἐν τοῖς οἰκέταις 
πομπεύοντα τὴν τοῦ Πολυκράτους τυραννίδα 
µετενέδυσε. καὶ μέχρι μέν τινος εἴασε χρῆσθαι 
τῷ σχήματι" ἐπειδὰν δὲ ὁ τῆς πομπῆς καιρὸς 
παρέλθῃ, τηνικαῦτα ἕκαστος ἀποδοὺς τὴν σκευὴν 
καὶ ἀποδυσάμενος τὸ σχῆμα μετὰ τοῦ σώματος 
ἐγένετο οἷόσπερ TV πρὸ τοῦ γενέσθαι, μηδὲν τοῦ 
πλησίον διαφέρων. ἔνιοι δὲ ὑπ ἀγνωμοσύνης, 
ἐπειδὰν ἀπαιτῇ τὸν κόσμον ἐπιστᾶσα ἡ Τύχη, 


their teeth, [ questioned myself how I eould dis- 
tinguish Thersites from handsome Nireus, or the 
mendieant Irus from the King of the Phaeacians, or 
the cook Pyrrhias from Agamemnon; for none of 
their former means of identification abode with 
them, but their bones were all alike, undefined, 
unlabelled, and unable ever again to be distinguished 
by anyone. 

So as I looked at them it seemed to me that 
human life is like a long pageant, and that all its 
trappings are supplied and distributed by Fortune, 
who arrays the participants in various costumes of 
many eolours. Taking one person, it may be, she 
attires him royally, placing a tiara upon his head, 
giving him body-guards, and encireling his brow 
with the diadem; but upon another she puts the 
costume of a slave. Again, she makes up one person 
so that he is handsome, but eauses another to be 
ugly and ridieulous. I suppose that the show must 
needs be diversified. And often, in the very middle 
of the pageant, she exehanges the eostumes of several 
players; instead of allowing them to finish the 
pageant in the parts that had been assigned to 
them, she re-apparels them, forcing Croesus to 
assume the dress of a slave and a eaptive, and shift- 
ing Maeandrius, who formerly paraded among the 
servants, into the imperial habit of Polyerates. For 
a brief space she lets them use their eostumes, but 
when the time of the pageant is over, each gives 
back the properties and lays off the eostume along 
with his body, becoming what he was before his 
birth, no different from his neighbour. Some, how- 
ever, are so ungrateful that when Fortune appears 
to them and asks her trappings baek, they are vexed 




ἄχθονταί τε καὶ ἀγανακτοῦσιν ὥσπερ οἰκείων 
τινῶν στερισκόµενοι καὶ οὐχ ἃ πρὸς ὀλίγον ἐχρή- 
σαντο ἀποδιδόντες. 

Οἶμαι δέ σε καὶ τῶν ἐπὶ τῆς σκηνῆς πολλάκις 
ἑωρακέναι τοὺς τραγικοὺς ὑποκριτὰς: τούτους πρὸς 
τὰς χρείας τῶν δραμάτων ἄρτι. μὲν Κρέοντας, 
ἐνίοτε δὲ Πριάμους γιγνομένους ἡ ᾿Αγαμέμνονας, 
καὶ ὁ αὐτός, εἰ τύχοι, μικρὸν. ἔμπροσθεν μάλα 
σεμνῶς τὸ τοῦ Κέκροπος 7 ᾿Ερεχθέως σχῆμα 
μιμησάμενος μετ᾽ ὀλίγον οἰκέτης προῆλθεν ὑπὸ 
τοῦ ποιητοῦ κεκελευσ μένος. ἤδη δὲ πέρας ἔχοντος 
τοῦ δράματος ἀποδυσάμενος ἕ ἕκαστος αὐτῶν τὴν 
χρυσόπαστον ἐκείνην ἐσθῆτα καὶ τὸ προσωπεῖον 
ἀποθέμενος καὶ καταβὰς ἀπὸ τῶν ἐμβατῶν πένης 
καὶ ταπεινὸς περίεισιν, οὐκέτ᾽ ᾿Αγαμέμνων ὁ 
᾿Ατρέως οὐδὲ Κρέων ὁ Μενοικέως, ἀλλὰ Hoos 
Δαρικλέους Σουνιεὺς ὀνομαζόμενος ἢ .Χάτυρος 
Θεογείτονος Μαραθώνιος. τοιαῦτα καὶ τὰ τῶν 
ἀνθρώπων πράγματά ἐστιν, ὡς τότε μοι ὁρῶντι 


Εἰπέ μοι, ὦ ὦ Μένιππε, οἱ δὲ τοὺς πολυτελεῖς 
τούτους καὶ ὑψηλοὺς τάφους ἔχοντες ὑπὲρ γῆς 
καὶ στήλας καὶ εἰκόνας καὶ ἐπιγράμματα οὐδὲν 
τιμιώτεροι παρ αὐτοῖς εἰσι τῶν ἰδιωτῶν νεκρῶν ; 

Ληρεῖς, ὦ οὗτος" εἰ γοῦν ἐθεάσω τὸν Μαύσωλον 
αὐτόν,---λέγω δὲ τὸν Κᾶρα, τὸν ἐκ τοῦ τάφου 
περιβόητον---εὗ aida ὅτι οὐκ ἂν ἐπαύσω γελῶν, 
οὕτω ταπεινὸς ἔρριπτο ἐν παραβύστῳ που 


and indignant, as if they were being robbed of their 
own property, instead of giving back what they had 
borrowed for a little time. 

I suppose you have often seen these stage-folk 
who act in tragedies, and according to the demands 
of the plays become at one moment Creons, and 
again Priams or Agamemnons; the very one, it may 
be, who a short time ago assumed with great dignity 
the part of Cecrops or of Erectheus soon appears as 
a servant at the bidding of the poet. And when 
at length the play comes to an end, each of them 
strips off his gold-bespangled robe, lays aside his 
mask, steps out of his buskins, and goes about in 
poverty and humility, no longer styled Agamemnon, 
son of Atreus, or Creon, son of Menoeceus, but Polus, 
son of Charicles, of Sunium, or Satyrus, son of Theo- 
giton, of Marathon. That is what human affairs are 
like, it seemed to me as I looked. 


But tell me, Menippus; those who have such 
expensive, high monuments on earth, and tomb- 
stones and statues and inscriptions—are they no 
more highly honoured there than the common dead ? 

Nonsense, man! If you had seen Mausolus him- 
self—I mean the Carian, so famous for his monument 
—l know right well that you would never have 
stopped laughing, so humbly did he lie where he 

1 Polus aud Satyrus were famous actors, both of the fourth 
century B.C. 



λανθάνων ἐν τῷ λοιπῷ δήμῳ τῶν νεκρῶν, ἐμοὶ 
δοκεῖν, τοσοῦτον ἀπολαύων τοῦ μνήματος, Tap 
ὅσον ἐβαρύνετο τηλικοῦτον ἄχθος ἐπικείμενος" 
ἐπειδὰν γάρ, ὦ ἑταῖρε, ὁ Αἰακὸς ἀπομετρήσῃ 
ἑκάστῳ τὸν τόπον»-- δίδωσι δὲ τὸ μέγιστον οὐ 
πλέον ποδός---ἀνάγκη ἀγαπῶντα κατακεῖσθαι 
πρὸς τὸ μέτρον συνεσταλμένον. πολλῷ ὃ ἂν 
οἶμαι μᾶλλον ἐγέλασας, εἰ ἐθεάσω τοὺς παρ᾽ 
ἡμῖν βασιλέας καὶ σατράπας πτωχεύοντας παρ 
αὐτοῖς καὶ ἤτοι ταριχοπωλοῦντας ὑπ᾽ ἀπορίας ? 
τὰ πρῶτα διδάσκοντας γράμματα καὶ ὑπὸ τοῦ 
τυχόντος ὑβριξομένους καὶ κατὰ κόρρης παιο- 
μένους ὥσπερ τῶν ἀνδραπόδων τὰ ἀτιμότατα. 
Φίλιππον γοῦν τὸν Μακεδόνα ἐγὼ θεασάμενος 
οὐδὲ κρατεῖν ἐμαυτοῦ δυνατὸς ἦν: ἐδείχθη δέ μοι 
ἐν γωνία τινὶ μισθοῦ ἀκούμενος τὰ σαθρὰ τῶν 
ὑποδημάτων. πολλοὺς δὲ καὶ ἄλλους ὂν ἰδεῖν ἐν 
ταῖς τριόδοις μεταιτοῦντας, Ξέρξας λέγω καὶ 
Δαρείους καὶ Πολυκράτας. 


"Ατοπα διηγῇ τὰ περὶ τῶν βασιλέων καὶ μικροῦ 
δεῖν ἄπιστα. τί δὲ ὁ Σωκράτης ἔπραττεν καὶ 
Διογένης καὶ εἴ τις ἄλλος τῶν σοφῶν ; 


Ὁ μὲν Σωκράτης κἀκεῖ περίεισιν διελέγχων 
ἅπαντας: σύνεστι ὃ αὐτῷ Παλαμήδης καὶ Ὄδυσ- 
σεὺς καὶ Νέστωρ καὶ εἴ τις ἄλλος λάλος νεκρός. 
ἔτι μέντοι ἐπεφύσητο αὐτῷ καὶ διῳδήκει ἐκ τῆς 
φαρμακοποσίας τὰ σκέλη. ὁ δὲ βέλτιστος Διο- 
γένης παροικεῖ μὲν Σαρδαναπάλλῳ τῷ ᾿Ασσυρίῳ 


was flung, in a cubby-hole, inconspicuous among the 
rest of the plebeian dead, deriving, in my opinion, 
only this much satisfaction from his monument, that 
he was heavy laden with such a great weight resting 
upon him. When Aeacus measures off the space 
for each, my friend—and he gives at most not over 
a foot—one must be content to lie in it, huddled 
together to fit its compass. But you would have 
laughed much more heartily, I think, if you had 
seen our kings and satraps reduced to poverty there, 
and either selling salt fish on account of their needi- 
ness or teaching the alphabet, and getting abused 
and hit over the head by all comers, like the 
meanest of slaves. |n fact, when I saw Philip of 
Macedon, I could not contro] my laughter. He was 
pointed out to me in a corner, cobbling worn-out 
sandals for pay! Many others, too, could be seen 
begging at the cross-roads—your Xerxeses, I mean, 
and Dariuses and Polycrateses. 


What you say about the kings is extraordinary 
and almost incredible. But what was Socrates 
doing, and Diogenes, and the rest of the wise men? 


As to Socrates, there too he goes about cross- 
questioning everyone. His associates are Palamedes, 
Odysseus, Nestor, and other talkative corpses. His 
legs, I may say, were still puffed up and swollen 
from his draught of poison. And good old Diogenes 
lives with Sardanapalus the Assyrian, Midas the 





καὶ Μίδα τῷ Φρυγὶ καὶ ἄλλοις τισὶ τῶν πολυτε- 
λῶν" ἀκούων δὲ -οἰμωξόντων αὐτῶν καὶ τὴν 
παλαιὰν τύχην ἀναμετρουμένων γελᾷ τε καὶ 
τέρπεται, καὶ τὰ πολλὰ ὕπτιος κατακείμενος ἄδει 
μάλα τραχείᾳ καὶ ἀπηνεῖ τῇ φωνῇ τὰς οἰμωγὰς 
αὐτῶν ἐπικαλύπτων, ὥστε ἀνιᾶσθαι τοὺς ἄνδρας 
καὶ διασκέπτεσθαι μετοικεῖν οὐ φέροντας τὸν 


TavTi μὲν ἑκανῶς' τί δὲ τὸ ψήφισμα ἦν, ὅπερ 
ἐν ἀρχῇ ἔλεγες κεκυρῶσθαι κατὰ τῶν πλουσίων; 


Εὖ γε ὑπέμνησας: ov γὰρ οἶδ᾽ ὅπως περὶ τού- 
του λέγειν προθέμενος πάμπολυ ἀπεπλανήθην 
τοῦ λόγου. 

, Διατρίβοντος γάρ, μου παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς .προὔθεσαν 
οἱ πρυτάνεις ἐκκλησίαν περὶ τῶν κοινῇ συμφερόν- 
TOV ἰδὼν οὖν πολλοὺς συνθέοντας ἀναμίξας 
ἐμαυτὸν τοῖς νεκροῖς εὐθὺς εἷς καὶ αὐτὸς ἦν τῶν 
> ^ ’ M 5 ` x 
ἐκκλησιαστῶν. διῳκήθη μὲν οὖν καὶ ἄλλα, 
τελευταῖον δὲ τὸ περὶ τῶν πλουσίων' ἐπεὶ γὰρ 
αὐτῶν κατηγόρητο πολλὰ καὶ δεινά, βία καὶ 
> , M e / M , / / 
ἀλαξονεία καὶ ὑπεροψία καὶ ἀδικία, τέλος 
ἀναστάς τις τῶν δημαγωγῶν ἀνέγνω ψήφισμα 


, \ N 
j Επειδὴ πολλὰ καὶ παράνομα οἱ πλούσιοι 
δρῶσι παρὰ τὸν βίον ἁρπάζοντες καὶ βιαζόὀµενοι 
καὶ πάντα τρόπον τῶν πενήτων καταφρονοῦντες, 



Phrygian, and several other wealthy men. As he 
hears them lamenting and reviewing their former 
good-fortune, he laughs and rejoices; and often he 
lies on his back and sings in a very harsh and un- 
pleasant voice, drowning out their lamentations, so 
that the gentlemen are annoyed and think of chang- 
ing their lodgings because they cannot stand 


Well, enough of this, but what was the motion 
that in the beginning you said had been passed 
against the rich? 


Thanks for reminding me. Somehow or other, 
in spite of my intention to speak about that, I went ` 
very much astray in my talk. 

During my stay there, the city fathers called a 
publie meeting to discuss matters of general interest ; 
so when I saw many people running in the same 
direction, I mingled with the dead and speedily 
became one of the electors myself. Well, various 
business was transacted, and at last that about the 
rich. After many dreadful charges of violence and 
mendacity and superciliousness and injustice had 
been brought against them, at length one of the 
demagogues rose and read the following motion, 


“Whereas many lawless deeds are done in life 
by the rich, who plunder and oppress and in every 
way humiliate the poor, 




“«Δεδόχθω τῇ βουλῇ καὶ τῷ δήμῳ, ἐπειδὰν 
ἀποθάνωσι, τὰ μὲν σώματα αὐτῶν κολάξεσθαι 
καθάπερ καὶ τὰ τῶν ἄλλων πονηρῶν, τὰς δὲ 
ψυχὰς ἀναπεμφθείσας ἄνω εἰς τὸν βίον καταδύε- 
σθαι εἰς τοὺς ὄνους, ἄχρις ἂν ἐν τῷ τοιούτῳ δια- 
γάγωσι μυριάδας € ἐτῶν πέντε καὶ εἴκοσιν, ὄνοι ἐξ 
ὄνων γιγνόμενοι καὶ ἀχθοφοροῦντες καὶ ὑπὸ τῶν 
πενήτων ἐλαυνόμενοι, τοὐντεῦθεν δὲ λοιπὸν ἐξεῖναι 
αὐτοῖς ἀποθανεῖν. 

«Εἶπε τὴν γνώμην Κρανίων Σκελετίωνος Νεκυ- 
σιεὺς φυλῆς ᾿Αλιθαντίδος.᾽ 

Τούτου ἀναγνωσθέντος τοῦ ψηφίσματος ἐπε- 
ψήφισαν μὲν αἱ ἀρχαί, ἐπεχειροτόνησε δὲ τὸ 
πλῆθος καὶ ἐβριμήσατο 7 Βριμὼ καὶ ὑλάκτησεν 
o Képßepos' οὕτω γὰρ ἐντελῆ γίγνεται καὶ κύρια 
τὰ ἐγνωσμένα. 

Ταῦτα μὲν δή σοι τὰ ἐν τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ. ἐγὼ δέ, 
οὗπερ ἀφίγμην ἕνεκα, τῷ Τειρεσίᾳ προσελθὼν 
ἱκέτευον αὐτὸν τὰ πάντα διηγησάμενος εἰπεῖν 
πρός με ποῖόν τινα ἡγεῖται τὸν ἄριστον βίον. ὁ 
δὲ γελάσας--ἔστι δὲ τυφλόν τι γερόντιον καὶ 
ὠχρὸν καὶ λεπτόφωνον--'Ὦ τέκνον,’ φησί, 
«τὴν μὲν αἰτίαν οἶδά σοι τῆς ἀπορίας ὅτι παρὰ 
τῶν σοφῶν ἐγένετο οὐ ταὐτὰ γιγνωσκόντων ἑαυ- 
τοῖς: ἀτὰρ οὐ θέμις λέγειν πρὸς σέ’ ἀπείρηται ΤΕ 

ὑπὸ τοῦ “Ῥαδαμάνθυος. "o EE Μηδαμῶς,᾽ ἔφην, “ 
πατέριον, ἀλλ᾽ εἰπὲ καὶ μὴ περιίδῃς µε σοῦ 
τυφλότερον περιιόντα ἐν TQ βίῳ.᾽ ὁ δὲ δή µε 

, N M ` ^ LA , / 
ἀπαγαγων καὶ πολυ TOV ἄλλων ἀποσπάσας 
N / € ^ 
ἤρεμα προσκύψας πρὸς τὸ οὓς φησίν, Ὁ τῶν 
^ > 7 
ἰδιωτῶν ἄριστος βίος, καὶ σωφρονέστερος} παυσά- 



* Be it resolved by the senate and people, that 
when they die their bodies be punished like those 
of the other malefactors, but their souls be sent 
- back up into life and enter into donkeys until they 
shall have passed two hundred and fifty thousand 
years in the said condition, transmigrating from 
donkey to donkey, bearing burdens, and being 
driven by the poor; and that thereafter it be 
permitted them to die. 

* On motion of Scully Fitzbones of Corpsebury, 

After this motion had been read, the officials put 
it to the vote, the majority indicated assent by the 
usual sign, Brimo brayed and Cerberus howled. That 
is the way in which their motions are enacted and 

Well, there you have what took place at the 
meeting. For my part, I did what I came to do. 
Going to Teiresias, I told him the whole story and 
besought him to tell me what sort of life he con- 
sidered the best. He laughed (he is a blind little 
old gentleman, pale, with a piping voice) and said: 
* My son, I know the reason for your perplexity ; it 
came from the wise men, who are not consistent 
with themselves. But it is not permissible to tell 
you, for Rhadamanthus has forbidden it." “Don’t 
say that, gaffer,” said I. ‘Tell me, and don't allow 
me to go about in life blinder than you are." So he 
took me aside, and after he had led me a good way 
apart from the others, he bent his head slightly 
toward my ear and said: “The life of the common 
sort is best, and you will act more wisely if you 

1 καὶ σωφρονέστερος y: ws τῆς ἀφροσύνης B. 




μενος τοῦ μετεωρολογεῖν καὶ τέλη καὶ ἀρχὰς 
ἐπισκοπεῖν καὶ καταπτύσας τῶν σοφῶν τούτων 
συλλογισμῶν καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα λῆρον ἡγησάμενος 
τοῦτο μόνον ἐξ ἅπαντος θηράση, å ὅπως τὸ παρὸν 
εὖ θέμενος παραδράμῃς γελῶν τὰ πολλὰ καὶ 
περὶ μηδὲν ἐσπουδακώς. 

> N ^ 
ὣς εἰπὼν πάλιν ὥρτο κατ᾽ ἀσφοδελὸν λειμῶνα. 

᾿Εγὼ δὲ--καὶ γὰρ Ίδη ὀψὲ ἦν---'"Αγε δή, ὦ 
Μιθροβαρξάνη,᾽ φημί, i arb διαμέλλομεν καὶ οὐκ 
ἄπιμεν αὖθις εἰς τὸν βίον”; ὁ δὲ πρὸς ταῦτα, 
» Θάρρει,᾽ φησίν, “' ὢ Μένιππε" ταχεῖαν γάρ σοι 
καὶ ἀπράγμονα ὑποδείξω ἀτραπόν. καὶ δὴ 
ἀγαγών με πρός τι χωρίον τοῦ ἄλλου ζοφερώτερον 
δείξας τῇ χειρὶ πόρρωθεν ἀμαυρὸν καὶ λεπτὸν 
ὥσπερ διὰ κλειθρίας φῶς ela peor, ' “Exetvo,” ἔφη, 
“ ἐστὶν τὸ ἱερὸν τὸ Τροφωνίου, κἀκεῖθεν κατίασιν 
οἱ ἀπὸ Βοιωτίας. ταύτην οὖν ἄνιθι καὶ εὐθὺς 
ἔσῃ ἐπὶ τῆς Ἑλλάδος.” ἡσθεὶς δὲ τοῖς εἰρημένοις 
ἐγὼ καὶ τὸν μάγον ἀσπασάμενος χαλεπῶς μάλα 
διὰ τοῦ στομίου ἀνερπύσας οὐκ οἶδ᾽ ὅπως ἐν 
Λεβαδείᾳ γίγνομαι. 



stop speculating about heavenly bodies and discussing 
final causes and first causes, spit your scorn at those 
clever syllogisms, and counting all that sort of thing 
nonsense, make it always your sole object to put 
the present to good use and to hasten on your way, 
laughing a great deal and taking nothing seriously.” 

“5ο he spoke, and betook him again through the 
asphodel meadow.” 1 

As it was late by then, I said: “Come, Mithro- 
barzanes, why do we delay? Why not go back to 
life again?” To this he replied: “Never fear, 
Menippus; I will show you a quick and easy short 
cut." And then, taking me to a place murkier than 
the rest of the region and pointing with his finger 
to a dim and slender ray of light coming in as if 
through a keyhole, a long way off, he said : “ That 
is the sanctuary of Trophonius, where the people 
from Boeotia come down. So go up by that route 
and you will be in Greece directly.” Delighted 
with his words, I embraced the sorcerer, very 
laboriously crawled up through the hole somehow, 
and found myself in Lebadeia. 

1 Apparently a cento from Homer; cf. Odyssey, 11, 539. 


"Fw Γ᾽ 


In the introductory note on Sacrifices (III. 153) it has been 
indicated that Sacrifices and Funerals are closely related. 
There is reason, I think, to believe that Sacrifices was written 
later than Funerals, to be read in public as a continuation of 
that piece. After the lecture it was put into circulation as a 
separate piece because Funerals was already in the hands of 
the public, and because the supplement seemed independent 
enough to stand alone. Thus, without ignoring the fact that 
the two pieces have come down to us separate, we may 
account for the further fact that the first sentence of one 
takes up the last sentence of the other as if it had been 
meant to do so (see the note on p. 131). 

Though Lucian here follows the Cynic pattern pretty 
closely, and may indeed be drawing directly upon Bion the 
Borysthenite (p. 128, note 1), there is a difference. He can- 
not forget his inborn artistry and his rhetorical training. So, 
instead of preaching at his hearers, he lectures to them, 
censuring *'the many" for the delectation of ‘‘the best." 
Moreover, his constant desire for novelty in literary form 
finds characteristic expression. In an inconspicuous way he 
employs once more a ‘‘frame’”’ device, somewhat as in the 
Prometheus. The most usual form of this device, and the 
oldest, is that in which dialogue ‘‘ frames" narrative, as in 
Lucian's Lover of Lirs, and Plato's Phaedo. Inthe Prometheus, 
dialogue forms a setting for plea and counter-plea—the accusa- 
tion of Hermes and the defence of Prometheus. Here, in 
a setting of diatribe, we come upon threnody and para- 
threnody —the father’s lament, and the dead son's reply. It 
may be remarked also that the source and ch&racter of the 
reply contribute a truly Lucianic fillip of surprise. 



"Αξιὸόν γε παρατηρεῖν τὰ ὑπὸ τῶν πολλῶν ἐν 
τοῖς πένθεσι γιγνόμενα καὶ λεγόμενα καὶ τὰ ὑπὸ 
τῶν παραμυθουμένων δῆθεν αὐτοὺς αὖθις λεγό- 
μενα, καὶ ὡς ἀφόρητα ἡγοῦνται τὰ συμβαίνοντα 
σφίσι τε αὐτοῖς οἱ ὀδυρόμενοι καὶ ἐκείνοις οὓς 
ὀδύρονται, οὐ μὰ τὸν Πλούτωνα καὶ Φερσεφόνην 
κατ᾽ οὐδὲν ἐπιστάμενοι σαφῶς οὔτε εἰ πονηρὰ 
ταῦτα καὶ λύπης ἄξια οὔτε εἰ! τοὐναντίον ἡδέα 
καὶ βελτίω τοῖς παθοῦσι, νόμῳ δὲ καὶ συνηθείᾳ 
τὴν λύπην ἐπιτρέποντες. ἐπειδὰν τοίνυν amo- 
θάνῃ τις, οὕτω ποιοῦσιν-- μᾶλλον δὲ πρότερον 
εἰπεῖν βούλομαι ἅστινας περὶ αὐτοῦ τοῦ θανάτου 
δόξας ἔχουσιν: οὕτω γὰρ ἔσται φανερὸν οὗτινος 
ἕνεκα τὰ περιττὰ ἐκεῖνα ἐπιτηδεύουσιν. 

'O μὲν δὴ πολὺς ὅμιλος, οὓς ἰδιώτας οἱ σοφοὶ 
καλοῦσιν, Ὁμήρῳ τε καὶ Ἡσιόδῳ καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις 
μυθοποιοῖς περὶ τούτων πειθόμενοι καὶ νόμον 
θέμενοι τὴν ποίησιν αὐτῶν, τόπον τινα ὑπὸ τῇ γῇ 
βαθὺν “Αιδην ὑπειλήφασιν, μέγαν δὲ καὶ πολύ- 
χωρον τοῦτον εἶναι καὶ ξοφερὸν καὶ ἀνήλιον, οὐκ 
oió ὅπως αὐτοῖς φωτίξεσθαι δοκοῦντα πρὸς τὸ 
καὶ καθορᾶν τῶν ἐνόντων ἕκαστον: βασιλεύειν δὲ 

Codices available in photographs: Γ, UPN. 

1 οὔτε ei vulg. : εἴτε ei y; ἤ B. 


TRULY, it is well worth while to observe what most 
people do and say at funerals, and on the other 
hand what their would-be comforters say ; to observe 
also how unbearable the mourners consider what is 
happening, not only for themselves but for those 
whom they mourn. Yet, I swear by Pluto and 
Persephone, they have not one whit of definite 
knowledge as to whether this experience is un- 
pleasant and worth grieving about, or on the con- 
trary delightful and better for those who undergo 
it. No, they simply commit their grief into the 
charge of custom and habit. When someone dies, 
then, this is what they do—but stay! First I wish 
to tell you what beliefs they hold about death itself, 
for then it will become clear why they engage in 
these superfluous practices. 

The general herd, whom philosophers call the 
laity, trust Homer and Hesiod and the other myth- 
makers in these matters, and take their poetry for a 
law unto themselves. So they suppose that there is a 
place deep under the earth called Hades, which is 
large and roomy and murky and sunless; I don’t 
know how they imagine it to be lighted up so that 
everything in it can be seen. The king of the 



τοῦ χάσματος ἀδελφὸν τοῦ Διὸς Πλούτωνα κεκλη- 
μένον, ὧς μοι τῶν τὰ τοιαῦτα δεινῶν τις ἔλεγε, 
διὰ τὸ πλουτεῖν τοῖς νεκροῖς τῇ προσηγορίᾳ 
τετιμημένον. τοῦτον δὲ τὸν Πλούτωνα τὴν παρ᾽ 
αὐτῷ πολιτείαν καὶ τὸν κάτω βίον καταστήσασθαι 
τοιοῦτον: κεκληρῶσθαι μὲν γὰρ αὐτὸν ἄρχειν τῶν 
ἀποθανόντων, καταδεξάµενον δὲ αὐτοὺς καὶ παρα- 
λαβόντα κατέχειν δεσμοῖς ἀφύκτοις, οὐδενὶ τὸ 
παράπαν τῆς ἄνω ὁδοῦ ὑφιέμενον πλὴν ἐξ ἅπαντος 
τοῦ αἰῶνος πάνυ ὀλίγων ἐπὶ μεγίσταις αἰτίαις. 
περιρρεῖσθαι δὲ τὴν χώραν αὐτοῦ ποταμοῖς 
μεγάλοις τε καὶ φοβεροῖς καὶ ἐκ μόνων τῶν 
ὀνομάτων: Κωκυτοὶ γὰρ καὶ Πνυριφλεγέθοντες 
καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα κέκληνται. τὸ δὲ μέγιστον, ἡ 
᾿Αχερουσία λίμνη πρόκειται, πρώτη δεχομένη 
τοὺς ἀπαντῶντας, ἣν οὐκ ἔνι διαπλεῦσαι U 
παρελθεῖν ἄνευ τοῦ πορθµέως' βαθεῖά τε γὰρ 
περᾶσαι τοῖς ποσὶν καὶ διανήξασθαι πολλή, καὶ 
ὅλως οὐκ ἂν αὐτὴν διαπταίη οὐδὲ τὰ νεκρὰ τῶν 
ὀρνέων. πρὸς δὲ αὐτῆ τῇ καθόδῳ καὶ πύλη οὔση 
ἀδαμαντίνη ἀδελφιδοῦς τοῦ βασιλέως Αἰακὸς 
ἕστηκε τὴν φρουρὰν ἐπιτετραμμένος καὶ παρ᾽ 
αὐτῷ κύων τρικέφαλος μάλα κάρχαρος, τοὺς μὲν 
ἀφικνουμένους φίλιόν τι καὶ εἰρηνικὸν προσβλέ- 
πων, τοὺς δὲ πειρῶντας ἀποδιδράσκειν ὑλακτῶν 
καὶ τῷ χάσματι δεδιττόμενος. περαιωθέντας δὲ 
τὴν λίμνην εἰς τὸ εἰσω λειμὼν ὑποδέχεται μέγας 

1 The Greeks derived the name Plouton (Pluto) from 
ploutein (to be rich), and generally held that it was given 
to Hades because he owned and dispensed the riches that 
are in the earth. So Lucian in the Timon (21). Here, how- 



abyss is a brother of Zeus named Pluto, who has 
been honoured with that appellative, so I was told 
by one well versed in such matters, because of 
his wealth of corpses.1 This Pluto, they say, has 
organized his state and the world below as follows. 
He himself has been allotted the sovereignty of the 
dead, whom he receives, takes in charge, and retains 
in close custody, permitting nobody whatsoever to 
go back up above, except, in all time, a very few 
for most important reasons. His country is sur- 
rounded by great rivers, fearful even in name; for 
they are-called “ Wailing,” * Burning Fire," and the 
like. But the principal feature is Lake Acheron, 
which lies in front and first receives visitors; it 
cannot be crossed or passed without the ferryman, 
for it is too deep to ford afoot and too broad to 
swim across—indeed, even dead birds cannot fly 
across it!? Hard by the descent and the portal, 
which is of adamant, stands the king's nephew, 
Aeacus, who is commander of the guard ; and be- 
side him is a three-headed dog, very long-fanged, 
who gives a friendly, peaceable glance to those who 
come in, but howls at those who try to run away 
and frightens them with his great mouth. After 
passing the lake on going in, one comes next to a 

ever, we have in substance the view of Cornutus (5): ** He 
was called Pluto because, of all that is perishable, there is 
nothing which does not at last go down to him and become 
his property.” 

2 Many places on earth, men thought, exhaled vapours so 
deadly that birds, attempting to cross them, fell dead ; the 
most famous of these ‘‘ Plutonia” was the lake near Cumae, 
called "Aopvos par excellence, whence Avernus.  Iflive birds 
could not fly across Avernus, surely the ghost of a bird 
could not fly across Acheron. 



τῷ ἀσφοδέλω κατάφυτος καὶ ποτὸν µνήµης πολέ- 
piov Λήθης γοῦν διὰ τοῦτο ὠνόμασται. ταῦτα 
γὰρ ἀμέλει διηγήσαντο τοῖς πάλαι ἐκεῖθεν 
ἀφιγμένοι ᾿Αλκηστίς τε καὶ Πρωτεσίλαος οἱ 
Θετταλοὶ καὶ Θησεὺς ὁ τοῦ Αἰγέως καὶ 6 τοῦ 
€ , > 7 / ` ` > / 
Ομήρου Ὀδυσσεύς, μάλα σεμνοὶ καὶ ἀξιόπιστοι 
μάρτυρες, ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν οὐ πιόντες τῆς πηγῆς’ οὐ 
γὰρ ἃ ἂν ἐμέμνηντο αὐτῶν. 

6 Ὁ μὲν οὖν Πλούτων, ὡς ἐκεῖνοι ἔφασαν, καὶ ἡ 
Φερσεφόνη δυναστεύουσι καὶ τὴν τῶν ὅλων 
δεσποτείαν ἔ ἔχουσιν, ὑπηρετοῦσι δ᾽ αὐτοῖς καὶ τὴν 
ἀρχὴν συνδιαπράττουσιν ὄχλος πολύς, ᾿Ἐρινύες 
τε καὶ Ποιναὶ καὶ Φόβοι καὶ ὁ Ἑρμῆς, οὗτος μέν 

T ye. οὐκ ἀεὶ συμπαρών. ὕπαρχοι δὲ καὶ σατράπαι 
καὶ δικασταὶ κάθηνται δύο, Μίνως τε καὶ ‘Padd- 
μανθυς οἱ Κρῆτες, ὄντες viol τοῦ Διός. οὗτοι δὲ 
τοὺς μὲν ἀγαθοὺς τῶν ἀνδρῶν καὶ δικαίους καὶ 
κατ ἀρετὴν βεβιωκότας, ἐπειδὰν συναλισθῶσι 
πολλοί, καθάπερ εἰς ἀποικίαν τινὰ πέμπουσιν εἰς 
τὸ ' HAvotov πεδίον τῷ ἀρίστῳ βίῳ συνεσομένους. 

8 ἂν δέ τινας τῶν πονηρῶν λάβωσι, ταῖς ᾿Ερινύσι 
παραδόντες εἰς τὸν τῶν ἀσεβῶν χῶρον εἰσπέμ- 
πουσι κατὰ λόγον τῆς ἀδικίας κολασθησομένους. 
ἔνθα δὴ τί κακῶν οὐ πάσχουσι στρεβλούμενοί τε 
καὶ καιόμενοι καὶ ὑπὸ γυπῶν ἐσθιόμενοι καὶ 
τροχῷ συμπεριφερόμενοι" καὶ λίθους avaru- 
λίοντες ; ; ὁ μὲν γὰρ TávraXos € ἐπ᾿ αὐτῇ τῇ λίμνῃ 
αὖος ἕστηκεν κινδυνεύων Ú ὑπὸ δίψ.ους ὁ 0 κακοδαίμων 

9 ἀποθανεῖν. οἱ δὲ τοῦ μέσου βίου, πολλοὶ ὄντες 
οὗτοι, ἐν τῷ λειμῶνι πλανῶνται ἄνευ τῶν σωμάτων 
σκιαὶ γενόμενοι καὶ ὑπὸ τῇ adn καθάπερ καπνὸς 

l συμπεριφερόµενοι Délin de Ballou: συμφερόμενοι MSS. 


great meadow overgrown with asphodel, and to a 
spring that is inimical to memory; in fact, they 
call it “Oblivion” for that reason. All this, by 
the way, was told to the ancients by people who 
came back from there, Alcestis and Protesilaus of 
Thessaly, Theseus, son of Aegeus, and Homer's 
Odysseus, highly respectable and trustworthy wit- 
nesses, who, I suppose, did not drink of the spring, 
or else they would not have remembered it all 

Well, Pluto and Persephone, as these people said, 
are the rulers and have the general over-lordship, 
with a great throng of understrappers and assistants 
in administration—Furies, Tormentors, Terrors, and 
also Hermes, who, however, is not always with them.! 
As prefects, moreover, and satraps and judges, there 
are two that hold court, Minos and Rhadamanthus 
of Crete, who are sons of Zeus. "These receive the 
good, just men who have lived virtuously, and when 
many have been collected, send them off, as if to a 
colony, to the Elysian Fields to take part in the best 
life. But if they come upon any rascals, turning 
them over to the Furies, they send them to the 
Place of the Wicked, to be punished in proportion 
to their wickedness. There—ah! what punishment 
do they not undergo? They are racked, burned, 
devoured by vultures, turned upon a wheel; they 
roll stones uphill; and as for Tantalus, he stands 
on the very brink of the lake with a parched throat, 
like to die, poor fellow, for thirst! But those of 
the middle way in life, and they are many, wander 
about in the meadow without their bodies, in the 
form of shadows that vanish like smoke in your 

1 Hermes had to serve two masters, Zeus and Pluto. See 
Downward Journey, 1-2 (ii, 5). 






ἀφανιζόμενοι. τρέφονται δὲ ἄρα ταῖς παρ᾽ ἡμῖν 
χοαῖς καὶ τοῖς καθαγιξομένοις ἐπὶ τῶν τάφων" ὡς 
εἴ τῳ μὴ εἴη καταλελειμμένος ὑπὲρ γῆς φίλος ἡ 
συγγενής, ἄσιτος οὗτος νεκρὸς καὶ λιμώττων ἐν 
αὐτοῖς πολιτεύεται. 

Ῥαῦτα οὕτως ἰσχυρῶς περιελήλυθε τοὺς 
πολλοὺς ὥστε ἐπειδάν τις ἀποθάνῃ τῶν οἰκείων, 
πρῶτα μὲν φέροντες ὀβολὸν εἰς τὸ στόμα κατέθη- 
καν αὐτῷ, μισθὸν τῷ πορθμεῖ τῆς ναυτιλίας 
γενησόμενον, οὐ πρότερον ἐξετάσαντες ὁποῖον 
τὸ νόμισμα νομίξεται καὶ διαχωρεῖ παρὰ τοῖς 
κάτω, καὶ εἰ δύναται παρ᾽ ἐκείνοις ᾿Αττικὸς ἡ 
Μακεδονικὸς 7 Αὐγιναῖος ὀβολός, οὐδ᾽ ὅτι πολὺ 
κἄλλιον ἦν μὴ ἔχειν τὰ πορθμεῖα καταβαλεῖν 
οὕτω γὰρ ἂν οὐ παραδεξαμένου τοῦ πορθµέως 
ἀναπόμπιμοι πάλιν εἰς τὸν βίον ἀφικνοῦντο. 

Μετὰ ταῦτα δὲ λούσαντες αὐτούς, ὡς οὐχ 
ἱκανῆς τῆς κάτω λίμνης λουτρὸν εἶναι τοῖς ἐκεῖ, 
καὶ μύρῳ τῷ καλλίστῳ χρίσαντες τὸ σῶμα πρὸς 
δυσωδίαν ἤδη βιαζόμενον καὶ στεφανώσαντες 
τοῖς ὡραίοις ἄνθεσι προτίθενται λαμπρῶς 
ἀμφιέσαντες, iva μὴ ῥιγῷεν δῆλον ὅτι παρὰ 
τὴν ὁδὸν μηδὲ γυμνοὶ βλέποιντο τῷ Κερβέρῳ. 

Οἰμωγαὶ δὲ ἐπὶ τούτοις καὶ κωκυτὸς γυναικῶν 
καὶ παρὰ πάντων δάκρυα καὶ στέρνα τυπτόμενα 
καὶ σπαραττοµένη κόμη καὶ φοινισσόμεναι 
παρειαί' καί που καὶ ἐσθὴς καταρρήγνυται καὶ 
κόνις ἐπὶ τῇ κεφαλῇ πάσσεται, καὶ οἱ ζῶντες 
οἰκτρότεροι τοῦ νεκροῦ" οἱ μὲν γὰρ χαμαὶ 
κυλινδοῦνται πολλάκις καὶ τὰς κεφαλὰς ἀράτ- 

τουσι πρὸς τὸ ἔδαφος, ὁ ὃ εὐσχήμων καὶ καλὸς 
καὶ καθ’ ὑπερβολὴν ἐστεφανωμένος ὑψηλὸς πρό- 


fingers. They get their nourishment, naturally, 
from the libations that are poured in our world and 
the burnt-offerings at the tomb; so that if anyone 
has not left a friend or kinsman behind him on 
earth, he goes about his business there as an unfed 
corpse, in a state of famine. 

So thoroughly are people taken in by all this that 
when one of the family dies, immediately they bring 
an obol and put it into his mouth, to pay the ferryman 
for setting him over. They do not stop to consider 
what sort of coinage is customary and current in the 
lower world, and whether it is the Athenian or the 
Macedonian or the Aeginetan obol that is legal 
tender there; nor, indeed, that it would be far 
better not to be able to pay the fare, since in that 
case the ferryman would not take them and they 
would be escorted back to life again. 

Then they bathe them (as if the lake down below 
were not big enough for the people there to bathe 
in); and after anointing with the finest of perfume 
that body which is already hasting to corruption, 
and crowning it with pretty flowers, they lay them 
in state, clothed in splendid raiment, which, very 
likely, is intended to keep them from being cold 
on the way and from being seen undressed by 

Next come cries of distress, wailing of women, 
tears on all sides, beaten breasts, torn hair, and 
bloody cheeks. Perhaps, too, clothing is rent and 
dust sprinkled on the head, and the living are in a 
plight more pitiable than the dead ; for they roll on 
the ground repeatedly and dash their heads against 
the floor, while he, all serene and handsome and 



8 / 
κειται καὶ μετέωρος ὥσπερ εἰς πομπὴν κεκοσµη- 
13 Ei8 ἡ μήτηρ ἢ kai νὴ Δία ὁ πατὴρ ἐκ μέσων 
τῶν συγγενῶν προελθὼν καὶ περιχυθεὶς αὐτῷ--- 
προκείσθω γάρ τις νέος καὶ καλός, ἵνα καὶ 
3 f X 9 , , ^ e^ > ` , 
ἀκμαιότερον τὸ ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ δρᾶμα ᾖ--φωνὰς ἀλλο- 
κότους καὶ ματαίας ἀφίησι, πρὸς ἃς ὁ νεκρὸς 
2 N 2 / > X % f / f E 
αὐτὸς ἀποκρίναιτ ἄν, εἰ λάβοι φωνήν' φήσει yap 
e 4 , 
ὁ πατὴρ γοερὸν τι φθεγγόμενος καὶ παρατείνων 
ἕκαστον τῶν ὀνομάτων, “Τέκνον ἥδιστον, οἴχῃ 
μοι καὶ τέθνηκας καὶ πρὸ ὥρας ἀνηρπάσθης, 
μόνον ἐμὲ τὸν ἄθλιον καταλιπών, οὐ γαμήσας, 
οὐ παιδοποιησάµενος, οὐ στρατευσάμενος, οὐ 
γεωργήσας, οὐκ εἰς γῆρας ἐλθών' οὐ κωμάσῃ 
΄ > be. / / , ` 3 / 
πάλιν οὐδὲ ἐρασθήσῃ, τέκνον, οὐδὲ ἐν συμποσίοις 
μετὰ τῶν ἡλικιωτῶν μεθυσθήσῃ." 
^ M N 8 ^ ’ >? . 
14 Ταῦτα δὲ καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα φήσει οἰόμενος τὸν 
N ^ ^ 
vtov δεῖσθαι μὲν ἔτι τούτων καὶ ἐπιθυμεῖν καὶ 
`Y . ’ > δύ ὃ / 
μετὰ τὴν τελευτήν, οὐ δύνασθαι δὲ μετέχειν 
αὐτῶν. καίτοι τί ταῦτα hnui; πόσοι γὰρ καὶ 
[£d ` L4 e . « , r 
ἵππους καὶ παλλακίδας, οἱ δὲ καὶ οἰνοχόους 
> [4 \ 5 ^ . ` s , 
ἐπικατέσφαξαν καὶ ἐσθῆτα καὶ τὸν ἄλλον κόσμον 
συγκατέφλεξαν ἢ συγκατώρυξαν ὡς χρησομένοις 
ἐκεῖ καὶ ἀπολαύσουσιν αὐτῶν κάτω ; 
€ , 9 7 ε - ε A ^ 
15 Ὁ ὃ οὖν πρεσβύτης ὁ πενθῶν οὑτωσὶ ταῦτα 
πάντα ὁπόσα εἴρηκα καὶ ἔτι τούτων πλείονα 
οὔτε τοῦ παιδὸς ἕνεκα τραγῳδεῖν ἔοικεν---οἶδε γὰρ 
οὐκ ἀκουσόμενον οὐδ᾽ ἂν μεῖξον ἐμβοήση τοῦ 
4 ^ ^ M 
Στέντορος---οὔτε μὴν αὑτοῦ' φρονεῖν γὰρ οὕτω 


elaborately decked with wreaths, lies in lofty, exalted 
state, bedizened as for a pageant. 

Then his mother, or indeed his father comes 
forward from among the family and throws himself 
upon him; for let us imagine a handsome young 
man upon the bier, so that the show that is acted 
over him may be the more moving. The father 
utters strange, foolish outcries to which the dead 
man himself would make answer if he could speak. 
In a plaintive tone, protracting every word, he will 
say: “ Dearest child, you are gone from me, dead, 
reft away before your time, leaving me behind all 
alone, woe is me, before marrying, before having 
children, before serving in the army, before working 
on the farm, before coming to old age; never again 
will you roam the streets at night, or fall in love, 
my child, or drink deep at wine-parties with your 
young friends." 

He will say all that, and more in the same tenor, 
thinking that his son still needs and wants this sort 
of thing even after death, but cannot get it. But 
that is nothing. Have not many sacrificed horses, 
concubines, sometimes even cup-bearers, over their 
dead, and burned or buried with them clothing and 
other articles of personal adornment, as if they would 
use them there and get some good of them down 
below 2 

But as to the old man who mourns after this 
fashion, it is not, in all probability, on account of 
his son that he does all this melodramatic ranting 
that I have mentioned, and more than I have men- 
tioned ; for he knows that his son will not hear him 
even if he shouts louder than Stentor. Nor yet is it 
on his own account; for it would have been enough 





Kal γιγνώσκειν ἱκανὸν ἦν καὶ ἄνευ τῆς βοῆς' 
οὐδεὶς γὰρ δὴ .πρὸς ἑαυτὸν δεῖται βοᾶν. λοιπὸν 
οὖν ἐστιν αὐτὸν τῶν παρόντων ἕνεκα ταῦτα 
ληρεῖν οὔθ᾽ 6 TL πέπονθεν αὐτῷ ὁ παῖς εἰδότα 
οὔθ᾽ ὅποι Kex ape, μᾶλλον δὲ οὐδὲ τὸν βίον 
αὐτὸν ἐξετάσαντα ὁποῖός ἐστιν' οὐ γὰρ ἂν τὴν ἐξ 
αὐτοῦ μετάστασιν ὥς τι τῶν δεινῶν ' ἐδυσχέραινεν. 
Εἴποι Ò ἂν οὖν πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ παῖς παραιτησά- 
μενος τὸν Αἰακὸν καὶ τὸν ᾿Αἰδωνέα πρὸς ὀλίγον 
τοῦ στομίου ὑπερκῦψαι καὶ τὸν πατέρα παῦσαι 
ματαιάξοντα, “`Q κακόδαιμον ἄνθρωπε, τί 
κέκραγας; τί δέ μοι παρέχεις πράγματα ; 
παῦσαι τιλλόμενος τὴν κόμην καὶ τὸ πρόσωπον 
ἐξ ἐπιπολῆς ἀμύσσων. τί μοι λοιδορῇ καὶ ἄθλιον 
ἀποκαλεῖς καὶ δύσμορον πολύ σου βελτίω καὶ 
μακαριώτερον γεγενημένον; ἢ τί σοι δεινὸν 
πάσχειν δοκῶ ; ; 7 διότι μὴ τοιουτοσὶ γέρων 
ἐγενόμην οἷος εἶ σύ, φαλακρὸς μὲν τὴν κεφαλήν, 
τὴν δὲ ὄψιν ἐρρυτιδωμένος, κυφὸς καὶ τὰ γόνατα 
νωθής, καὶ ὅλως ὑπὸ τοῦ χρόνου σαθρὸς πολλὰς 
τριακάδας καὶ ὀλυμπιάδας ἀναπλήσας, καὶ τὰ 
τελευταῖα δὴ ταῦτα παραπαίων ἐπὶ τοσούτων 
μαρτύρων ; ; ὦ μάταιε, τί σοι χρηστὸν εἶναι δοκεῖ 
παρὰ τὸν βίον οὗ μηκέτι μεθέξομεν ; ἢ τοὺς 
πότους ἐρεῖς δῆλον ὅτι καὶ τὰ δεῖπνα καὶ ἐσθῆτα 
καὶ ἀφροδίσια, καὶ δέδιας μὴ τούτων ἐνδεὴς γενό- 
pevos ἀπόλωμαι. οὐκ ἐννοεῖς δὲ ὅ ὅτι τὸ μὴ διψῆν 
τοῦ πιεῖν πολὺ κάλλιον καὶ τὸ μὴ πεινῆν τοῦ 
φαγεῖν καὶ τὸ μὴ ῥιγοῦν" τοῦ ἀμπεχόνης εὐπορεῖν ; 
Φέρε τοίνυν, ἐπειδὴ ἔοικας ἀγνοεῖν, διδάξομαί 
σε θρηνεῖν ἀληθέστερον, καὶ δὴ ἀναλαβὼν ἐξ 



to think this and have it in mind, without his 
shouting—nobody needs to shout at himself. Con- 
sequently it is on account of the others present that 
he talks this nonsense, when he does not know what 
has happened to his son nor where he has gone; in 
fact he has not even considered what life itself is, 
or else he would not take on so about the leaving of 
it, as if that were something dreadful. 

If his son should receive permission from Aeacus 
and Aidoneus to put his head out of the mouth of the 
pit for a moment and stop his father’s silliness, he 
would say: “ Unfortunate man, why do you shriek? 
Why do you trouble me? Stop tearing your hair 
and marring the skin of your face! Why do you 
call me names and speak of me as wretched and 
ill-starred when I have become far better off and 
happier than you? What dreadful misfortune do 
you think I am undergoing? Is it that I did not 
get to be an old man like you, with your head bald, 
your face wrinkled, your back bent, and your knees 
trembling,—like you, who in short are rotten with 
age after filling out so many months and so many 
Olympiads, and who now, at the last, go out of 
your mind in the presence of so many witnesses? 
Foolish man, what advantage do you think there is 
in life that we shall never again partake of? You 
will say drinking, no doubt, and dinners, and dress, 
and love, and you are afraid that for the want of all 
this I shall die! But are you unaware that not to 
thirst is far better than drinking, not to hunger 
than eating, and not to be cold than to have 
quantities of clothing? 

* Come now, since you apparently do not know 
how to mourn, I will teach you to do it more truth- 





ὑπαρχῆς Boa, ü Τέκνον ἄθλιον, οὐκέτι διψήσεις, 
οὐκέτι πεινήσεις οὐδὲ ῥιγώσεις. οἴχῃ μοι kako- 
δαίμων ἐκφυγὼν τὰς νόσους, οὐ πυρετὸν ἔτι 
δεδιώς, οὐ πολέμιον, οὐ τύραννον οὐκ ἔρως σε 
ἀνιάσει οὐδὲ συνουσία διαστρέψει, οὐδὲ σπαθή- 
σεις ἐπὶ τούτῳ δὶς 7) τρὶς τῆς ἡμέρας, ὦ τῆς 
συμφορᾶς. οὐ .καταφρονηθήσῃ γέρων γενόμενος 
οὐδὲ ὀχληρὸς ἔσῃ τοῖς νέοις βλεπόμενος,᾽ ἂν 
ταῦτα λέγῃς, ὧ πάτερ, οὐκ οἴει πολὺ ἀληθέστερα 
καὶ γενναιότερα l ἐκείνων. ἐρεῖν ; 

'AXN apa μὴ τόδε σε ἀνιᾷ, καὶ διανοῇ τὸν παρ 
ἡμῖν. ζόφον καὶ τὸ πολὺ σκότος, κάτα δέδιας μή 
σοι ἀποπνιγῶ κατακλεισθεὶς é ἐν τῷ μνήματε ; : χρὴ 
δὲ πρὸς ταῦτα λογίξεσθαι ὅτι τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν 
διασαπέντων ἢ καὶ νὴ Δία καέντων μετ᾽ ὀλίγον, 
el ye καῦσαί µε διεγνώκατε, οὔτε σκότος οὔτε 
φῶς ὁρᾶν δεησόμεθα. 

Κ αὶ ταῦτα μὲν ἴσως μέτρια" τί δέ µε ὁ κωκυτὸς 
ὑμῶν ὀνίνησι καὶ ἡ πρὸς τὸν αὐλὸν αὕτη στερ- 
νοτυπία καὶ 7) τῶν γυναικῶν περὶ τὸν θρῆνον 
ἀμετρία ; PE δὲ ὁ ὑπὲρ τοῦ τάφου λίθος ἐστε- 
φανωμένος ; ἢ τί ὑμῖν δύναται τὸν ἄκρατον 
ἐπιχεῖν ; 7) νομίξετε καταστάξειν αὐτὸν πρὸς 
ἡμᾶς καὶ μέχρι τοῦ "Αιδου διίξεσθαι ; τὰ μὲν 
γὰρ ἐπὶ τῶν καθαγισμῶν καὶ αὐτοὶ ὁρᾶτε, οἶμαι, 
ὡς τὸ μὲν νοστιμώτατον τῶν παρεσκευασµένων ὁ 
καπνὸς παραλαβὼν à ἄνω εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν οἴχεται 
μηδέν τι ἡμᾶς ὀνῆσαν τοὺς κάτω, τὸ δὲ κατα- 
λειπόμενον, ἡ κόνις, ἀχρεῖον, ἐκτὸς εἰ μὴ τὴν 

1 γενναιότερα Jacobs: γελοιότερα MSS. 



fully. Begin afresh, and cry, ‘Poor child, never 
again will you be thirsty, never again hungry or 
cold! You are gone from me, poor boy, escaping 
diseases, no longer fearing fever or foeman or tyrant. 
Love shall not vex you nor its pleasures rack you, 
nor shall you squander your strength in them twice 
and thrice a day, woe is me! You shall not be 
scorned in your old age, nor shall the sight of you 
offend the young!’ If you say this, father, don't 
you think it will be far more true and more manly 
than what you said before ? 

* But perhaps it is something else that worries 
you. You are thinking of the gloom where we are, 
and the profound darkness, and so you fear that I 
may be stifled in the close custody of the tomb. 
On that point you should reflect that as my eyes 
will very soon be corrupted or even burned, if you 
have decided to burn me, I shall have no need 
either for darkness or for light as far as seeing is 

“That fear, however, is perhaps reasonable 
enough; but what good do you think I get from 
your wailing, and this beating of breasts to the music 
of the flute, and the extravagant conduct of the 
women in lamenting? Or from the wreathed 
stone above my grave? Or what, pray, is the use 
of your pouring out the pure wine? You dont 
think, do you, that it will drip down to where we 
are and get all the way through to Hades? As to 
the burnt offerings, you yourselves see, I think, 
that the most nourishing part of your provender is 
carried off up to Heaven by the smoke without 
doing us in the lower world the least bit of good, 
and that what is left, the ashes, is useless, unless 





σποδὸν ἡμᾶς σιτεῖσθαι πεπιστεύκατε. οὐχ οὕτως 
Y σον »ν € ^ ΄ 3 / 
ἄσπορος οὐδὲ ἄκαρπος ἡ τοῦ Πλούτωνος ἀρχή, 
οὐδὲ ἐπιλέλοιπεν ἡμᾶς ὁ ἀσφόδελος, iva παρ᾽ 
ὑμῶν τὰ σιτία μεταστελλώμεθα. ὥστε μοι νὴ 
τὴν Τισιφόνην πάλαι δὴ ἐφ᾽ οἷς ἐποιεῖτε καὶ 
ἐλέγετε παμμέγεθες ἐπῄει ἀνακαγχάσαι, διε- 

’ A ς nm? ` ^ » A 
κώλυσε δὲ ἡ ὀθόνη καὶ τὰ ἔρια, οἷς µου τὰς 
σιαγόνας ἀπεσφίγξατε.᾽ 

ὣς ἄρα μιν εἰπόντα τέλος θανάτοιο κάλυψε. 

Πρὸς Διός, ἐὰν λέγῃ ταῦτα ὁ νεκρὸς ἐπιστραφείς, 
, / CN > 9 3 a > ^ ,7 
ἀνακλίνας αὑτὸν ἐπ᾽ ἀγκῶνος, οὐκ ἂν οἰόμεθα 
δικαιότατα ἂν αὐτὸν εἰπεῖν ; ἀλλ᾽ ὅμως οἱ μάταιοι 
^ ’ 
καὶ βοῶσι καὶ μεταστειλάμενοί τινα θρήνων 
σοφιστὴν πολλὰς συνειλοχότα παλαιὰς συμφορὰς 
τούτῳ συναγωνιστῇ καὶ χορηγῷ τῆς ἀνοίας kata- 
^ ^ . \ ΄ 
χρῶνται, ὅπη ἂν ἐκεῖνος ἐξάρχῃ πρὸς τὸ μέλος 
. ’ . ’ e , N e / 
Καὶ μέχρι μὲν θρήνων o αὐτὸς ἅπασι νόμος 
^ b / . ` 3 . 7 , 
τῆς ἀβελτερίας: TO δὲ ἀπὸ τούτου διελόμενοι 
κατὰ ἔθνη τὰς ταφὰς ὁ μὲν Έλλην ἔκαυσεν, ὁ δὲ 
f » έ \ 2 . ftp , t V 
Πέρσης ἔθαψεν, ὁ δὲ ᾿Ινδὸς ὑάλῳ περιχρίει, ὁ δὲ 
« f / ΄ δὲ e 5 , 
Σκύθης κατεσθίει, ταριχεύει δὲ ὁ Αἰγύπτιος: 
T / / \ 3 ΄ ΄ M N 
οὗτος μέν γε---λέγω δὲ ἰδών---ξηράνας τὸν νεκρὸν 
σύνδειπνον καὶ συμπότην ἐποιήσατο. πολλάκις 
δὲ καὶ δεομένῳ χρημάτων ἀνδρὶ Αἰγυπτίῳ ἔλυσε 



you believe that we eat dust. Pluto’s realm is not 
so devoid of seed and grain, nor is there any dearth 
of asphodel among us, so that we must import our 
food from you. So, by Tisiphone, the inclination 
seized me long ago to burst out in a tremendous 
guffaw over what you were doing and saying; but 
I was prevented by the winding-sheet and by the 
fillets with which you have bound up my jaws." 

“These words spoken, at once the doom of death 
overwhelmed him." ! 

By Heaven, if the dead man should face them, 
raising himself upon his elbow, and say all this, 
don't you think he would be quite right? Never- 
theless, the dolts not only shriek and scream, but 
they send for a sort of professor of threnodies, who 
has gathered a repertory of ancient bereavements, 
and they use him as fellow-actor and prompter in 
their silly performance, coming in with their groans 
at the close of each strain that he strikes up! 

Up to that point, the wailing, the same stupid 
custom prevails everywhere; but in what follows, 
the burial, they have apportioned out among them- 
selves, nation by nation, the different modes. The 
Greek burns, the Persian buries, the Indian encases 
in glass,? the Scythian eats, the Egyptian salts. 
And the latter—I have seen whereof I speak—after 
drying the dead man makes him his guest at table! 
Many a time, too, when an Egyptian wants money, 

1 Πἱαᾶ, 16, 502. 

2 See Herodotus, 3, 24, regarding this practice among the 
Ethiopians, also discussed by Ctesias (Diodorus 2, 15) To 
Lucian, ὕαλος certainly meant glass, and perhaps to Hero- 
dotus also. What the substance really was is uncertain. 






\ , / 3} 7 a « , * A € A , 
τὴν ἀπορίαν ἐνέχυρον ἢ ὁ ἀδελφὸς ἢ ὁ πατὴρ ἐν 
καιρῷ γενόμενος. 

Y s \ \ l \ ^ 

Χώματα μὲν γὰρ καὶ πυραμίδες καὶ στῆλαι 
καὶ ἐπιγράμματα πρὸς ὀλίγον διαρκοῦντα πῶς οὐ 
περιττὰ καὶ παιδιαῖς προσεοικότα ; καίτοι καὶ 
ἀγῶνας ἔνιοι διέθεσαν καὶ λόγους ἐπιταφίους 
^ ^ 
εἶπον ἐπὶ τῶν μνημάτων ὥσπερ συναγορεύοντες 
À ^ ^ ^ ^ 
ἢ μαρτυροῦντες παρὰ τοῖς κάτω δικασταῖς τῷ 

, N ^ / * / \ / 

Επὶ πᾶσι τούτοις τὸ περίδειπνον, καὶ πάρεισιν 

ε ^ 
οἱ προσήκοντες καὶ TOUS γονέας παραμυθοῦνται 
τοῦ τετελευτηκότος καὶ πείθουσι γεύσασθαι, οὐκ 
X ^ \ 7 3 0 3 A T / 3 Ν 
ἀηδῶς μὰ Δία οὐδ᾽ αὐτοὺς ἁναγκαξομένους, ἀλλὰ 
ἤδη ὑπὸ λιμοῦ τριῶν ἑξῆς ἡμερῶν ἀπηυδηκότας. 
καί, “Μέχρι μὲν τίνος, a οὗτος, ὀδυρόμεθα ; 

ἔασον ἀναπαύσασθαι τοὺς τοῦ μακαρίτου δαί- 
povas’ εἰ δὲ καὶ τὸ παράπαν κλάειν διέγνωκας, 
αὐτοῦ γε τούτου ἕνεκα χρὴ μὴ ἀπόσιτον εἶναι, 
iva Kal διαρκέσῃς πρὸς τοῦ πένθους τὸ μέγεθος.᾽ 
τότε δὴ TOTE ῥαψωδοῦνται πρὸς ἁπάντων δύο τοῦ 

Ὁμήρου στίχοι" 

A 4 > YF A / , / , 
καὶ γάρ T ἠὔκομος Νιόβη ἐμνήσατο σίτου" 


/ ^ 3 
γαστέρι δ᾽ οὔπως ἐστὶ νέκυν πενθῆσαι Αχαιούς. 

1 Compare Teles (Hense,? p. 31, 1. 9: a lacuna in the text 
precedes): ‘‘and we hesitate D» look at or to touch (the dead), 
but they make mummies of them and keep them in the house 
as something handsome, and accept dead men as security. 
So opposed is their way to ours." As Teles is almost 
certainly quoting this from Bion, it seems likely that Lucian 
drew from that source. But he had also read. Herodotus, 
2, 136. 



his brother or his father helps him out of his straits 
by becoming security at the critical juncture.! 

Regarding grave-mounds, pyramids, tombstones, 
and epitaphs, all of which endure but a brief space, 
are they not superfluous and akin to child's play ?? 
Some people, moreover, even hold competitions and 
deliver funeral orations at the monuments, as if they 
were pleading or testifying on behalf of the dead 
man before the judges down below ! 

As the finishing touch to all this, there is the 
funeral feast, and the relatives come in, consoling 
the parents of the departed, and inducing them to 
taste something. The parents themselves, I must 
say, do not find it disagreeable to be constrained, 
but are already done up with three days of con- 
tinuous fasting. It is: “Man dear, how long are 
we to lament? Let the spirits? of the departed 
rest! But if you have absolutely decided to keep 
on weeping, for that very reason you must not 
abstain from food, in order that you may prove 
equal to the magnitude of your sorrow.” Then, 
ah! then, two lines of Homer are recited by 

* Verily Niobe also, the fair-tressed, thought of her 
dinner,” 4 


* Mourning the dead by fasting is not to be done 
by Achaeans,’’5 

2 Compare Teles (Hense, p. 31, 1. 8): '* But it seems to me 
that this (closing the eyes of the dead) is just child's play 
on our part." 3 The ‘‘ Di Manes? 9 4 Iliad, 24, 602. 

5 Iliad, 19, 225; it is impossible, argues Odysseus, for the 
Greek army to fast (for Patroclus) and fight at the same 



οἱ δε ἅπτονται μέν, αἰσχυνόμενοι δὲ τὰ πρῶτα 
καὶ δεδιότες εἰ φανοῦνται μετὰ τὴν τελευτὴν τῶν 
φιλτάτων τοῖς ἀνθρωπίνοις πάθεσιν ἐμμένοντες. 

Ταῦτα καὶ πολὺ τούτων γελοιότερα εὕροι τις 
ἂν ἐπιτηρῶν ἐν τοῖς πένθεσι γιγνόμενα διὰ τὸ 
τοὺς πολλοὺς τὸ μέγιστον τῶν κακῶν τὸν θάνατον 



So they break bread, of course, but do it at first in 
shame, and in fear that they will disclose themselves 
to be still subject to human appetites after the death 
of their dearest. 

You will find, if you take note, that these things 
and others still more ridiculous are done at funerals, 
for the reason that people think death the greatest 
of misfortunes.! 

1 The first words of Sacrifices seem to take up this sentence. 
They may be translated: ‘‘ And as to sacrifices, what the 
dolts do "—4& μὲν γὰρ ἐν ταῖς θυσίαις οἱ μάταιοι πράττουσι, 





A SATIRE upon the new fashion in oratory, and one of its 
foremost representatives, 

The traditional course of training in rhetoric, fully de- 
scribed by the Latin Quintilian, was too arduous, it seems, 
to attract the general run of would-be public speakers 
under the Antonines. They sought a royal road to success, 
and found it; for as success in those days, especially in the 
case of Greeks, was far less a matter of persuading juries 
and swaying deliberative assemblies than of entertaining 
audiences with oratorical display, it could be attained 
readily by meretricious methods which, in so far as they 
were capable of being tanght at all (natura enim non do- 
cetur, says Quintilian), could be taught quickly. 

“Some say," remarks the scholiast, ‘‘that Lucian was 
aiming at Pollux the lexicographer when he wrote this 
piece.” This may be mere conjecture on the part of his 
authorities, but it cannot be dismissed as baseless. Pollux 
was Lucian's contemporary, was born in Egypt, and certainly 
could have been called ‘‘a namesake of the sons of Zeus 
and Leda." "That phrase, to be sure, would better fit a 
Dioscorides, or a Didymus or Geminus, but we do not know 
of any such rhetorician of that period. Lucian may have 
been a bit vague on purpose. What little Philostratus says 
of his oratory indicates that Pollux was a follower of the new 
school; moreover, he was the pupil of the sophist Hadrian, 
who was decidedly up to date, and the rival of the old- 
fashioned Chrestus, over whose head he was appointed by 
Commodus to the publie professorship of rhetoric in Athens. 
The allusion in this piece to the high fees charged by the 
representative of the old school leads Ranke (Pollux et 
Lucianus) to conclude that Lucian's butt himself must have 
taught gratis, and must therefore have been a public pro- 
fessor. And from the silence of Philostratusas to the family 
history and private life of Pollux, Ranke argues that he was 
of low birth and doubtful reputation. 

If the piece was aimed at Pollux and written after he 
became professor, it must date after A.D. 179. 



᾿Βρωτᾷς, à μειράκιον, ὅπως ἂν ῥήτωρ γένοιο 
καὶ τὸ σεμνότατον τοῦτο καὶ πώντιμον ὄνομα 
σοφιστὴς εἶναι δόξαις  ἀβίωτα γὰρ εἶναί σοι 
φής, εἰ μὴ τοιαύτην τινὰ τὴν δύναμιν περιβάλοιο 
ἐν τοῖς λόγοις ὡς ἄμαχον εἶναι καὶ ἀνυπόστατον 
καὶ θαυμάζεσθαι πρὸς ἁπάντων καὶ àro- 
βλέπεσθαι, περισπούδαστον ἄκουσμα τοῖς 
"Ελλησι δοκοῦντα" καὶ δὴ τὰς ἐπὶ τοῦτο ἀγούσας 
ὁδοὺς αἴτινές ποτέ εἰσιν ἐθέλεις ἐκμαθεῖν. ἀλλ᾽ 
οὐδεὶς φθόνος, ὦ παῖ, καὶ μάλιστα ὁπότε νέος τις 
αὐτὸς ὤν, ὀρεγόμενος τῶν ἀρίστων, οὐκ εἰδὼς 
ὅθεν ἂν ταῦτα ἐκπορίσαιτο, ἱερόν τι χρῆμα τὴν 
συμβουλὴν οὖσαν, καθάπερ νῦν σύ, τοῦτο αἰτοίη 
προσελθών. ὥστε ἄκουε, τὸ ye em. ἐμοὶ καὶ 
πάνυ θαρρῶν ὡς τάχιστα δεινὸς ἀνὴρ ἔσῃ γνῶναί 
τε τὰ δέοντα καὶ ἑρμηνεῦσαι αὐτά, ἣν τὸ μετὰ 
τοῦτο ἐθελήσῃς αὐτὸς ἐμμένειν οἷς ἂν ἀκούσῃς 
παρ ἡμῶν καὶ φιλοπόνως αὐτὰ μελετᾶν. καὶ 

προθύμως ἀνύειν τὴν ὁδὸν ἔστ᾽ ἂν ἀφίκῃ πρὸς τὸ 

Τὸ μὲν οὖν θήραμα οὐ σμικρὸν οὐδὲ ὀλίγης 
τῆς σπουδῆς δεόμενον, ἀλλὰ ἐφ᾽ ὅτῳ καὶ πονῆσαι 
πολλὰ καὶ ἀγρυπνῆσαι καὶ πᾶν ὁτιοῦν ὑπομεῖναι 

Available in photographs: UPNZ. The piece is now 

wanting in F. 
1 δόξαις Struve: δόξης y, δόξει: B. 



You ask, my boy, how you can get to be a public 
speaker, and be held to personify the sublime and 
glorious name of sophist; life, you say, is not worth 
living, unless when you speak you can clothe 
yourself in such a mantle of eloquence that you 
will be irresistible and invincible, that you will be 
admired and stared at by everyone, counting among 
the Greeks as a highly desirable treat for their ears. 
Consequently, you wish to find out what the roads 
are that lead to this goal. Come, I have no desire to 
be churlish, lad, especially when a mere youngster who 
craves what is noblest, not knowing how to come by 
it, draws near and asks, as you do now, for advice— 
a sacred matter. So listen; and in so far as it lies 
in my power, you may have great confidence that 
soon you will be an able hand at discerning what 
requires to be said and expressing it in words,! if only 
you on your part are willing henceforth to abide by 
what I tell you, to practise it industriously, and 
to follow the road resolutely until you reach your 

Certainly the object of your quest is not trivial, 
nor one that calls for little effort, but rather one 
for which it is worth while to work hard, to scant 
your sleep, and to put up with anything whatsoever. 

1 Like Pericles (Thuc. 2, 60). 


ἄξιον. σκόπει γοῦν ὁπόσοι τέως μηδὲν ὄντες 
ἔνδοξοι καὶ πλούσιοι καὶ νὴ Δία εὐγενέστατοι 
ἔδοξαν ἀπὸ τῶν λόγων. ὅμως δὲ μὴ δέδιθι, μηδὲ 
πρὸς τὸ μέγεθος τῶν ἐλπιζομένων ἀποδυσπετήσης, 
μυρίους τινὰς τοὺς πόνους προπονῆσαι οἰηθείς. 
οὐ γάρ σε τραχεῖάν τινα οὐδὲ ὄρθιον; καὶ 
ἱδρῶτος μεστὴν ἡμεῖς ἄξομεν, ὡς ἐκ μέσης 
αὐτῆς ἀναστρέψαι καμόντα, ἐπεὶ οὐδὲν ἂν 
διεφέρομεν τῶν ἄλλων ὅσοι τὴν συνήθη ἐκεί- 
νην ἡγοῦνται, μακρὰν καὶ ἀνάντη καὶ καματηρὰν 
καὶ ὡς τὸ πολὺ -ἀπεγνωσμένην. ἀλλὰ παρ᾽ 
ἡμῶν ἐξαίρετον ν τῆς συμβουλῆς τοῦτό ἐστιν, 
ὅτι ἡδίστην τε ἅμα καὶ ἐπιτομωτάτην καὶ 
ἱππήλατον καὶ κατάντη σὺν πολλῇ τῇ θυμηδίᾳ 
καὶ τρυφῇ διὰ λειμώνων εὐανθῶν καὶ σκιᾶς 
ἀκριβοῦς σχολῇ καὶ βάδην ἀνιὼν ἀνιδρωτὶ 
ἐπιστήσῃ τῇ ἄκρᾳ καὶ ἀγρεύσεις : οὐ «apo καὶ 
νὴ AC εὐωχήσῃ κατακείμενος, ἐκείνους * ὁπόσοι 
τὴν ἑτέραν ἐτράποντο ἀπὸ τοῦ ὑψηλοῦ è ἐπισκοπῶν 
ἐν τῇ ὑπωρείᾳ τῆς ἀνόδου ἔτι, κατὰ δυσβάτων 
καὶ ὀλισθηρῶν τῶν κρημνῶν μόλις ἀνέρποντας, 
ἀποκυλιομένους ἐπὶ κεφαλὴν ἐνίοτε καὶ πολλὰ 
τραύματα λαμβάνοντας περὶ τραχείαις ταῖς 
πέτραις σὺ δὲ πρὸ πολλοῦ ἄνω ἐστεφανωμένος 
εὐδαιμονέστατος ἔσῃ, ἅπαντα ἐν βραχεῖ ὅσα 
ἐστὶν ἀγαθὰ παρὰ τῆς ῥητορικῆς μονονουχὶ 
καθεύδων λαβών. 

Ἢ μὲν δὴ ὑπόσχεσις οὕτω µεγάλη" σὺ δὲ 
μας Φιλίου μὴ ἀπιστήσης, εἰ ῥᾷστά τε ἅμα καὶ 

1 ὄρειον β. 
3 τό γε παρ᾽ ἡμῶν ἐξαιρετόν σοι B, edd. Cf. Navtyium 94, 
3 α ρήσεις B. Cf. θήραμα, c. 2. * ἔκπνους P. 



Just see how many who previously were nobodies 
have come to be accounted men of standing, mil- 
lionaires, yes, even gentlemen, because of their 
eloquence. Do not be daunted, however, and do 
not be dismayed at the greatness of your expecta- 
tions, thinking to undergo untold labours before 
you achieve them. I shall not conduct you by a 
rough road, or a steep and sweaty one, so that you 
will turn back halfway out of weariness. In that 
case I should be no better than those other guides 
who use the customary route—long, steep, toilsome, 
and, as a rule, hopeless. No, my advice has this to 
commend it, that ascending in the manner of a 
leisurely stroll through flowery fields and perfect 
shade in great comfort and luxury by a sloping 
bridle-path that is very short as well as very pleasant, 
you will gain the summit without sweating for it, 
you will bag your game without any effort, yes, by 
Heaven, you will banquet at your ease, looking 
down from the height at those who went the other 
way as they creep painfully upward over sheer and 
slippery crags, still in the foot-hills of the ascent, 
rolling off head-first from time to time, and getting 
many a wound on the sharp rocks—and you, the 
while, on the top long before them, with a wreath 
upon your head, will be fortunate beyond compare, 
for you will have acquired from Rhetoric in an 
instant, all but in your sleep, every single blessing 
that there is ! 

Yes, my promise goes to that extent in its 
generosity ;! but in the name of Friendship? do 
not disbelieve me, when I say that I shall show 

1 A quotation from Demosthenes, Phil. 1, 44, 15. 
? More literally, Friendship’s patron; 7. e. Zeus. 



ἥδιστά σοι ταῦτα ἐπιδείξειν φαμέν. τί yap}; 
Ἡσίοδος μὲν ὀλίγα φύλλα ἐκ τοῦ “Ελικῶνος 
λαβὼν αὐτίκα μάλα ποιητὴς ἐκ ποιμένος κατέστη 
καὶ ᾖδε θεῶν καὶ ἡρώων γένη κάτοχος ἐκ Μουσῶν 
γενόμενος, ῥήτορα δέ, ὃ πολὺ ἔνερθε ποιητικῆς 
μεγαληγορίας ἐστίν, ἐν θραχεῖ καταστῆναι ἀδύνα- 
τον, εἴ τις ἐκμάθοι τὴν ταχίστην ὁδόν ; 

Ὡς ἔγωγε καὶ διηγήσασθαι σοι βούλομαι 
Σιδωνίου τινὸς ἐμπόρου ἐπίνοιαν δι᾽ ἀπιστίαν 
ἀτελῆ γενομένην καὶ τῷ ἀκούσαντι ἀνόνητον. 
ἦρχε μὲν γὰρ ἤδη ᾿Αλέξανδρος Περσῶν, μετὰ τὴν 
ἐν ᾿Αρβήλοις μάχην Δαρεῖον καθηρηκώς: ἔδει δὲ 
πανταχόσε τῆς ἀρχῆς διαθεῖν τοὺς γραμ- 
ματοφόρους τὰ ἐπιτάγματα τοῦ ᾿Αλεξάνδρου 
κοµίζοντας. ἐκ Περσῶν δὲ πολλὴ εἰς Αἴγυπτον 
ἐγίγνετο ἡ ὀδός: ἐκπεριιέναι γὰρ ἔδει τὰ ὄρη, 
εἶτα διὰ τῆς Βαβυλωνίας εἰς τὴν ᾿Αραβίαν 
ἐλθεῖν, εἶτα ἐρήμην πολλὴν repáa avra? ἀφικέ- 
σθαι ποτὲ μόλις εἰς Αἴγυπτον, εἴκοσι μηκίστους 
ἀνδρὶ εὐζώνω σταθμοὺς τούτους διανύσαντα. 
ἤχθετο οὖν ὁ ᾿Αλέξανδρος ἐπὶ τούτῳ, διότι 
Αἰγυπτίους τι παρακινεῖν ἀκούων οὐκ εἶχε διὰ 
ταχέων ἐκπέμπειν τοῖς σατράπαις τὰ δοκοῦντά 
οἱ περὶ αὐτῶν. τότε δὴ ὁ Σιδώνιος ἔμπορος, 
“᾿Εγώ σοι, ἔφη, “ὦ βασιλεῦ, ὑπισχνοῦμαι 
δείξειν ὁδὸν οὐ πολλὴν ἐκ Περσῶν εἰς Αἴγυπτον. 
εἰ γάρ τις ὑπερβαίη τὰ ὄρη ταῦτα-- ὑπερβαίη δ᾽ 
ἂν τριταῖος---αὐτίκα μάλα ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ οὗτός 

1 τί γάρ Sauppe : εἰ γὰρ MSS. 


you that its attainment is at once easy and pleasant. 
Why should you? Hesiod was given a leaf or two 
from Helicon, and at once he became a poet instead 
of a shepherd and sang the pedigrees of gods and 
heroes under the inspiration of the Muses.! Is it 
impossible, then, to become a public speaker —some- 
thing far inferior to the grand style of poetry—in 
an instant, if one could find out the quickest way ? 
Just to show you, I should like to tell you the 
tale of a Sidonian merchant's idea which disbelief 
made ineffectual and profitless to the man who heard 
it. Alexander was then ruler of the Persians, 
having deposed Darius after the battle of Arbela, 
and postmen had to run to every quarter of the 
realm carrying Alexander's orders. The journey 
from Persia to Egypt was long, since one had to 
make a detour about the mountains, then to go 
through Babylonia to Arabia, and then to traverse 
a wide expanse of desert before reaching Egypt at 
last, after spending in this way, even if one travelled 
light, twenty very long days on the road. Well, 
this annoyed Alexander, because he had heard that 
the Egyptians were showing signs of disaffection, 
and he was unable to be expeditious in transmitting 
his decisions concerning them to his governors. 
At that juncture the Sidonian merchant said: “I 
give you my word, King Alexander, to show you a 
short route from Persia to Egypt. If a man went 
over these mountains—and he could do it in three 

1 Theogony, 30-34. The Muses plucked a branch of laurel 
and gave it him as a staff of office (σκῆπτρον). 

? περάσαντα A. M. H. (περάσαντας Bekker): ἐπελάσαντας 
B, ἐλάσαντας y. 



ἐστιν. καὶ εἶχεν οὕτω. πλὴν ὅ ye’ Αλέξανδρος 
οὐκ ἐπίστευσεν, ἀλλὰ γόητα gero εἶναι τὸν ču- 
πορον. οὕτω τὸ παράδοξον τῆς ὑποσχέσεως 
ἄπιστον δοκεῖ τοῖς πολλοῖς. ἀλλὰ μὴ σύ γε 
πάθης τὸ αὐτό: elon γὰρ πειρώμενος ὡς οὐδέν σε 
κωλύσει ῥήτορα δοκεῖν μιᾶς οὐδὲ ὅλης ἡμέρας 
ὑπερπετασθέντα τὸ ὄρος ἐκ Περσῶν εἰς Αἴγυπτον. 

θέλω δέ σοι πρῶτον ὥσπερ ὁ Κέβης ἐκεῖνος 
εἰκόνα γραψάµενος τῷ λόγῳ ἑκατέραν ἐπιδεῖξαι 
τὴν ὁδόν: δύο γάρ ἐστον», al πρὸς τήν Ῥητορικὴν 
ἄγετον, ἧς ἐρᾶν οὐ μετρίως μοι δοκεῖς. καὶ δῆτα 
ἡ μὲν ἐφ ὑψηλοῦ καθήσθω πάνυ καλὴ καὶ 
εὐπρόσωπος, τὸ τῆς ᾿Αμαλθείας κέρας ἔχουσα ἐν 
τῇ δεξιᾷ παντοίοις καρποῖς ὑπερβρύον. ἐπὶ θατέρᾳ 
δέ μοι τὸν πλοῦτον δόκει παρεστῶτα ὁρᾶν, χρυσοῦν 
ὅλον καὶ ἐπέραστον. καὶ ἡ δόξα δὲ καὶ ἡ ἰσχὺς 
παρέστωσαν, καὶ οἱ ἔπαινοι περὶ πᾶσαν αὐτὴν 
"Epwou μικροῖς ἐοικότες πολλοὶ ἁπανταχόθεν 
περιπλεκέσθωσαν ἐκπετόμενοι. εἰ που τὸν 
Νεῖλον εἶδες γραφῇ μεμιμημένον, αὐτὸν μὲν 
κείμενον ἐπὶ κροκοδείλου τινὸς ἢ ἵππου τοῦ 
ποταμίου, οἷοι πολλοὶ ἐν αὐτῷ, μικρὰ δέ τινα 
παιδία παρ αὐτὸν παίζοντα---πήχεις δὲ αὐτοὺς 
οἱ Αἰγύπτιοι καλοῦσι,-- τοιοῦτοι καὶ περὶ τὴν 
“Ρητορικὴν οἱ ἔπαινοι. 

Πρόσει δὴ σὺ ὁ ἐραστὴς ἐπιθυμῶν δηλαδὴ ὅτι 

! The Sidonian merchant was exaggerating, but there was 
truth in his tale. From Persepolis, by crossing the mountains 
to the head of the Persian Gulf one could pick up a trade- 
route that led from Alexandria on the Tigris (Charax) to 
Petra (see Pliny 6, 145), whence one could get to Rhinocolura, 
and so to Egypt. This would have been much shorter than 



days—he is in Egypt in no time!" And it was so! 
Alexander, however, put no faith in it, but thought 
that the merchant was a liar.t So true is it that 
amazing promises seem untrustworthy to most 
people. But you must not make the same mistake. 
Experience will convince you that nothing can pre- 
vent you from arriving as a public speaker, in a single 
day, and not a full day at that, by flying across the 
mountains from Persia to Egypt! 

I wish first of all to paint you a picture in words, 
like Cebes of old, and show you both the roads; 
for there are two that lead to Lady Rhetoric, of 
whom you seem to me exceedingly enamoured. So 
let her be sitting upon a high place, very fair of 
face and form, holding in her right hand the Horn 
of Plenty, which runs over with all manner of fruits. 
Beside her imagine, pray, that you see Wealth 
standing, all golden and lovely. Let Fame, too, 
and Power stand by; and let Compliments, re- 
sembling tiny Cupids, swarm all about her on the 
wing in great numbers from every side. If you 
have ever seen the Nile represented in a painting, 
lying on the back of a crocodile or a hippopotamus, 
such as are frequent in his stream, while tiny infants 
play beside him—the Egyptians call them cubits— 
the Compliments that surround Rhetoric are like 

Now you, her lover, approach, desiring, of course, 

the normal (Susa, Babylon, Damascus) route, but it might not 
have been any quicker. 

? Evidently there were many copies of this picture about, 
and they were not all exactly alike. The Vatican has a 
treatment of the theme in sculpture, in which Nile rests 
upon a sphinx, and has about him sixteen ‘‘ cubits,” 
symbolizing the desired yearly rise of his stream. 



/ ^ ^ y 
τάχιστα γενέσθαι ἐπὶ τῆς ἄκρας, ὡς γαμήσειάς 
τε αὐτὴν ἀνελθὼν καὶ πάντα ἐκεῖνα ἔχοις, τὸν 
^ ’ A , 
πλοῦτον τὴν δόξαν τοὺς ἐπαίνους νόμῳ yap 
/ ^ / 
ἅπαντα γίγνεται τοῦ γεγαμηκότος. εἶτ᾽ ἐπειδὰν 
-.» ^ ^ 
πλησιάσῃς τῷ Opel, τὸ μὲν πρῶτον ἀπογιγνώσκεις 
τὴν ἄνοδον, καὶ τὸ πρᾶγμα ὅμοιον εἶναί σοι δοκεῖ 
e εν 7 ^ η / > of 
οἷα ἡ “Aopvos ἐφάνη τοῖς Μακεδόσιν ἀπόξυρον 
αὐτὴν ἁπανταχόθεν ἰδοῦσιν, ἀτεχνῶς οὐδὲ ὀρνέοις 
^ / N e 
ὑπερπτῆναι ῥᾳδίαν, Διονύσου τινὸς ἢ Ἡρακλέους, 
εἰ μέλλοι καθαιρεθήσεσθαι, δεομένην. 
Ταῦτά σοι δοκεῖ τὸ πρῶτον: εἶτα μετ᾽ ὀλίγον 
ε ^ z M € 7 ^ ` € . 3 ’ 
ὁρᾷς δύο τινὰς ὁδούς. μᾶλλον δὲ ἡ μὲν ἀτραπός 
ἐστι στενὴ καὶ ἀκανθώδης καὶ τραχεῖα, πολὺ τὸ 
δίψος ἐμφαίνουσα καὶ ἱδρῶτα' καὶ ἔφθη γὰρ ἤδη 
ε , Ç / e ΄ , , e , b 
Ησίοδος εὖ μάλα ὑποδείξας αὐτήν, ὥστε οὐδὲν 
ἐμοῦ δεήσει. ἡ ἑτέρα δὲ πλατεῖα καὶ ἀνθηρὰ καὶ 
εὔυδρος, τοιαύτη οἷαν μικρῷ πρόσθεν εἶπον, ἵνα 
μὴ πολλάκις τὰ αὐτὰ λέγων ἐπέχω σε ἤδη ῥήτορα 
’ ^ 
εἶναι δυνάμενον. πλὴν τό γε τοσοῦτον προσ- 
^ ^ ’ 
θήσειν μοι δοκῶ, διότι ἡ μὲν τραχεῖα ἐκείνη καὶ 
5 ^ € 4 
ἀνάντης οὐ πολλὰ ἴχνη τῶν ὁδοιπόρων εἶχεν, εἰ 
δέ τινα, πάνυ παλαιά. καὶ ἔγωγε κατ᾽ ἐκείνην 
» 9 ^ ^ v , . / e 
ἄθλιος ἀνῆλθον τοσαῦτα καμὼν οὐδὲν δέον' ἡ 
΄ / * σ € M = M , ᾽ > A 
ἑτέρα δὲ ἅτε ὁμαλὴ οὖσα καὶ ἀγκύλον οὐδὲν 
ἔχουσα πόρρωθέν μοι ἐφάνη οἷα ἐστὶν οὐχ 
e ^ , 
ὀδεύσαντι αὐτῷ. οὐ γὰρ ἑώρων νέος àv ἔτι τὸ 
[ή 3 ^ ^ ~ 3 A 3 4 
βέλτιον, ἀλλὰ τὸν ποιητὴν ἐκεῖνον ἀληθεύειν 

1 A table-mountain captured by Alexander on his way to 
India, 11 stades high at its lowest point, aceording to 
Arrian (Alex. 4, 28). Cunningham identifies it as Ranigat. 
Tomaschek considers the Greek name derived from Sanscrit 



to get upon the summit with all speed in order to 
marry her when you get there, and to possess all 
that she has—the Wealth, the Fame, the Compli- 
ments; for by law everything accrues to the 
husband. Then when you draw near the mountain, 
at first you despair of climbing it, and the thing 
seems to you just as Aornus! looked to the Mace- 
donians when they observed that it was precipitous 
on every side, truly far from easy even for a bird to 
fly over, calling for a Dionysus or a Heracles if it 
were ever going to be taken. 

That is how it seems to you at first; and then, 
after a little, you see two roads. To be more exact, 
one of them is but a path, narrow, briery, and rough, 
promising great thirstiness and sweat; Hesiod has 
been beforehand with us and has already described 
it very carefully, so that I shall not need to do 5ο.3 
The other, however, is level, flowery, and well- 
watered, just as I described it a moment ago, not 
to detain you by saying the same things over and 
over when you might even now be a speaker. But 
I must add at least this much, that the rough, steep 
road used not to have many tracks of wayfarers, and 
whatever tracks there were, were very old. I my- 
self, unlucky dog, got up by that road and did all 
that hard work without any need; but as the other 
was level and had no windings at all, I could see 
from a distance what it was like without having 
travelled it myself. You see, being still young, I 
could not discern what was better, but believed that 
poet? to be telling the truth when he said that 

avarana by popular etymology ; but compare the Avestan 
name Upatri-suena (above the eagle). 
* Works and Days, 286—292. ὃ Epicharmus. 



ὤμην λέγοντα ἐκ τῶν πόνων φύεσθαι τὰ ἀγαθά 
PE Y 9 ef > € y Ὃν 
τὸ ὃ οὐκ εἶχεν οὕτως: ἀπονητὶ γοῦν ὁρῶ τοὺς 
\ f > / > / ^ 

πο λος μειξόνων ἀξιουμένους εύμοιρια της 
αἱρέσεως τῶν λόγων καὶ ὁδών. 

> M » > . > ` > ή 9 φ ο 

Επὶ δ᾽ οὖν τὴν ἀρχὴν ἀφικόμενος εὖ oio ὅτι 
ἀπορήσεις, καὶ ἤδη ἀπορεῖς, ποτέραν τρεπτέον. 
ὡς οὖν ποιήσας ἤδη ῥᾷστα ἐπὶ τὸ ἀκρότατον 
ἀναβήση καὶ εὐδαιμονήσεις καὶ γαμήσεις καὶ 
θαυμαστὸς πᾶσι δόξεις, ἐγώ σοι φράσω' ἱκανὸν 
γὰρ τὸ αὐτὸν ἐξαπατηθῆναι καὶ πονῆσαι. σοὶ 
δὲ ἄσπορα καὶ ἀνήροτα πάντα φυέσθω καθάπερ 
ἐπὶ τοῦ Κρόνου. 


Εὐθὺς οὖν σοι πρόσεισι καρτερὸς τις ἀνήρ, 
[4 , » [4 s ΄ A . 
ὑπόσκληρος, ἀνδρώδης τὸ βάδισμα, πολὺν τὸν 
ἥλιον ἐπὶ τῷ σώματι δεικνύων, ἀρρενωπὸς τὸ 

A ^ e ^ 
βλέμμα, ἐγρηγορως, τῆς τραχείας ὁδοῦ ἐκείνης 
N € 

ἡγεμών, λήρους τινὰς ὁ μάταιος διεξιὼν πρὸς σέ. 
ἕπεσθαι γάρ ot! παρακελευόμενος, ὑποδεικνὺς τὰ 
Δημοσθένους ἴχνη καὶ Πλάτωνος καὶ ἄλλων 
τινῶν, μεγάλα μὲν καὶ ὑπὲρ τοὺς νῦν, ἀμαυρὰ δὲ 
ἤδη καὶ ἀσαφῆ τὰ πολλὰ ὑπὸ τοῦ χρόνου, φήσει τ 
εὐδαίμονά σε ἔσεσθαι καὶ νόμῳ γαμήσειν τὴν 
Ῥητορικήν, εἰ κατὰ τούτων ὀδεύσειας ὥσπερ οἱ 

1 ἔπεσθαί of B, edd. 
3 φήσει Α.Μ.Η. : καὶ φήσει vulg., καί φησιν MSS. 

1 The thought is expressed in Works and Days, 289; 
‘‘The immortal gods have put sweat before virtue;” but 
Lucian’s wording is closer to the famous line of Epicharmus 
quoted (just after the passage from Hesiod) in πε πο 



blessings were engendered of toil! That was not 
so, however; at all events, I notice that most 
people are accorded greater returns without any 
labour, through their felicitous choice of words and 

But, to resume—when you reach the starting- 
point, I am sure that you will be in doubt, and 
indeed are even now in doubt, which road to follow. 
I propose, therefore, to tell you how to do now 
in order to mount to the highest peak with the 
greatest ease, to be fortunate, to bring off the 
marriage, and to be accounted wonderful by every- 
one. It is quite enough that I should have been 
duped and should have worked hard. For you, 
let everything grow ‘without sowing and without 
ploughing,” as in the time of Cronus.? 

On the instant, then, you will be approached by 
a vigorous man with hard muscles and a manly 
stride, who shows heavy tan on his body, and is 
bold-eyed and alert. He is the guide of the rough 
road, and he will talk a lot of nonsense to you, the 
poor simpleton. In exhorting you to follow him, he 
will point out the footprints of Demosthenes and 
of Plato, and one or two more—great prints, I grant 
you, too great for men of nowadays, but for the 
most part dim and indistinct through lapse of time; 
and he will say that you will have good fortune and 
will contract a lawful marriage with Rhetoric if you 

Memorabilia, 2, 1, 20: ‘Tis at the price of toil that the 
gods sell us all their blessings." 

? The quotation is from Odyssey, 9, 109, but there is also 
an allusion to Hesiod's description of the time of Cronus, the 
golden age, when the '' grain-giving earth bore fruit of itself, 
in plenty and without stint” (Works and Days, 117-118). 



, . ^ 4 / > X A , 

ἐπὶ τῶν κάλων βαίνοντες" εἰ δὲ κἂν μικρόν τι 
’ Aa » / A 5 \ ΄ ^ 

παραβαίης ἢ ἔξω πατήσειας ἢ ἐπὶ θάτερα μᾶλλον 
κλιθείης τῇ ῥοπῇ, ἐκπεσεῖσθαί σε τῆς ὀρθῆς 
ὁδοῦ καὶ ἀγούσης ἐπὶ τὸν γάμον. εἶτά σε κελεύ- 

^ , / \ > / ” ο 
σει ζηλοῦν ἐκείνους τοὺς ἀρχαίους ἄνδρας ἕωλα 
παραδείγματα παρατιθεὶς τῶν λόγων οὐ ῥάδια 
μιμεῖσθαι, οἷα τὰ τῆς παλαιᾶς ἐργασίας ἐστίν, 
Ἡγησίου καὶ τῶν ἀμφὶ Κριτίον} καὶ Νησιώτην, 
ἀπεσφιγμένα καὶ νευρώδη καὶ σκληρὰ καὶ 
ἀκριβῶς ἀποτεταμένα ταῖς γραμμαῖς. πόνον δὲ 
καὶ ἀγρυπνίαν καὶ ὑδατοποσίαν καὶ τὸ ἀλιπαρὲς ? 

^ ^ / 

ἀναγκαῖα ταῦτα καὶ ἀπαραίτητα φήσει' ἀδύνατον 
` - y ΄ 8 ΄ ν «δύ ^ δὲ 
γὰρ εἶναι ἄνευ τούτων διανύσαι τὴν ὁδόν. ὃ δὲ 

πάντων ἀνιαρότατον, ὅτι σοι καὶ τὸν χρόνον 
΄ e / ^ e / y ΄ 
πάμπολυν ὑπογράψει τῆς ὁδοιπορίας, ἔτη πολλά, 
οὐ κατὰ ἡμέρας καὶ τριακάδας, ἀλλὰ κατὰ 
ὀλυμπιάδας ὅλας ἀριθμῶν, ὡς καὶ προαποκαμεῖν 
ἀκούοντα καὶ ἀπαγορεῦσαι, πολλὰ χαίρειν 

- / / 
φράσαντα τῇ ἐλπιξομένη ἐκείνῃ εὐδαιμονίᾳ. πρὸς 
δὲ τούτοις οὐδὲ μισθοὺς ὀλίγους ἀπαιτεῖ τῶν 
^ \ 
τοσούτων κακῶν, ἀλλὰ οὐκ ἂν ἡγήσαιτό σοι, εἰ 
μὴ μεγάλα πρότερον λάβοι. 

ΙΟ ‘O μὲν ταῦτα φήσει, ἀλαξὼν καὶ ἀρχαῖος ὡς 
ἀληθῶς καὶ Κρονικὸς ἄνθρωπος, νεκροὺς εἰς 
μίμησιν παλαιοὺς προτιθεὶς καὶ ἀνορύττειν ἀξιῶν 
λόγους πάλαι κατορωρυγμένους ὥς τι μέγιστον 
, ^ , 
ἀγαθόν, μαχαιροποιοῦ υἱὸν καὶ ἄλλον ᾿Ατρομήτου 

1 Κριτίον Dindorf: Κριτίαν B, Κράτητα vy. 

2 λιπαρὲς B. But cf. Hermotimus 24, Hesychius, and 
Soph. Electra, 451. 



follow these footprints like a rope-dancer; but if 
you should make even a slight mis-step, or set your 
foot out of them, or let your weight sway you 
somewhat to one side, you will fall from the direct 
road that leads to the marriage. Then he will tell 
you to imitate those ancient worthies, and will set 
you fusty models for your speeches, far from easy to 
copy, resembling sculptures in the early manner 
such as those of Hegesias and of Critius and Nesiotes ! 
—wasp-waisted, sinewy, hard, meticulously definite 
in their contours. And he will say that hard work, 
scant sleep, abstention from wine, and untidiness are 
necessary and indispensable; it is impossible, says 
he, to get over the road without them. What is 
most vexatious of all, even the time which he 
will prescribe to you for the journey will be very 
long--many years, for he counts not by days and 
months, but by whole Olympic cycles,? so that you 
will be foredone in advance as you listen and will 
forswear your project, bidding a fond farewell to 
the good fortune that you expected. Besides, he 
demands no small fee for all these hardships; in 
fact, he would not guide you unless he should get a 
huge sum in advance. 

That is what this man will say, the impostor, the 
absolute old fogey, the antediluvian, who displays 
dead men of a bygone age to serve as patterns, and 
expects you to dig up long-buried speeches as if they 
were something tremendously helpful, wanting you to 
emulate the son of a sword-maker, and some other 

1 Pre-Phidian sculptors, Hegesias famous for his Dioscuri, 
Critius and Nesiotes for their joint work, the Tyrant Slayers 
(Harmodius and Aristogeiton). 

2 [.e., of four years. 




τινὸς γραμματιστοῦ δηλοῦν ἀξιῶν, καὶ ταῦτα ἐν 
εἰρήνῃ μήτε Φιλίππου € ἐπιόντος μήτε ᾿Αλεξάνδρου 
ἐπιτάττοντος, ὅπου τὰ ἐκείνων ἴσως ἐδόκει 
χρήσιμα, οὐκ εὐδὼς ὁποία νῦν κεκαινοτόµηται 
ταχεῖα καὶ ἀπράγμων καὶ εἰς τὸ εὐθὺ τῆς 
ῥητορικῆς ὁδός. σὺ δὲ μήτε πείθεσθαι μήτε 
προσέχειν αὐτῷ, μή σε ἐκτραχηλίσῃ που παρα- 
λαβὼν ἢ τὸ τελευταῖον προγηρᾶσαι τοῖς πόνοις 
παρασκευάσῃ. ἀλλὰ εἰ πάντως ἐρᾶς καὶ τάχιστα 
ἐθέλεις τῇ ῥητορικῇ. συνεῖναι ἀκμάζων č ἔτι, ὡς καὶ 
σπουδάξοιο πρὸς αὐτῆς, ἴθι, τῷ μὲν δασεῖ τούτῳ 
καὶ πέρα τοῦ ᾽μετρίου ἀνδρικῷ μακρὰ χαίρειν λέγε, 
ἀναβαίνειν αὐτὸν καὶ ἄλλους ὁπόσους ἂν ἐξαπατᾶν 
δύνηται ἀνάγειν καταλιπὼν ἀσθμαίνοντα καὶ 
(δρῶτι πολλῷ συνόντα. 

Πρὸς δὲ τὴν ἑτέραν ἐλθὼν εὑρήσεις πολλοὺς 
καὶ ἄλλους, ἐν τούτοις δὲ καὶ πάνσοφόν τινα καὶ 
πάγκαλον ἄνδρα, διασεσαλευμένον τὸ βάδισμα, 
ἐπικεκλασμένον τὸν αὐχένα, γυναικεῖον τὸ 
Βλέμμα, μελιχρὸν τὸ φώνημα, μύρων ἀποπνέοντα, 
τῷ δακτύλῳ d ἄκρῳ τὴν κεφαλὴν κνώμενον, ὀλίγας 
μὲν ἔτι, οὔλας δὲ καὶ ὑακινθίνας τὰς τρίχας. εὖθε- 
τίξοντα, πάναβρόν τινα Σαρδανάπαλλον ἡ Κι- 
νύραν 7) αὐτὸν ᾿Αγάθωνα, τὸν τῆς τραγῳδίας 
ἐπέραστον ἐκεῖνον ποιητήν. λέγω δὲ ὡς ἀπὸ 
τούτων γνωρίξοις αὐτόν, μηδέ σε οὕτω θεσπέσιον 
χρῆμα καὶ φίλον ᾿Αφροδίτῃ καὶ Χάρισι διαλάθοι. 
καίτοι τί φημί; ; κἂν εἰ μύοντι γάρ σοι προσελθὼν 
εἴποι τι, τὸ Ὑμήττιον ἐκεῖνο ἀνοίξας στόμα, καὶ 
τὴν συνήθη φωνὴν ἀφείη, μάθοις ἂν ὡς οὐχὶ τῶν 

! ἀφείη Jacobs: ἀφίῃ yB. 


fellow, the son of a school-master named Atrometus,! 
and that too in times of peace, when no Philip is 
making raids and no Alexander issuing orders— situa- 
tions in which their speeches were perhaps considered 
useful. He does not know what a short, easy road, 
direct to Rhetoric, has recently been opened. But do 
not you believe or heed him for fear he may give you 
a neck-breaking tumble somewhere after he gets 
you in charge, or may in the end make you pre- 
maturely old with your labours. No, if you are 
unquestionably in love, and wish to marry Rhetoric 
forthwith, while you are still in your prime, so that 
she may be fond of you, do bid a long good-bye to 
that hairy, unduly masculine fellow, leaving him to 
climb up himself, all blown and dripping with sweat, 
and lead up what others he can delude. 

If you turn to the other road, you will find many 
people, and among them a wholly clever and wholly 
handsome gentleman with a mincing gait, a thin 
neck, a languishing eye, and a honeyed voice, who 
distils perfume, scratches his head with the tip of 
his finger,? and carefully dresses his hair, which is 
scanty now, but curly and raven-black—an utterly 
delicate Sardanapalus, a Cinyras, a very Agathon (that 
charming writer of tragedies, don’t you know?). I 
am thus explicit that you may recognize him by 
these tokens, and may not overlook a creature so 
marvellous, and so dear to Aphrodite and the Graces. 
But what am I talking about? Even if you had 
your eyes shut, and he should come and speak to 
you, unsealing those Hymettus lips and releasing 
upon the air those wonted intonations, you would 

1 The sword-maker’s son is Demosthenes, the schoolmaster’s 
Aeschines. 3 Cf. Plutarch, Pompey, 48 fin. 





καθ ἡμᾶς ἐστιν, ot ἀρούρης καρπὸν ἔδομεν, ἀλλά 
τι ξένον φάσμα δρόσῳ ἢ ἀμβροσίᾳ τρεφόμενον. 

Tour τοίνυν προσελθὼν καὶ παραδοὺς σεαυτὸν 
αὐτίκα μάλα ῥήτωρ καὶ περίβλεπτος καί, ὡς 
ὀνομάξει αὐτός, βασιλεὺς ἐν τοῖς λόγοις ἀπονητὶ 
καταστήσῃ τὰ τέθριππα ἐλαύνων τοῦ λόγου. 
διδάξεται γάρ σε παραλαβὼν τὰ πρῶτα μὲν 
ἐκεῖνα---μᾶλλον δὲ αὐτὸς εἰπάτω πρὸς σέ: γελοῖον 
γὰρ ὑπὲρ τοιούτου ῥήτορος ἐμὲ ποιεῖσθαι τοὺς 
λόγους, φαῦλον ὑποκριτὴν ἴσως τῶν τοιούτων καὶ 
τηλικούτων, μὴ καὶ συντρίψω που πεσὼν τὸν 
ἥρωα ὃν ὑποκρίνομαι. 

Dain τοιγαροῦν ἂν πρὸς σὲ ὧδέ πως ἐπισπασά- 
μενος ὁπόσον ἔτι λοιπὸν τῆς κόμης καὶ ὑπο- 
μειδιάσας τὸ γλαφυρὸν ἐκεῖνο καὶ ἁπαλὸν οἷον 
εἴωθεν, Αὐτοθαΐδα τὴν κωμικὴν ἢ Μαλθάκην f) 
ΕΡλυκέραν τινὰ μιμησάμενος τῷ προσηνεῖ τοῦ 
φθέγματος: ἄγροικον γὰρ τὸ ἀρρενωπὸν καὶ οὐ 
πρὸς ἁβροῦ καὶ ἐρασμίου ῥήτορος. φήσει δ᾽ οὖν 
πάνυ μετριάζων ὑπὲρ αὑτοῦ: '' Μῶν σε, ὦγαθέ, ὁ 
Πύθιος ἔπεμψε πρός με ῥητόρων τὸν ἄριστον 
προσειπών, ὥσπερ ὅτε Χαιρεφῶν ἤρετο αὐτόν, 
ἔδειξεν ὅστις ἦν ὁ σοφώτατος ἐν τοῖς τότε ; εἰ δὲ 
μὴ τοῦτο, ἀλλὰ κατὰ κλέος αὐτὸς ἥκεις ἀκούων 
ἁπάντων ὑπερεκπεπληγμένων τὰ ἡμέτερα καὶ 
ὑμνούντων καὶ τεθηπότων καὶ ὑπεπτηχότων, 
αὐτίκα μάλα εἴσῃ πρὸς οἷόν τινα δαιμόνιον ἄνδρα 
ἥκεις. προσδοκήσῃς δὲ μηδὲν τοιοῦτον ὄψεσθαι 

1 Iliad 6, 142. 

* Socrates, in the Apology of Plato, says that when 
Chaerephon in his zeal ‘‘asked whether anyone was wiser 
than I, the Pythia responded that nobody was wiser ” (21 a). 



discover that he is not like us “who eat the fruit of 
the glebe,"! but some unfamiliar spirit, nurtured 
on dew or on ambrosia. 

If, then, you go to him and put yourself in his 
hands, you will at once, without effort, become an 
orator, the observed of all, and, as he himself calls it, 
king of the platform, driving the horses of eloquence 
four-in-hand. For on taking you in charge, he will 
teach you first of all—but let him address you 
himself. It would be comical for me to do the 
talking on behalf of such an accomplished speaker, 
as I should be poorly cast, it may very well be, 
for parts of that nature and importance; I might 
fall down and so put out of countenance the hero 
whom I impersonated. 

He would address you, then, somewhat in this 
fashion, tossing back what hair is still left him, 
faintly smiling in that sweet and tender way which 
is his wont, and rivalling Thais herself of comic 
fame, or Malthace, or Glycera, in the seductiveness 
of his tone, since masculinity is boorish and not in 
keeping with a delicate and charming platform-hero 
—he will address you, I say, using very moderate 
language about himself: * Prithee, dear fellow, did 
Pythian Apollo send you to me, entitling me 
the best of speakers, just as, when Chaerephon 
questioned him, he told who was the wisest in that 
generation?? If that is not the case, but you have 
come of your own accord in the wake of rumour, 
because you hear everybody speak of my achieve- 
ments with astonishment, praise, admiration, and 
self-abasement, you shall very soon learn what a 
superhuman person you have come to. Do not ex- 
pect to see something that you can compare with 





otov τῷδε ἢ τῷδε παραβαλεῖν, ἀλλ᾽ εἴ τις ἢ 
` > , / 
Τιτυος ἢ Ὦτος ἡ ᾿Εφιάλτης, ὑπὲρ ἐκείνους πολὺ 
φανεῖταί σοι τὸ πρᾶγμα ὑπερφυὲς καὶ τεράστιον' 
ἐπεὶ τούς γε ἄλλους τοσοῦτον ὑπερφωνοῦντα 
ε / e / e / \ , N N έ 
εὑρήσεις οπόσον ἡ σάλπιγξ τοὺς αὐλοὺς καὶ οἱ 
τέττιγες τὰς μελίττας καὶ οἱ χοροὶ τοὺς ἐνδι- 
“ Emel δὲ καὶ ῥήτωρ αὐτὸς ἐθέλεις γενέσθαι 
\ A 9 A > y ean ΄ e 
καὶ τοῦτο οὐκ ἂν παρ ἄλλου ῥᾷον μάθοις, ἕπου 
Φ f À » ` , / 
μόνον, ὦ μέλημα, οἷς ἂν εἴπω καὶ ζήλου πάντα, 
καὶ τοὺς νόμους οἷς ἂν ἐπιτάξω χρῆσθαι ἀκριβῶς 
/ ^ M » , 
μοι παραφύλαττε. μᾶλλον δὲ ἤδη προχώρει 
μηδὲν ὀκνήσας μηδὲ πτοηθείς, εἰ μὴ προετελέσθης 
ἐκεῖνα τὰ πρὸ τῆς ῥητορικῆς, ὁπόσα ἡ ἄλλη 
προπαιδεία τοῖς ἀνοήτοις καὶ ματαίοις μετὰ 
^ ^ A ^ 
πολλοῦ καμάτου ὁδοποιεῖ οὐδὲν γὰρ αὐτῶν 
/ , > 9 , ’ ε f ιό 
δεήσει. ἀλλ᾽ ἀνίπτοις ποσίν---ἡ παροιμία φησίν 
z > ^ v A ^ 52 a ` 
---ἔμβαινε, οὐ μεῖον ἕξων διὰ τοῦτο, οὐδ᾽ ἄν, τὸ 
κοινότατον, μηδὲ γράφειν τὰ γράμματα εἰδῇς: 
ἄλλο γάρ τι παρὰ ταῦτα ὁ ῥήτωρ. 
“Λέξω δὲ πρῶτον μὲν ὁπόσα χρὴ αὐτόν σε 
> x / 
οἴκοθεν ἔχοντα ἥκειν ἐφύδια πρὸς τὴν πορείαν 
καὶ ὅπως ἐπισιτίσασθαι, ὡς ἂν τάχιστα διανύσαι 
δυνηθείης. ἔπειτα καὐτὸς ἃ μὲν προϊόντι ἐπι- 
δεικνὺς κατὰ τὴν 000v, ἃ δὲ καὶ παραινῶν, πρὶν 
ἥλιον δῦναι ῥήτορά σε ὑπὲρ τοὺς πάντας 
ἀποφανῶ, οἷος αὐτός εἰμι, ἀναμφιλέκτως τὰ 

1 The saying in full was ἀνίπτοις ποσὶν ἀναβαίνων ἐπὶ τὸ 
στέγος (going up to the roof with unwashed feet), and so can 



So-and-so, or So-and-so; no, you will consider the 
achievement far too prodigious and amazing even 
for Tityus or Otus or Ephialtes. Indeed, as far as 
the others are concerned, you will find that I drown 
them out as effectively as trumpets drown flutes, or 
cicadas bees, or choirs their leaders. 

* As you yourself wish to become a speaker, and 
cannot learn this with greater ease from anyone else, 
just attend, dear lad, to all that I shall say, copy me in 
everything, and always keep, I beg you, the rules 
which I shall bid you to follow. In fact, you may 
press on at once; you need not feel any hesitation 
or dismay because you have not gone through all the 
rites of initiation preliminary to Rhetoric, through 
which the usual course of elementary instruction 
guides the steps of the senseless and silly at the 
cost of great weariness. You will not require them 
at all. No, go straight in, as the proverb says, with 
unwashen feet,! and you will not fare any the worse 
for that, even if you are quite in the prevailing 
fashion and do not know how to write. Orators 
are beyond all that! 

* [ shall first tell you what equipment you must 
yourself bring with you from home for the journey, 
and how you must provision yourself so that you can 
finish it soonest. Then giving you my personal 
instruction along the road, partly by example set 
for you while you proceed, and partly by precept, 
before sunset I shall make you a public speaker, 
superior to them all, just like myself—indubitably 

hardly contain any reference to ceremonial purification. 
Perhaps going up on the roof was tantamount to going to 
bed. Cf. Song of Solomon, 5, 3. 


vol. ΙΝ. F 



^ Ν /, \ ^ ^ / 
πρώτα καὶ µέσα καὶ τελευταῖα τῶν λέγειν 
ει Κ / / & / . M , / 
oute τοίνυν τὸ μέγιστον μὲν τὴν ἀμαθίαν, 
εἶτα θράσος, ἐπὶ τούτοις δὲ τόλμαν καὶ ἀναι- 
/ ^ / t 
σχυντίαν. αἰδῶ δὲ ἢ ἐπιείκειαν ἢ μετριότητα ἡ 
ἐρύθημα οἴκοι ἀπόλιπε' ἀχρεῖα γὰρ καὶ ὑπεναντία 
τῷ πράγματι. ἀλλὰ καὶ βοὴν ὅτι μεγίστην καὶ 
/ / 
µέλος ἀναίσχυντον καὶ βάδισμα οἷον τὸ ἐμόν. 
ταῦτα δὲ ἀναγκαῖα πάνυ καὶ μόνα ἔστιν ὅτε 
ἱκανά. καὶ ἡ ἐσθὴς δὲ ἔστω εὐανθὴς ἢ! λευκή, 
2 9 ^ T / , / e ὃ / 0 
ἔργον ? τῆς Ταραντίνης ἐργασίας, ὡς διαφαίνεσθαι 
τὸ σῶμα, καὶ ἢ ὃ κρηπὶς ᾿Αττικὴ γυναικεία, τὸ 
4 ^ , M ΄ 4 ^ 
πολυσχιδές, 7) ἐμβὰς Σικυωνία πίλοις τοῖς 
λευκοῖς ἐπιπρέπουσα, καὶ ἀκόλουθοι πολλοὶ καὶ 
/ | £f 
βιβλίον ἀεί. 
cPLA M s oN M ^ M δ᾽ » 
Tavta μὲν αὐτὸν χρη συντελεῖν' τὰ Ò ἄλλα 
$ EAN » se \ ο \ xy M ΄ 
καθ ὁδὸν ἤδη προϊὼν ὅρα καὶ ἄκουε. καὶ δή σοι 
e € 
τοὺς νόμους δίειμι, οἷς χρώμενόν σε ἡ “Ρητορικὴ 
γνωριεῖ καὶ προσήσεται, οὐδὲ ἀποστραφήσεται 
- / 
καὶ σκορακιεῖ καθάπερ ἀτέλεστόν τινα καὶ κατά- 
^ , M ^ 
σκοπον τῶν ἀπορρήτων. σχήματος μὲν TO 
- - h , 
πρῶτον ἐπιμεληθῆναι χρὴ μάλιστα καὶ εὐμόρφου 
τῆς ἀναβολῆς, ἔπειτα πεντεκαίδεκα ἢ οὐ πλείω 
- L4 > h Io Σ / ^ 
ye τῶν εἴκοσιν Αττικὰ ὀνόματα ἐκλέξας ποθὲν 
^ , y ^ 
ἀκριβῶς ἐκμελετήσας, πρόχειρα ἐπ᾽ ἄκρας τῆς 
1 $ A.M.H.: ἡ B, καὶ y. 

2 ἔργον vulg. : ἔρνα MSS. 
3 ἢ (twice) A.M.H.: 7 MSS. 



first, midmost and last! of all who undertake to make 

* Bring with you, then, as the principal thing, ignor- 
ance; secondly, recklessness, and thereto effrontery 
and shamelessness. Modesty, respectability, self- 
restraint, and blushes may be left at home, for they 
are useless and somewhat of a hindrance to the 
matter in hand. But you need also a very loud 
voice, a shameless singing delivery, and a gait like 
mine. They are essential indeed, and sometimes 
sufficient in themselves? Let your clothing be 
gaily-coloured, or else white, a fabric of Tarentine 
manufacture, so that your body will show through ; 
and wear either high Attic sandals of the kind that 
women wear, with many slits, or else Sicyonian 
boots, trimmed with strips of white felt. Have also 
many attendants, and always a book in hand. 

“That is what you must contribute yourself. 
The rest you may now see and hear by the way, as 
you go forward. And next I shall tell you the rules 
that you must follow in order that Rhetoric may 
recognize and welcome you, and not turn you her 
back and bid you go to, as if you were an 
outsider prying into her privacies. First of all, you 
must pay especial attention to outward appearance, 
and to the graceful set of your cloak. Then cull 
from some source or other fifteen, or anyhow not more 
than twenty, Attic words, drill yourself carefully in 
them, and have them ready at the tip of your tongue 

1 T.e., the others are not in it with him. Compare 
Demosthenes 25, 8: ‘‘all such beasts, of whom he is midmost 
and last and first.” 

2 Compare the conversation between Demosthenes and the 
sausage-seller in Aristophanes, Knights, 150-235. 




γλώττης EXE—TO ἄττα καὶ κᾷτα καὶ μῶν καὶ 
ἀμηγέπη καὶ λῶστε καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα,---καὶ ἐν 
ἅπαντι λόγῳ καθάπερ τι ἥδυσμα € ἐπίπαττε αὐτῶν. 
μελέτω δὲ μηδὲν τῶν ἄλλων, εὐ ἀνόμοια τούτοις 
καὶ ἀσύμφυλα καὶ am pod, 7) ,πορφύρα μόνον 
ἔστω καλὴ καὶ εὐανθής, κἂν σισύρα τῶν παχειῶν 
τὸ ἱμάτιον ᾖ. μέτει ! δὲ ἀπόρρητα καὶ ξένα 
ῥήματα, σπανιάκις ὑπὸ τῶν πάλαι εἰρημένα, καὶ 
ταῦτα συμφορήσας ἀποτόξευε προχειριξόµενος 
εἰς τοὺς προσομιλοῦντας. οὕτω γάρ σε ὁ λεὼς ὁ 
πολὺς ἀποβλέψονται καὶ θαυμαστὸν ὑπο- 
λήψονται καὶ τὴν παιδείαν ὑπὲρ αὐτούς, εἰ 
" ἀποστλεγγίσασθαι” τὸ -ἀποξύσασθαι λέγοις, 
τὸ δὲ ἡλίῳ θέρεσθαι ' ' εἰληθερεῖσθαι,᾽ τὸν 
ἀρραβῶνα δὲ “προνόμιον,᾽ τὸν ὄρθρον δὲ 

“ ἀκροκνεφές. ἐνίοτε δὲ καὶ αὐτὸς ποίει καινὰ 
καὶ ἀλλόκοτα ὀνόματα καὶ νομοθέτει τὸν μὲν 
ἑρμηνεῦσαι δεινὸν $ εὔλεξιν ” καλεῖν, τὸν συνετὸν 

“σοφόνουν,᾽ τὸν ὀρχηστὴν δὲ “ χειρίσοφον.᾽ ἂν 
σολοικίσῃς δὲ 7 βαρβαρίσῃ», ἓν ἔστω φάρμακον 
ἡ ἀναισχυντία, καὶ πρόχειρον εὐθὺς ὄνομα οὔτε 
ὄντος τινὸς οὔτε γενομένου ποτέ, 7? ποιητοῦ ἡ 
συγγραφέως, ὃς οὕτω λέγειν ἐδοκίμαζε σοφὸς 
ἀνὴρ καὶ τὴν φωνὴν εἰς τὸ ἀκρότατον ἀπηκριβω- 
μένος. ἀλλὰ καὶ ἀναγίγνωσκε τὰ παλαιὰ μὲν μὴ 
σύ γε, μηδὲ εἴ τι ὁ λῆρος Ισοκράτης ἡ ἢ 0 χαρίτων 
ἄμοιρος Δημοσθένης À 0 ψυχρὸς Πλάτων, ἀλλὰ 
τοὺς τῶν ὀλίγον πρὸ ἡμῶν λόγους καὶ ἅς φασι 

1 µέτει Bekker: μετὰ MSS. 

1 Two of the terms require a word of comment: xára 
means ‘‘and then," not '* eftsoons," aud the peculiarly Attic 



—‘sundry,’ ‘eftsoons,’ ‘prithee,’ ‘in some wise, ‘fair 
sir, and the like.! Whenever you speak, sprinkle 
in some of them as a relish. Never mind if the rest 
is inconsistent with them, unrelated, and discordant. 
Only let your purple stripe be handsome and bright, 
even if your cloak is but a blanket of the thickest 
sort. Hunt up obscure, unfamiliar words, rarely 
used by the ancients, and have a heap of these in 
readiness to launch at your audience. The many- 
headed crowd will look up to you and think you 
amazing, and far beyond themselves in education, 
if you call rubbing down *destrigillation, taking a 
sun-bath ‘insolation, advance payments ‘hansel; 
and daybreak *crepuscule. Sometimes you must 
yourself make new monstrosities of words and pre- 
scribe that an able writer be called fine-dictioned, 
an intelligent man sage-minded, and a dancer handi- 
wise.? If you commit a solecism or a barbarism, let 
shamelessness be your sole and only remedy, and be 
ready at once with the name of someone who is not 
now alive and never was, either a poet or a historian, 
saying that he, a learned man, extremely precise 
in his diction, approved the expression. As for 
reading the classics, don’t you do it—either that 
twaddling Isocrates or that uncouth Demosthenes or 
that tiresome Plato. No, read the speeches of the 
men who lived only a little before our own time, and 

feature was the crasis (xal εἶτα being run together); μῶν was 
used to introduce a question, like num in Latin, and was in 
Lucian's day obsolete. 

? According to Lucian himself in the treatise On Dancing 
(69), the word χειρίσοφος (handiwise) was applied to dancers 
by Lesbonax, a rhetorician, whose son was one of Tiberius 
teachers. Its appropriateness lay in the extensive use of 
gesture in Greek dancing. 




ταύτας μελέτας, ὡς ἔχης ἀπ᾽ ἐκείνων ἐπισυτισά- 
pevos ἐν καιρῷ καταχρῆσθαι καθάπερ ἐκ ταμιείου 

«Επειδὰν δὲ καὶ δέῃ λέγειν καὶ οἱ παρόντες 
ὑποβάλωσί τινας ὑποθέσεις καὶ ἀφορμὰς τῶν 
λόγων, à ἅπαντα μὲν ὁπόσα ἂν ᾗ δυσχερῆ, γεγέσθω; 2 
καὶ ἐκφαυλιξέσθω ὡς οὐδὲν ὅλως ἀνδρῶδες αὐτῶν. 
ἑλομένων δέ, μὴ μελλήσας λέγε ὅττι κεν ἐπ᾽ 
ἀκαιρίμαν ? γλῶτταν ἔλθῃ, μηδὲν ἐκείνων 
ἐπιμεληθείς, ὡς τὸ πρῶτον, ὥσπερ οὖν καὶ ἔστι 

πρῶτον, ἐρεῖς ἐν καιρῷ προσήκοντι καὶ τὸ 
δεύτερον μετὰ τοῦτο καὶ τὸ τρίτον μετ᾽ ἐκεῖνο, 
ἀλλὰ τὸ πρῶτον ἐμπεσὸν πρῶτον λεγέσθω, καὶ 
ἣν οὕτω τύχῃ, περὶ τῷ μετώπῳ μὲν ἡ κνημίς, 
περὶ τῇ κνήμῃ δὲ ἡ ἡ κόρυς. πλὴν ἀλλ, ἔπειγε καὶ 
σύνειρε καὶ μὴ σιώπα μόνον. κἂν περὶ ὑβριστοῦ 
τινος ἢ μοιχοῦ λέγης ᾿Αθήνησι, τὰ ἐν ᾿Ινδοῖς καὶ 
᾿Εκβατάνοις λεγέσθω. ἐπὶ πᾶσι δὲ ὁ ὁ Μαραθὼν 
καὶ ὁ Κυνέγειρος, ὧν οὐκ ἄν τι ἄνευ γένοιτο. 
καὶ ἀεὶ ὁ Άθως πλείσθω καὶ ὁ [Πλλήσποντος 
πεζευέσθω καὶ ὁ τος ὑπὸ τῶν Μηδικῶν βελῶν 
σκεπέσθω καὶ Ξέρξης φευγέτω καὶ Λεωνίδας 
θαυμαξέσθω καὶ τὰ ᾿Ὀθρυάδου γράμματα ava- 
γιγνωσκέσθω, καὶ ἡ Σαλαμὶς καὶ τὸ ᾿Αρτεμίσιον 
καὶ αἱ Πλαταιαὶ πολλὰ ταῦτα καὶ πυκνά. καὶ 
ἐπὶ πᾶσι τὰ ὀλίγα ἐκεῖνα ὀνόματα. ἐπιπολαζέτω 
καὶ ἐπανθείτω, καὶ συνεχὲς τὸ ἅττα καὶ τὸ 

: ψεγέσθω Hermann; λεγέσθω MSS. 
2 ἐπ’ ἀκαιρίμαν Valckenaer; ἐπὶ καιρήματι N, ἐπὶ καὶ ῥῆμα B. 

1 7.e., declainations. 



these pieces that they call ‘exercises,’ in order to 
secure from them a supply of provisions which you 
can use up as occasion arises, drawing, as it were, on 
the buttery. 

“When you really must speak, and those present 
suggest themes and texts for your discussion, carp 
at all the hard ones and make light of them as not 
fit, any one of them, fora real man. But when they 
have made their selection,” unhesitatingly say ‘ what- 
ever comes to the tip of your unlucky tongue.’ ὃ 
Take no pains at all that the first thing, just be- 
cause it really is first, shall be said at the appropriate 
time, and the second directly after it, and the third 
after that, but say first whatever occurs to you first ; 
and if it so happens, don't hesitate to buckle your 
leggings on your head and your helmet on your leg.‘ 
But do make haste and keep it going, and only don't 
stop talking. If you are speaking of a case of assault 
or adultery at Athens, mention instances in India 
or Ecbatana. Cap everything with references to 
Marathon and Cynegeirus, without which you cannot 
succeed at all. Unendingly let Athos be crossed in 
ships and the Hellespont afoot; let the sun be 
shadowed by the arrows of the Medes, and Xerxes 
flee the field and Leonidas receive admiration ; let 
the inscription of Othryades be deciphered, and let 
allusions to Salamis, Artemisium, and Plataea come 
thick and fast. Over everything let those few 
words of yours run riot and bloom, and let ‘sundry’ 

? That is to say, when the audience had selected, from the 
different topics suggested by individuals, the one that they 

3 A quotation from an unknown poet, which had become a 
proverb (Athenaeus 5, 217 c). 

* Proverbial for putting the cart before the horse. 




δήπουθεν, κἂν μηδὲν αὐτῶν δέῃ᾽ καλὰ γάρ ἐστι 
καὶ εἰκῆ λεγόμενα. 

“Hy δέ ποτε καὶ d ἆσαι καιρὸς εἶναι δοκῇ, πάντα 

σοι ἀδέσθω καὶ μέλος γιγνέσθω. κἄν ποτε 
ἀπορήσης πράγματος ὠδικοῦ, τοὺς ἄνδρας τοὺς 
ικαστὰς ὀνομάσας ἐμμελῶς πεπληρωκέναι οἵου 
τὴν ἁρμονίαν. τὸ δὲ οἴμοι τῶν κακῶν πολλάκις, 
καὶ Ò μηρὸς πατασσέσθω, καὶ λαρύγγιξε καὶ 
ἐπιχρέμπτου τοῖς λεγομένοις καὶ βάδιζε µετα- 
φέρων τὴν πυγήν. καὶ ἣν μέν σε μὴ ἐπαινῶσιν, 
ἀγανάκτει καὶ λοιδοροῦ αὐτοῖς: ἣν δὲ ὀρθοὶ 
ἑστήκωσιν ὑπὸ τῆς αἰσχύνης ἤδη πρὸς τὴν ἔξοδον 
ἕτοιμοι, καθέζεσθαι κέλευε, καὶ ὅλως τυραννὶς 
τὸ πρᾶγμα ἔστω. 

“«"Ὅπως δὲ καὶ τὸ πλῆθος τῶν λόγων θαυμά- 
ζωσιν, ἀπὸ τῶν Γλιακῶν ἀρξάμενος ἢ καὶ νὴ Δία 
ἀπὸ τῶν Δευκαλίωνος καὶ Πύρρας γάμων, ἣν δοκῇ, 
καταβίβαξε τὸν λόγον ἐπὶ τὰ νῦν καθεστῶτα. 
οἱ μὲν γὰρ συνιέντες ὀλίγοι, οἳ μάλιστα μὲν 
σιωπήσονται vr εὐγνωμοσύνης: 7v δὲ καὶ λέγωσί 
τι, ὑπὸ φθόνου αὐτὸ δόξουσι δρᾶν. οἱ πολλοὶ δὲ 
τὸ σχῆμα καὶ φωνὴν καὶ βάδισμα καὶ περίπατον 
καὶ μέλος καὶ κρηπῖδα καὶ τὸ ἄττα σου ἐκεῖνο 
τεθήπασι, καὶ τὸν ἱδρῶτα. ὁρῶντες καὶ τὸ ἆσθμα 
οὐκ ἔχουσιν ὅπως ἀπιστήσουσι μὴ οὐχὶ πάνδει- 
νόν τινα ἐν τοῖς λόγοις ἀγωνιστὴν. εἶναί σε. 
ἄλλως τε καὶ τὸ ταχὺ τοῦτο οὐ μικρὰν ἔχει τὴν 
ἀπολογίαν καὶ θαῦμα παρὰ τοῖς πολλοῖς' ὥστε 
ὅρα μή ποτε γράψῃς. 7) σκεψάμενος παρέλθῃς, 
ἔλεγχος γὰρ σαφὴς ταῦτά γε. 

1 That is to say, before the Flood. 


and ‘forsooth’ be incessant, even if there is no need 
of them ; for they are ornamental even when uttered 
at random. 

* |f ever it seems an opportune time to intone, 
intone everything and turn it into song. And if 
ever you are at a loss for matter to intone, say 
‘Gentlemen of the jury’ in the proper tempo and 
consider the music of your sentence complete. Cry 
‘Woe is me!’ frequently; slap your thigh, bawl, 
clear your throat while you are speaking, and stride 
about swaying your hips. If they do not cry 
‘Hear!’ be indignant and upbraid them; and if 
they stand up, ready to go out in disgust, command 
them to sit down: in short, carry the thing with a 
high hand. 

“That they may marvel at the fulness of your 
speeches, begin with the story of Troy, or even with 
the marriage of Deucalion and Pyrrha,! if you like, 
and bring your account gradually down to date. 
Few will see through you, and they, as a rule, will 
hold their tongues out of good nature; if, however, 
they do make any comment, it will be thought that 
they are doing it out of spite. The rank and file 
are already struck dumb with admiration of your 
appearance, your diction, your gait, your pacing 
back and forth, your intoning, your sandals, and 
that ‘sundry’ of yours; and when they see your 
sweat and your labouring breath they cannot fail to 
believe that you are a terrible opponent in debates. 
Besides, your extemporary readiness goes a long 
way with the crowd to absolve your mistakes and 
procure you admiration ; so see to it that you never 
write anything out or appear in public with a 
prepared speech, for that is sure to show you up. 





“Οἱ φίλοι δὲ ἀναπηδάτωσαν} ἀεὶ καὶ μισθὸν 
τῶν δείπνων ἀποτινέτωσαν, εἴ ποτε αἴσθοιντό σε 
καταπεσούμενον, χεῖρα ὀρέγοντες καὶ παρέχοντες 
εὑρεῖν τὸ λεχθησόμενον ἐν τοῖς μεταξὺ τῶν 
ἐπαίνων διαλείμμασι' καὶ γὰρ αὖ καὶ τοῦδε 
μελέτω σοι τὸν χορὸν ἔχειν οἰκεῖον καὶ συνάδοντα. 

“Ταῦτα μέν σοι τὰ ἐν τοῖς λόγοις. μετὰ ταῦτα 
δὲ προϊόντα σε δορυφορείτωσαν ἐγκεκαλυμμένον. 
αὐτὸν καὶ περὶ ὧν ἔφης μεταξὺ διαλαμβάνοντα. 
καὶ ἤν τις ἐντύχῃ, θαυμάσια περὶ σαυτοῦ λέγε 
καὶ ὑπερεπαίνει καὶ ἐπαχθὴς γίγνου αὐτῷ. “τί 
γὰρ ὁ Ἡαιανιεὺς πρὸς ἐμέ ; καί, «Πρὸς ἕνα 
ἴσως μοι τῶν παλαιῶν ὁ ἀγών' καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα. 

“Ὃ δὲ μέγιστον καὶ πρὸς τὸ εὐδοκιμεῖν avay- 
καιότατον ὀλίγου δεῖν παρέλιπον, ἁπάντων κατα- 
γέλα τῶν λεγόντων. καὶ ἣν μέν τις καλῶς εἴπη, 
ἀλλότρια καὶ οὐχ ἑαυτοῦ δεικνύειν δοκείτω: ἦν 
δὲ μετρίως ἐλεγχθῇ, πάντα ἔστω ἐπιλήψιμα. καὶ 
ἐν ταῖς ἀκροάσεσι μετὰ πάντας εἰσιέναι ρή, 
ἐπίσημον γάρ' καὶ σιωπησάντων ἁπάντων ξένον 
τινὰ ἔπαινον ἐπειπεῖν τὰς ἀκοὰς τῶν παρόντων 
ἐπιστρέψοντα ὃ καὶ ἐνοχλήσοντα, ὡς ναυτιᾶν 
ἅπαντας ἐπὶ τῷ φορτικῶ τῶν ὀνομάτων καὶ 

1 ἀναπηδάτωσαν Sommerbrodt : πηδάτωσαν MSS. 

2 ἐλεγχθῇ Α.Μ.Η., ἐνεχθῇ MSS. 
3 ἐπιστρέψοντα Bekker : ἐπιστρέφοντα MSS. 

1 The word chorus here approaches the sense that it has in 
Libanius, where it designates the different bands of scholars 
attached to the various professors at Athens. So Aelian 
(Var. Hist. 3, 19) says of Aristotle that he gathered about 
him a chorus of pupils, and set upon Plato. Cf. Plato, 
Prot. 315 5. 



* Let your friends spring to their feet constantly 
and pay you for their dinners by lending you a 
hand whenever they perceive that vou are about 
to fall down, and giving you a chance to find what 
to say next in the intervals afforded by their 
applause. Of course you must make it your busi- 
ness to have a well-attuned chorus of your own.!. 

“There you have what concerns the speaking. 
Afterwards let them? dance attendance upon you 
as you go away with your head swathed in your 
mantle, reviewing what you have said. And if 
any one accosts you, make marvellous assertions 
about yourself, be extravagant in your self-praise, 
and make yourself a nuisance to him. * What was 
Demosthenes beside me?’ ‘Perhaps one of the 
ancients is in the running with me!’ and that sort 
of thing. 

“I almost omitted the thing that is most im- 
portant and most needful for maintaining your 
reputation. Laugh at all the speakers. If anyone 
makes a fine speech, let it appear that heis parading 
something that belongs to someone else and is not 
his own ; and if he is mildly criticized, let everything 
that he says be objectionable. At public lectures, 
go in after everybody else, for that makes you con- 
spicuous; and when everybody is silent, let fall an 
uncouth expression of praise which will draw the 
attention of the company and so annoy them that 
they will all be disgusted at the vulgarity of your 

* Not simply the friends, but the spectators also. See 
Lucian's Zeuxis. 

3 This is not the orator, but Lucian himself, breaking 
through the veil of irony and saying what he really 
thinks. See below. 



3 ΄ M > . » , l . A 

ἐπιφράττεσθαι τὰ ὦτα. καὶ ἐπισείσης δὲ μὴ 
΄ ^ 3 $ ^ 

πολλάκις τὴν χεῖρα, εὐτελὲς γάρ, μηδ᾽ ἀναστῇς, 

~ el À X ` ^ e / . 
πλὴν ἅπαξ γε ἡ δὶς τὸ πλεῖστον. ὑπομειδία δὲ 

. ^ ΄ ^ 
τὰ πολλὰ καὶ δῆλος γίγνου μὴ ἀρεσκόμενος τοῖς 
λεγομένοις. ἀμφιλαφεῖς δὲ αἱ ἀφορμαὶ τῶν 

^ ^ NITE 
µέμψεων τοῖς συκοφαντικοῖς τὰ ὦτα. 

“Ta δ ἄλλα χρὴ θαρρεῖν' ἡ τόλμα γὰρ καὶ ἡ 
ἀναισχυντία καὶ ψεῦδος πρόχειρον καὶ ὅρκος ἐπ᾽ 
ἄκροις ἀεὶ τοῖς χείλεσι καὶ φθόνος πρὸς ἅπαντας 
καὶ μῖσος καὶ βλασφημία καὶ διαβολαὶ πιθαναί--- 

^ ΄ / ^ 
ταῦτά σε ἀοίδιμον ἐν βραχεῖ καὶ περίβλεπτον 

r ^ 8 4 
23 “οιαῦτα μὲν τὰ φανερὰ καὶ τὰ ἔξω. ἰδίᾳ δὲ 
πάντα πράγματα ποιεῖν σοι δεδόχθω, κυβεύειν 
μεθύσκεσθαι λαγνεύειν μοιχεύειν, ἢ αὐχεῖν γε, 
κἂν μὴ ποιῇς, καὶ πρὸς ἅπαντας λέγειν καὶ 

"^ e N "^ ^ 
γραμματεῖα ὑποδεικνύναι ὑπὸ γυναικῶν δῆθεν 

/ `~ N 3 [ή . N /, 
γραφέντα. καλὸς γὰρ εἶναι θέλε καὶ σοὶ μελέτω 
ὑπὸ τῶν γυναικῶν σπουδάξεσθαι δοκεῖν: εἰς τὴν 
ῥητορικὴν γὰρ καὶ τοῦτο ἀνοίσουσιν οἱ πολλοί, 
ὡς διὰ τοῦτό σου καὶ ἄχρι τῆς γυναικωνίτιδος 
JÒ ^ \ N Ô e^ δέ . Ι ὃ 05 3 
εὐδοκιμοῦντος. καὶ τὸ δεῖνα δέ, μὴ αἰδεσθῇς, εἰ 

` "^ "F^ "^ f 
καὶ πρὸς ἀνδρῶν ἐπὶ τῷ ἑτέρῳ ! ἐρᾶσθαι δοκοίης, 

Ν ^ / A oN / ν » 
καὶ ταῦτα γενειήτης ἢ καὶ νὴ Δία φαλακρὸς ἤδη 
ὦν. ἀλλ᾽ ἔστωσαν οἱ καὶ ἐπὶ τούτῳ συνόντες: 
^ ` A > , ’ [4 / X . Δ.» 
ἣν δὲ μὴ ὦσιν, οἰκέται ἱκανοί. πολλὰ γὰρ καὶ ἐκ 
τοῦ τοιούτου πρὸς τὴν ῥητορικὴν χρήσιμα παρα- 

γίγνεται: πλείων ἡ ἀναισχυντία καὶ θράσος. 

1 ἑταιρεῖν Bekker. 



language and will stop their ears.! Do not make 
frequent gestures of assent, for that is common, 
and do not rise,? except once or at most twice. As 
a rule, smile faintly, and make it evident that you 
are not satisfied with what is being said. There 
are plenty of opportunities for criticism if one has 
captious ears. 

“ For the rest, you need have no fear. Effrontery 
and shamelessness, a prompt lie, with an oath to 
confirm it always on the edge of your lips, jealousy 
and hatred of everyone, abuse and plausible slanders 
—All this will make you famous and distinguished in 
an instant. 

“So much for your life in public and in the open. 
In your private life, be resolved to do anything and 
everything—to dice, to drink deep, to live high and 
to keep mistresses, or at all events to boast of it 
even if you do not do it, telling everyone about it 
and showing notes that purport to be written by 
women. You must aim to be elegant, you know, 
and take.pains to create the impression that women 
are devoted to you. This also will be set down 
to the credit of your rhetoric by the public, who 
will infer from it that your fame extends even to the 
women's quarters. And I say—do not be ashamed 
to have the name of being an effeminate, even if you 
are bearded or actually bald. There should be some 
who hang about you on that account, but if there 
are none, your slaves will answer. This helps your 
rhetoric in many ways; it increases your shameless- 

Here again Lucian himself breaks through, and describes 
what a fellow of this sort actually does. The man himself 
would put it quite differently. 

? A form of applause; cf. Essays in Portraiture Defended, 
c. 4, at end. 



€ ^ e / e ^ . - 
ὁρᾷς ὡς λαλίστεραι αἱ γυναῖκες καὶ λοιδοροῦνται 
^ ή 
περιττῶς καὶ ὑπὲρ τοὺς ἄνδρας ; εἰ δὴ τὰ ὅμοια 
πάσχοις, καὶ ταῦτα διοίσεις τῶν ἄλλων. καὶ μὴν 
καὶ πιττοῦσθαι χρή, μάλιστα μὲν τὰ πάντα, εἰ δὲ 
μή, πάντως ἐκεῖνα. καὶ αὐτὸ δέ σοι τὸ στόμα πρὸς 
, ^ 
ἅπαντα ὁμοίως κεχηνέτω, καὶ ἡ γλῶττα ὑπηρε- 
, ~ N M 4 M ν N Y 
τείτω και προς TOUS λογους καὶ προς Ta ἄλλα 
ϱ / ^ , / ` , r 
ὁπόσα ἂν δύνηται. δύναται δὲ où σολοικίξειν 
/ ^ ^ 
μόνον καὶ βαρβαρίζειν οὐδὲ ληρεῖν ἡ ἐπιορκεῖν ἢ 
λοιδορεῖσθαι ἢ διαβάλλειν καὶ ψεύδεσθαι, ἀλλὰ 
\ , y e ^ \ 7 A 
καὶ νυκτωρ τι ἄλλο υποτελεῖν, καὶ μάλιστα Ùv 
~ ej \ \ »y x / 
προς οὕτω πολλους τοὺς ἔρωτας μὴ διαρκέσῃς. 
πάντα αὐτὴ ye ἐπιστάσθω καὶ γονιμωτέρα 
/ M δὲ 2 / 0 
γιγνέσθω καὶ μηδὲν ἀποστρεφέσθω. 
24  '""Hrvravra, ὦ παῖ, καλῶς ἐκμάθης---δύνασαι δέ" 
> \ N 3 > ^ ΄ ^ 3 / 
οὐδὲν γὰρ ἐν αὐτοῖς βαρύ---θαρρῶν ἐπαγγέλλομα: 
οὐκ εἰς μακράν σε ἄριστον ῥήτορα καὶ ἡμῖν ὅμοιον 
9 ’ ~ \ ^ \ > 3. X 
ἀποτελεσθήσεσθαι. TO μετὰ τοῦτο δὲ οὐκ ἐμὲ 
. / e , ^ / Να \ 
χρὴ λέγειν, ὅσα ἐν βραχεῖ παρέσται σοι τὰ ἀγαθὰ 
^ ^ € ^ \ 
παρὰ τῆς 'Ῥητορικῆς. ὁρᾶς ἐμέ, ὃς πατρὸς μὲν 
» ^ ~ 3 M ^ 3 / > , 
ἀφανοῦς καὶ οὐδὲ καθαρῶς ἐλευθέρου ἐγενόμην 
ὑπὲρ Eóiv καὶ Θμοῦιν δεδουλευκότος, μητρὸς δὲ 
> / > 9 , ’ / 3 M . 
ἀκεστρίας ἐπ᾽ ἀμφοδίου τινός. αὐτὸς δὲ τὴν 
ο 9 3 / > / Ν \ 
ὥραν ov παντάπασιν ἀδόκιμος εἶναι δόξας τὸ μὲν 
^ 3 . ^ ^ / ^ 
πρῶτον ἐπὶ ψιλῷ τῷ τρέφεσθαι συνῆν τινι 
κακοδαίµονι καὶ γλίσχρῳ ἐραστῇ. ἐπεὶ δὲ τὴν 



ness and effrontery. You observe that women are 
more talkative, and that in calling names they are 
extravagant and outstrip men. Well, if you imitate 
them you will excel your rivals even there. Of 
course you must use depilatories, preferably all 
over, but if not, at least where most necessary. 
And let your mouth be open for everything in- 
differently; let your tongue serve you not only 
in your speeches, but in any other way it can. 
And it can not only solecize and barbarize, not only 
twaddle and forswear, call names and slander and 
lie—it can perform other services even at night, 
especially if your love affairs are too numerous. 
Yes, that must know everything, be lively, and balk 
at nothing. 

* [f you thoroughly learn all this, my lad—and 
you can, for there is nothing difficult about it—I 
promise you confidently that right soon you will 
turn out an exccllent speaker, just like myself. 
And there is no need for me to tell you what will 
follow—all the blessings that will instantly accrue 
to you from Rhetoric. You see my own case. My 
father was an insignificant fellow without even a 
clear title to his freedom, who had been a slave 
above Xois and Thmuis, and my mother was a 
seamstress in the slums. For myself, as my personal 
attractions were considered not wholly contemptible, 
at first I lived with an ill-conditioned, stingy admirer 
just for my keep. But then I detected the easi- 

1 Xois and Thmuis were towns in the Nile delta, the one 
in the Sebennitic nome, the other to the eastward, capital of 
the Thmuite nome. Lucian may mean simply ** up-country 
in the Delta? ; but it is better, I think, to take his words 

more literally as meaning ‘‘up-country in each of those two 



ὁδὸν ταύτην ῥᾷστην οὖσαν κατεῖδον καὶ διεκπαί- 
σας ἐπὶ τῷ ἄκρῳ ἐγενόμην--ὑπῆρχε γάρ pot, ὧ 
φίλη ᾿Αδράστεια, πάντα ἐκεῖνα ἃ προεῖπον 
ἐφόδια, τὸ θράσος, ἡ ἀμαθία, ἡ ἀναισχυντία--- 
πρῶτον. μὲν οὐκέτι Ἠοθεινὸς ὀνομάξομαι, ἀλλ ἤδη 
τοῖς Διὸς καὶ Λήδας παισὶν ὁμώνυμος γεγένημαι. 
ἔπειτα δὲ pat συνοικήσας τὸ πρῶτον μὲν 
ἐγαστριξόμην πρὸς αὐτῆς ἐρᾶν προσποιούμενος 
γυναικὸς ἑβδομηκοντούτιδος τέτταρας ἔτι λοιποὺς 
ὀδόντας ἐχούσης, χρυσίῳ καὶ τούτους ἐνδεδεμέ- 
νους. πλὴν ἀλλά γε διὰ τὴν πενίαν ὑφιστάμην 
τὸν ἆθλον καὶ τὰ ψυχρὰ ἐκεῖνα τὰ ἐκ τῆς σοροῦ 
φιλήματα ὑπερήδιστά μοι ἐποίει ὁ λιμός. εἶτα 
ὀλίγου δεῖν κληρονόμος ὧν εἶχεν ἁπάντων 
κατέστην, εἰ μὴ κατάρατός τις οἰκέτης ἐμήνυσεν 
ὡς φάρμακον εἴην ἐπ᾽ αὐτὴν ἑωνημένος. | ἐξωσθεὶς 
δὲ ἐπὶ κεφαλὴν ὅμως οὐδὲ τότε ἠπόρησα τῶν 
ἀναγκαίων, ἀλλὰ καὶ ῥήτωρ οκῶ κάν ταῖς δίκαις 
ἐξετάξομαι προδιδοὺς τὰ πολλὰ καὶ τοὺς δικαστὰς 
τοῖς ἀνοήτοις καθυπισχνούμενος, καὶ ἡττῶμαι 
μὲν τὰ πλεῖστα, οἱ φοίνικες δὲ ἐπὶ τῇ θύρᾳ 
χλωροὶ καὶ ἐστεφανωμένοι: τούτοις γὰρ ἐπὶ τοὺς 
υστυχεῖς χρῶμαι τοῖς δελέασιν. ἀλλὰ καὶ τὸ 
μισεῖσθαι πρὸς ἁπάντων καὶ ἐπίσημον εἶναί με 
ἐπὶ τῇ μοχθηρίᾳ τοῦ τρόπου καὶ πολὺ πρότερον 
τῶν λόγων καὶ τὸ δείκνυσθαι τῷ δακτύλῳ τοῦ- 
τον ἐκεῖνον τὸν ἀκρότατον ἐν πάσῃ κακία λεγό- 
μενον, οὐ μικρὸν εἶναι ἐμοί γε δοκεῖ. 

1 Desiderius, Désiré. 

* Castor and Pollux. This passage is the corner-stone of 
the argument that Pollux is the person at whom Lucian is 



ness of this road, galloped over it, and reached the 
summit; for I possessed (by thy grace, Fortune!) 
all that equipment which I have already mentioned— 
recklessness, ignorance, and shamelessness. And 
now, in the first place, my name is no longer 
Potheinus,! but I have become a namesake of the 
sons of Zeus and Leda.? Moreover, I went to 
live with an old woman and for a time got my 
victuals from her by pretending to love a hag of 
seventy with only four teeth still left, and those 
four fastened in with gold! However, on account 
of my poverty I managed to endure the ordeal, and 
hunger made even those frigid, graveyard kisses 
exceedingly sweet to me. Then I very nearly be- 
came heir to all her property, if only a plaguy slave 
had not blabbed that I had bought poison for her. 
I was bundled out neck and crop, yet even then I 
was not at a loss for the necessaries of life. Νο, 
I enjoy the name of a speaker, and prove myself 
such in the courts, generally playing false to my 
clients, although I promise the poor fools to deliver 
their juries to them.? To be sure I am generally un- 
successful, but the palm-leaves at my door are green 
and twined with fillets, for I use them as bait for my 
victims.* But even to be detested by everyone, to 
be notorious for the badness of my character and 
the still greater badness of my speeches, to be 
pointed out with the finger—* There he is, the man 
who, they say, is foremost in all iniquity !'—seems to 
me no slight achievement. 

3 He is an accomplished praevaricator, not only selling out 
to the other side, but extracting money from his own clients 
under pretext of bribing the jury. 

* For palm-branches as a token of success at the bar, see 
Juvenal 7, 118, and Mayor's note. 




“Ταῦτά σοι παραινῶ, νὴ τὴν πάνδημον, πολὺ 
πρότερον ἐμαυτῷ παραινέσας καὶ χάριν ἐμαυτῷ 
οὐ μικρὰν ἐπιστάμενος. 

Kiev: ὁ μὲν γεννάδας. εἰπὼν ταῦτα πεπαύσεται' 
σὺ δὲ ἢ ἦν. πεισθῆς τοῖς εἰρημένοις, καὶ δὴ παρεῖναι 
νόμιξε οἷπερ ἐξ ἀρχῆς ἐπόθεις ἐλθεῖν, καὶ οὐδὲν 
σε κωλύσει ἑπόμενον τοῖς νόμοις ἔν τε τοῖς 
δικαστηρίοις κρατεῖν καὶ ἐν τοῖς πλήθεσιν 
εὐδοκιμεῖν καὶ ἐπέραστον εἶναι καὶ γαμεῖν οὐ 

γραῦν τινα τῶν κωμικῶν, καθάπερ ὁ νομοθέτης 
καὶ διδάσκαλος, ἀλλὰ καλλίστην γυναῖκα τὴν 
“Ρητορικήν, ὡς τὸ τοῦ Πλάτωνος ἐκεῖνο πτηνὸν 
ἅρμα ἐλαύνοντα φέρεσθαι σοὶ μᾶλλον πρέπειν 
περὶ σεαυτοῦ εἰπεῖν ἢ ἐκείνῳ περὶ τοῦ Atos: ἐγὼ 
δὲ---ἀγεννὴς γὰρ καὶ δειλός εἰμι---ἐκστήσομαι τῆς 
ὁδοῦ ὑμῖν καὶ παύσομαι τῇ Ῥητορικῇ ἐπιπολάζων, 
ἀσύμβολος ὢν πρὸς αὐτὴν τὰ ὑμέτερα" μᾶλλον 
δὲ «ἤδη πέπαυμαι, ὥστε ἀκονιτὶ ἀνακηρύττεσθε 
καὶ θαυμάξεσθε, μόνον τοῦτο μεμνημένοι, ὅτι μὴ 
τῷ τάχει ἡμῶν κεκρατήκατε ὠκύτεροι φανέντες, 
ἀλλὰ τῷ ῥάστην καὶ πρανῆ τραπέσθαι τὴν ὁδόν. 

1 Plato, Phaedrus, 946 E. 



“ This is the advice which I bestow upon you. By 
Our Lady of the Stews, I bestowed it upon myself 
long ago, and am deeply grateful to myself for it." 

Well, the gentleman will end his remarks with 
that, and then it is up to you. If you heed what he 
has said, you may consider that even now you are 
where in the beginning you yearned to be; and 
nothing can hinder you, as long as you follow his 
rules, from holding the mastery in the courts, en- 
joying high favour with the public, being attractive, 
and marrying, not an old woman out of a comedy, 
as did your law-giver and tutor, but Rhetoric, fairest 
of brides. Consequently, Plato's famous phrase 
about driving full-tilt in a winged car can be applied 
by you to yourself with a better grace than by him 
to Zeus.1 As for me, I am spiritless and faint- 
hearted, so I will get out of the road for you, and stop 
trifling with Rhetoric, being unable to recommend 
myself to her by qualifications like those of yourself 
and your friend. Indeed, Ι have stopped already ; 
so get the herald to proclaim an uncontested victory 
and take your tribute of admiration, remembering 
only this, that it is not by your speed that you have 
defeated us, through proving yourself more swift of 
foot than we, but because you took the road that 
was easy and downhill. 



AN account of the false priest of Asclepius, Alexander of 
Abonoteichus. It has been discussed in detail by Cumont in 
the Mémoires couronnées de l'académie de Belgique, vol. xl 

Although Alexander achieved honour not only in his own 
country, a small city in remote Paphlagonia, but over a large 
part of the Roman world, almost nothing is known of him 
exeept from the pages of Lucian. Gems, coins, and in- 
scriptions corroborate Lucian as far as they go, testifying to 
Alexander’s actual existence and widespread influence, and 
commemorating the name and even the appearance of 
Glycon, his human-headed serpent. But were it not for 
Lucian, we should not understand their full signifieance. 

Alexander's religious activity covered roughly the years 
A.D. 150-170. The cult which he established outlasted him 
for at least a century. It was highly unusual in its char- 
acter, as Cumont observes. Sacred snakes were a regular 
feature of sanctuaries of Asclepius ; but to give a serpent a 
human head and style it the god incarnate was a distinct 
innovation. Moreover, the proper function of Asclepius was 
to heal the sick, who passed the night in his temple, 
expecting either to be cured while they slept or to have 
some form of treatment suggested to them in their dreams. 
But at Abonoteichus we hear nothing of ineubation, and 
only incidentally of healing ; the ‘‘new Asclepius” deals in 
oraeles like Apollo, and gives advice on any subject. This, 
together with Alexander's extravagant claims of divine 
descent, confirms Lucian in his appraisal of him as an out- 
and-out charlatan, aiming to play upon the gross credulity of 
the times and to secure the greatest gain with the least effort. 

Lucian was in a position to know a good deal abont 
Alexander, and clearly believes all that he says. Without 
doubt his account is essentially accurate, but it need not be 
credited absolutely to the letter. Lucian was no historian 
at best, and he was angry. In the account of his relations 
with Alexander he reveals his own personality more clearly 
than usual, but not in a pleasant light. 

The piece was written at the request of a friend, after 
A.D. 180, when Alexander had been in his grave for ten years. 



Σὺ μὲν ἴσως, ὦ φίλτατε Κέλσε, μικρόν τι καὶ 
φαῦλον οἴει τὸ πρόσταγμα, προστάττειν τὸν 
᾿Αλεξάνδρου σοι τοῦ ᾿Αβωνοτειχίτου γόητος βίον 
καὶ ἐπινοίας αὐτοῦ καὶ τολμήματα καὶ μαγγανείας 
εἰς βιβλίον ἐγγράψαντα πέμψαι' τὸ δέ, εἴ τις 
ἐθέλοι πρὸς τὸ ἀκριβὲς ἕκαστον ἐπεξιέναι, οὐ 
μεῖόν ἐστιν ἢ τὰς ᾿Αλεξάνδρου τοῦ Φιλίππου 
πράξεις ἀναγράψαι' τοσοῦτος εἰς κακίαν οὗτος, 
ὅσος εἰς ἀρετὴν ἐκεῖνος. ὅμως δὲ εἰ μετὰ 
συγγνώμης ἀναγνώσεσθαι μέλλοις καὶ τὰ ἐνδέοντα 
τοῖς ἱστορουμένοις προσλογιεῖσθαι, i ὑποστήσομαί 
σοι τὸν ἆθλον, καὶ τὴν Αὐγέου βουστασίαν, εἰ 
καὶ μὴ πᾶσαν, ἀλλ᾽ εἰς δύναμίν γε τὴν ἐμαυτοῦ 
ἀνακαθάρασθαι πειράσομαι, ὀλίγους ὅσους τῶν 
κοφίνων ἐκφορήσας, ὡς ἀπ᾽ ἐκείνων τεκμαίροιο 
πόση πᾶσα καὶ ὡς ἀμύθητος ἦν ἡ κόπρος ἣν 

Available in photographs: r, UPN. (T lost as far as 
τινος ἄλλου, ο. 18 fin. Beginning supplied by late hand g). 

1 The scholiast thinks this Celsus the writer of the True 
Word, an attack upon Christianity, to which Origen replied 
in his eight books contra Celsum. He is certainly identical 
with the man whom Origen himself believed to be the author 
of that work, who, he says, was an Epicurean living under 
Hadrian and the Antonines, author also of a treatise against 



No doubt, my dear Celsus,! you think it a slight 
and trivial matter to bid me set down in a book and 
send you the history of Alexander, the impostor of 
Abonoteichus, including all his clever schemes, bold 
emprises, and sleights of hand; but in point of fact, 
if one should aim to examine each detail closely, it 
would be no less a task than to record the exploits 
of Philip’s son Alexander. The one was as great in 
villainy as the other in heroism. Nevertheless, if 
it should be your intention to overlook faults as you 
read, and to fill out for yourself the gaps in my tale, 
I will undertake the task for you and will essay to 
clean up that Augean stable, if not wholly, yet to 
the extent of my ability, fetching out some few 
basketsful, so that from them you may judge how 
great, how inexpressible, was the entire quantity 

sorcery (vide c. 21 and note). And the True Word itself, a 
large part of which is preserved in Origen, seems to have 
been written about Α.Ρ. 180. But as Origen is not sure who 
wrote it, and as it is considered Platonie rather than Epi- 
eurean in charaeter, the prevailing opinion is that its author 
is not the Celsus of Lucian, but an otherwise unknown 
Platonist of the same name and date. 



’ ’ ^ » ^ 
τρισχίλιοι βόες ἐν πολλοῖς ἔτεσιν ποιῆσαι 

Αἰδοῦμαι μὲν οὖν ὑπὲρ ἀμφοῖν, ὑπέρ τε σοῦ 
καὶ ἐμαυτοῦ' σοῦ μέν, ἀξιοῦντος μνήμῃ καὶ γραφῇ 
παραδοθῆναι ἄνδρα τρισκατάρατον, ἐμαυτοῦ δέ, 
σπουδὴν ποιουμένου ἐπὶ τοιαύτῃ ἱστορίᾳ καὶ 
πράξεσιν ἀνθρώπου, ὃν οὐκ ἀναγιγνώσκεσθαι 
πρὸς τῶν πεπαιδευμένων ἣν ἄξιον, ἀλλ ἐν 

ε ^ 
πανδήμῳ τινὶ μεγίστῳ θεάτρῳ ὁρᾶσθαι ὑπὸ 
πιθήκων 7) ἀλωπέκων σπαραττόµενον. ἀλλ᾽ ἦν 
τις ἡμῖν ταύτην ἐπιφέρῃ τὴν αἰτίαν, ἔξομεν καὶ 
αὐτοὶ εἰς παράδειγμά TL τοιοῦτον ἀνενεγκεῖν. καὶ 
᾿Αρριανὸς γὰρ ὁ τοῦ ᾿Επικτήτου μαθητής, ἀνὴρ 
- ’ » 
“Ῥωμαίων ἐν τοῖς πρώτοις καὶ παιδείᾳ παρ᾽ ὅλον 
/ s 
τὸν βίον συγγενόμενος, ὅμοιόν τι παθών ἀπο- 
/ > A . € bi e A ? 1 ^ 
λογήσαιτ ἂν καὶ ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν: Τιλλορόβου } γοῦν 
^ ^ ^ ’ / 
τοῦ λῃστοῦ κἀκεῖνος βίον ἀναγράψαι ἠξίωσεν. 
^ / ^ 
ἡμεῖς δὲ πολὺ ὠμοτέρου λῃστοῦ μνήμην ποιησὀ- 

e S MS νον , » 9 
μεθα, ὅσῳ μὴ ἐν ὕλαις καὶ ἐν ὄρεσιν, ἀλλ. ἐν 
πόλεσιν οὗτος ἐλήστευεν, οὐ Μυσίαν μόνην 

5$ N LÀ / 306 1“ 7 ^ , / 
οὐδὲ τὴν Ἴδην κατατρέχων οὐδὲ ὀλίγα τῆς ᾿Ασίας 
μέρη τὰ ἐρημότερα λεηλατῶν, ἀλλὰ πᾶσαν ὡς 

^ . 6 ’ N / ^ 
εἰπεῖν την Ρωμαίων ἀρχὴν ἐμπλῆσας τῆς 
λῃστείας τῆς αὑτοῦ. 

Πρότερον δέ σοι αὐτὸν ὑπογράψω τῷ λόγω 
πρὸς τὸ ὁμοιότατον εἰκάσας, ὡς ἂν δύνωμαι, 

/ \ 
καίτοι μὴ πάνυ γραφικός τις Ov. τὸ yap δὴ 

- ^ / 7 
σῶμα, ἵνα σοι καὶ τοῦτο δείξω, μέγας τε ἦν καὶ 

M , ^ N X e , ^ M 
καλὸς ἰδεῖν καὶ θεοπρεπὴς ws ἀληθῶς, λευκὸς 
τὴν χρόαν, τὸ γένειον οὐ πάνυ λάσιος, κόμην τὴν 

1 Τιλλιθόρου y. 
2 Μυσίαν Palmerius: Μινύαν MSS. 



of filth that three thousand head of cattle were 
able to create in many years. 

I blush for both of us, I confess, both for you and 
for myself—for you because you want a consummate 
rascal perpetuated in memory and in writing, and 
for myself because I am devoting my energy to such 
an end, to the exploits of a man who does not 
deserve to have polite people read about him, but 
rather to have the motley crowd in a vast amphi- 
theatre see him being torn to pieces by foxes or 
apes. Yet if anyone brings this reproach against 
us, we shall be able to refer to an apt precedent. 
Arrian, the disciple of Epictetus, a Roman of the 
highest distinction, and a life-long devotee of letters, 
laid himself open to the same charge, and so can plead 
our cause as well as his own ; he thought fit, you 
know, to record the life of Tillorobus, the brigand.! 
In our own case, however, we shall commemorate a 
far more savage brigand, since our hero plied his 
trade not in forests and mountains, but in cities, and 
instead of infesting just Mysia and Mount Ida and 
harrying a few of the more deserted districts of 
Asia, he filled the whole Roman Empire, I may 
say, with his brigandage. 

First I shall draw you a word-picture of the man . 
himself, making as close a likeness as I can, although 
I am not particularly good at drawing. As regards 
his person—in order that I may exhibit this also to 
you—he was tall and handsome in appearance, and 
really godlike ; his skin was fair, his beard not very 

1 There is no life of Tillorobus among the extant writings 
of Arrian, and we know nothing gu him from any other 

source. His name is given in the y group of MSS. as 
Tiliborus, but compare C.I.L. vi, 15295. 



μὲν ἰδίαν, τὴν δὲ καὶ πρόσθετον ἐπικείμενος εὖ 
μάλα εἰκασμένην καὶ τοὺς πολλοὺς ὅτι ἦν 
ἀλλοτρία λεληθυῖαν' ὀφθαλμοὶ πολὺ τὸ γοργὸν 
καὶ ἔνθεον διεμφαίνοντες, φώνημα ἥδιστόν τε ἅμα 
καὶ λαμπρότατον’ καὶ ὅλως οὐδαμόθεν μεμπτὸς 
ἣν ταῦτά γε. 

Τοιόσδε μὲν τὴν μορφήν: ἡ ψυχὴ δὲ καὶ ἡ 
γνώμη--ἀλεξίκακε Ἡράκλεις καὶ Lev ἀποτρόπαιε 
καὶ Διόσκουροι σωτῆρες, πολεμίοις καὶ ᾿ἐχθροῖς 
ἐντυχεῖν Ὑένοιτο καὶ συγγενέσθαι τοιούτῳ τινί. 
συνέσει μὲν γὰρ καὶ ἀγχινοίᾳ καὶ δριμύτητι 
πάμπολυ τῶν ἄλλων διέφερεν, καὶ τό τε περίεργον 
καὶ εὐμαθὲς καὶ μνημονικὸν καὶ πρὸς τὰ μαθή- 
ματα εὐφνές, πάντα ταῦτα εἰς ὑπερβολὴν 
ἑκασταχοῦ ὑπῆρχεν. αὐτῷ. ἐχρῆτο δὲ αὐτοῖς εἰς 
τὸ χείριστον, καὶ ὄργανα ταῦτα γενναῖα ὑπο- 
BeBrnpéva ἔχων αὐτίκα μάλα τῶν ἐπὶ κακίᾳ 
διαβοήτων ἀκρότατος ἀπετελέσθη, ὑπὲρ τοὺς 
Κέρκωπας, ὑπὲρ τὸν Εὐρύβατον ἢ Φρυνώνδαν ἢ 
᾿Αριστόδημον ἢ Σώστρατον. αὐτὸς μὲν γὰρ τῷ 
γαμβρῷ “Ρουτιλιανῷ ποτε γράφων καὶ τὰ 
μετριώτατα ὑπὲρ αὑτοῦ λέγων Πυθαγόρᾳ ὅμοιος 
εἶναι ἠξίου. ἀλλ’ ἵλεως μὲν ὁ Πυθαγόρας εἴη, 
σοφὸς ἀνὴρ καὶ τὴν γνώμην θεσπέσιος, εἰ δὲ κατὰ 
τοῦτον ἐγεγένητο, παῖς ἂν εὖ οἶδ᾽ ὅτι πρὸς αὐτὸν 
εἶναι ἔδοξε. καὶ πρὸς Χαρίτων μή pe νομίσῃς 
ἐφ᾽ ὕβρει ταῦτα τοῦ Πυθαγόρου λέγειν ἢ 

1 καὶ Sakkoraphos: καὶ μὴ MSS. 

1 The Cercopes were two impish pests who crossed the 
path of Heracles to their disadvantage. For the little that 
is known about the other typical rascals, see the Index. 



thick; his long hair was in part natural, in part 
false, but very similar, so that most people did not 
detect that it was not his own. His eyes shone 
with a great glow of fervour and enthusiasm ; his 
voice was at once very sweet and very clear; and in 
a word, no fault could be found with him in any 
respect as far as all that went. 

Such, then, was his outward appearance; but his 

Land his mind—O Heracles Forfender! O Zeus, 
Averter of Mischief O Twin Brethren, our Saviours! 
may it be the fortune of our enemies and ill-wishers 
to encounter and have to do with the like of him! 
In understanding, quick-wittedness, and penetration 
he was far beyond everyone else; and activity of 
mind, readiness to learn, retentiveness, natural apti- 
tude for studies—all these qualities were his, in every 
case to the full. But he made the worst possible use 
of them, and with these noble instruments at his 
service soon became the most perfect rascal of all those 
who have been notorious far and wide for villainy, sur- 
passing the Cercopes, surpassing Eurybatus, or Phry- 
nondas, or Aristodemus, or Sostratus.! He himself, 
writing to his son-in-law Rutilianus once upon a 
time and speaking of himself with the greatest 
reserve, claimed to be like Pythagoras; but— 
with all due respect to Pythagoras, a wise man 
of more than human intelligence—if he had been 
this man's contemporary, he would have seemed 
a child, I am very sure, beside him!? In the 
name of the Graces, do not imagine that I say this 
to insult Pythagoras, or in the endeavour to bring 

? Yet Pythagoras was no mean thaumaturge ; see Plutarch, 
Numa, 65. 



, e 
συνάπτειν πειρώμενον αὐτοὺς πρὸς ὁμοιότητα 
τῶν πράξεων: ἀλλ᾽ εἴ τις τὰ χείριστα καὶ 

᾽ - . e^ e^ 
βλασφημότατα τῶν ἐπὶ διαβολῇ περὶ τοῦ 
’ / ld 
Πυθαγόρου λεγομένων, οἷς ἔγωγε οὐκ ἂν πεισθείην 
ὡς ἀληθέσιν οὖσιν, ὅμως συναγάγοι εἰς τὸ αὐτό, 
X E e^ 
πολλοστον ἂν μέρος ἅπαντα ἐκεῖνα γένοιτο τῆς 
3 ΄ , e . 9 [ο [4 
Αλεξάνδρου δεινότητος. ὅλως γὰρ ἐπινόησόν 
μοι καὶ τῷ λογισμῷ διατύπωσον ποικιλωτάτην 
~ ^ ^ 3 , 4 L4 ~ 
τινὰ ψυχῆς κρᾶσιν ἐκ ψεύδους καὶ δόλων καὶ 
, ^ \ ^ ᾽ ε , 
ἐπιορκιῶν καὶ κακοτεχνιῶν συγκειμένην, ῥᾳδίαν, 

/ , 

τολμηράν, παράβολον, φιλόπονον ἐξεργάσασθαι 
\ ᾽ \ Li 
τὰ νοηθέντα, καὶ πιθανὴν καὶ ἀξιόπιστον καὶ 
ὑποκριτικὴν τοῦ βελτίονος καὶ τῷ ἐναντιωτάτῳ 
τῆς βουλήσεως ἐοικυῖαν. οὐδεὶς γοῦν τὸ πρῶτον 
> . 2 b] λθ δόξ ` Ba ε M , e^ 
ἐντυχὼν οὐκ ἀπῆλθε δόξαν λαβὼν ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ 
e t 2 ’ Li M 
ὡς εἴη πάντων ἀνθρώπων χρηστότατος καὶ 
ws / 
ἐπιεικέστατος καὶ προσέτι ἁπλοϊκώτατός τε καὶ 
ἀφελέστατος. ἐπὶ πᾶσι δὲ τούτοις τὸ μεγαλουργὸν 
^ ~ . ^ 
προσῆν καὶ TO μηδὲν μικρὸν ἐπινοεῖν, ἀλλ᾽ ἀεὶ 
^ / / X ^ 
τοῖς μεγίστοις ἐπέχειν τὸν νοῦν. 
A ^ ^ 
Μειράκιον μὲν οὖν ἔτι àv πάνυ ὡραῖον, ὡς ἐνῆν 
« e^ Á, "^ 
ἀπὸ τῆς καλάμης τεκμαίρεσθαι καὶ ἀκούειν τῶν 

/ [ή . A 
διηγουμένων, ἀνέδην ἐπόρνευε καὶ συνῆν ἐπὶ 
μισθῷ τοῖς δεομένοις. ἐν δὲ τοῖς ἄλλοις λαμβάνει 
τις αὐτὸν ἐραστὴς γόης τῶν μαγείας καὶ ἐπῳδὰς 
θεσπεσίους ὑπισχνουμένων καὶ χάριτας ἐπὶ τοῖς 

^ ` ^ ^ ^ 
ἐρωτικοῖς καὶ ἐπαγωγὰς τοῖς ἐχθροῖς καὶ θησαυρῶν 
> ΔΝ 4 f ’ er 3 ` 
ἀναπομπὰς καὶ κλήρων διαδοχάς. οὗτος ἰδὼν 
^ ^ N ’ ^ ^ 
εὐφυᾶ παῖδα καὶ πρὸς ὑπηρεσίαν τῶν ἑαυτοῦ 
e^ ^ ^ f 
πράξεων ἑτοιμότατον, οὐ μεῖον ἐρῶντα τῆς κακίας 


them into connection with one another by likening 
their doings. On the contrary, if all that is worst 
and most opprobrious in what is said of Pythagoras 
to diseredit him (which I for my part cannot believe 
to be true) should nevertheless be brought together 
for comparison, the whole of it would be but an 
infinitesimal part of Alexander’s knavery. In sum, 
imagine, please, and mentally configure a highly 
diversified soul-blend, made up of lying, trickery, 
perjury, and malice; facile, audacious, venturesome, 
diligent in the execution of its schemes, plausible, 
convincing, masking as good, and wearing an ap- 
pearance absolutely opposite to its purpose. Indeed, 
there is nobody who, after meeting him for the first 
time, did not come away with the idea that he was 
the most honest and upright man in the world—yes, 
and the most simple and unaffected. And on top 
of all this, he had the quality of magnificence, of 
forming no petty designs but always keeping his 
mind upon the most important objects. 

While he was still a mere boy, and a very hand- 
some one, as could be inferred from the sere and 
yellow leaf of him, and could also be learned by 
hearsay from those who recounted his story, he 
traficked freely in his attractiveness and sold his 
company to those who sought it. Among others, he 
had an admirer who was a quack, one of those who 
advertise enchantments, miraculous incantations, 
charms for your love-affairs, *sendings"'! for your 
enemies, disclosures of buried treasure, and succes- 
sions to estates. As this man saw that he was an apt 
lad, more than ready to assist him in his affairs, and 

1 The word is borrowed from Kipling. A “sending” is a 
** visitation," seen froin a different point of view. 



τῆς αὐτοῦ ἢ αὐτὸς τῆς ὥρας τῆς ἐκείνου, 
ἐξεπαίδευσέ Te αὐτὸν καὶ διετέλει ὑπουργῷ καὶ 
ὑπηρέτῃ καὶ διακόνῳ .Χρώμενος. ὁ δ αὐτὸς 
ἐκεῖνος δημοσίᾳ μὲν ἰατρὸς δῆθεν ἦν, ἠπίστατο δὲ 
κατὰ τὴν Θῶνος τοῦ Αἰγυπτίου γυναῖκα 

φάρμακα πολλὰ μὲν ἐσθλὰ μεμιγμένα, πολλὰ 
δὲ λυγρά: 

ὧν. ἁπάντων κληρονόμος καὶ διάδοχος οὗτος 
ἐγένετο. ἦν δὲ 0 διδάσκαλος ἐ ἐκεῖνος καὶ -ἐραστὴς 
τὸ γένος Τυανεύς, τῶν ᾿Απολλωνίῳ τῷ πάνυ: 
συγγενομένων καὶ τὴν πᾶσαν αὐτοῦ τραγῳδίαν 
εἰδότων. ὁρᾷς ἐξ οἵας σοι διατριβῆς ἄνθρωπον 

Hôn δὲ πώγωνος ὁ ᾿Αλέξανδρος πιμπλάμενος 
καὶ τοῦ Τυανέως ἐκείνου ἀποθανόντος ἐν ἀπορίᾳ 
καθεστώς, ἀπηνθηκυίας ἅμα τῆς ὥρας, ap ÙS 
τρέφεσθαι ἐδύνατο, οὐκέτι μικρὸν οὐδὲν ἐπενόει, 
ἀλλὰ κοινωνήσας Βυζαντίῳ τινὶ χορογράφῳ τ τῶν 
καθιέντων εἰς τοὺς ἀγῶνας, πολύ καταρατοτέρῳ 
τὴν φύσιν---Κοκκωνᾶς δέ, οἶμαι, ἐπεκαλεῖτο--- 
περιῄεσαν γοητεύοντες καὶ μαγγανεύοντες καὶ 
τοὺς παχεῖς τῶν ἀνθρώπων-- οὕτως γὰρ αὐτοὶ τῇ 
πατρίῳ τῶν μάγων φωνῇ τοὺς πολλοὺς * ὀνομά- 
ἕουσιν---ἀποκείροντες. ἐν δὴ τούτοις καὶ Μακέτιν 
γυναῖκα πλουσίαν, ἔξωρον μέν, ἐράσμιον δὲ ἔ ἔτι 
εἶναι -Βουλομένη», ἐξευρόντες ἐπεσιτίσαντό τε τὰ 
ἀρκοῦντα παρ᾽ αὐτῆς καὶ ἠκολούθησαν ἐκ τῆς 
Βιθυνίας εἰς τὴν Μακεδονίαν. Πελλαία δὲ ἦν 

1 τῷ πάνυ Fritzsche: τῷ Τυανεῖ πάνυ y; τῷ Τυανεῖ B. 
3 τοὺς πλουσίους g, editors since Bekker. But cf. 9 
παχέων καὶ ἠλιθίων, 17 παχέσι καὶ ἀπαιδεύτοις. 



that the boy was quite as much enamoured with his 
roguery as he with the boy’s beauty, he gave him a 
thorough education and constantly made use of him 
as helper, servant, and acolyte. He himself was 
professedly a public physician, but, as Homer says 
of the wife of Thon, the Egyptian, he knew 

* Many a drug that was good in a compound, and 
many a bad one,” } 

all of which Alexander inherited and took over. 
This teacher and admirer of his was a man of Tyana 
by birth, one of those who had been followers of 
the notorious Apollonius, and who knew his whole 
bag of tricks. You see what sort of school the man 
that I am describing comes from ! 

. Alexander was just getting his beard when the 
death of the Tyanean put him in a bad way, since it 
coincided with the passing of his beauty, by which 
he might have supported himself. So he abandoned 
petty projects for ever. He formed a partnership 
with a Byzantine writer of choral songs, one of 
those who enter the public competitions, far more 
abominable than himself by nature—Cocconas,? I 
think, was his nickname, — and they went about the 
country practising quackery and sorcery, and “ trim- 
ming the fatheads "—for so they style the public in 
the traditional patter of magicians. Well, among 
these they hit upon a rich Macedonian woman, past 
her prime but still eager to be charming, and not 
only lined their purses fairly well at her expense, 
but went with her from Bithynia to Macedon. She 

1 Odyssey 4, 230. 
2 Cocconas comes from κόκκων (modern Greek κουκουνάρι), 
pine-kernel, seed, nut. Cf. Anth. Pal. 12, 222. 



ἐκείνη, πάλαι μὲν εὐδαίμονος χωρίου κατὰ τοὺς 
τῶν Μακεδόνων βασιλέας, νῦν δὲ ταπεινοῦ 1 καὶ 
ὀλιγίστους οἰκήτορας ἔχοντος. ἐνταῦθα ἰδόντες 
δράκοντας παμμεγέθεις, ἡμέρους πάνυ καὶ 
τιθασούς, ὡς καὶ ὑπὸ γυναικῶν τρέφεσθαι καὶ 
παιδίοις συγκαθεύδειν καὶ πατουμένους ἀνέχεσθαι 
καὶ .θλιβομένους μὴ ἀγανακτεῖν καὶ γάλα πίνειν 
ἀπὸ θηλῆς κατὰ ταὐτὰ τοῖς βρέφεσι-- πολλοὶ δὲ 
γίγνονται παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς τοιοῦτοι, ὅθεν καὶ τὸν περὶ 
τῆς Ὀλυμπιάδος μῦθον διαφοιτῆσαι πάλαι εἰκός, 
ὁπότε ἐκύει τὸν ᾿Αλέξανδρον, δράκοντος τινος, 
οἶμαι, τοιούτου συγκαθεύδοντος αὐτῆ--ὠνοῦνται 
τῶν ἑρπετῶν ἓν κάλλιστον ὀλίγων ὀβολῶν. καὶ 
κατὰ τὸν (Θουκυδίδην ἄρχεται ὁ πόλεμος ἐνθένδε 
uc NT -€— | 
Ὡς γὰρ ἂν δύο κάκιστοι καὶ μεγαλότολμοι καὶ 
πρὸς τὸ κακουργεῖν προχειρότατοι εἰς τὸ αὐτὸ 
συνελθόντες, ῥᾳδίωςκατενόησαν τὸν τῶν ἀνθρώπων 
βίον ὑπὸ δυοῖν τούτοιν μεγίστοιν τυραννούμενον, 
ἐλπίδος καὶ φόβου, καὶ ὅτι ὁ τούτων ἑκατέρῳ εἰς 
δέον χρήσασθαι δυνάμενος τάχιστα πλουτήσειεν 
àv: ἀμφοτέροις γάρ, τῷ τε δεδιότι καὶ τῷ 
ἐλπίζοντι, ἑώρων τὴν πρόγνωσιν ἀναγκαιοτάτην 
τε καὶ ποθεινοτάτην οὖσαν, καὶ Δελφοὺς οὕτω 
πάλαι πλουτῆσαι καὶ ἀοιδίμους γενέσθαι καὶ 
Δῆλον καὶ Κλάρον καὶ Βραγχίδας, τῶν ἀνθρώπων 
ἀεὶ δι οὓς προεῖπον τυράννους, τὴν ἐλπίδα καὶ 
τὸν φόβον, φοιτώντων εἰς τὰ ἱερὰ καὶ προμαθεῖν 
τὰ μέλλοντα δεομένων, καὶ δι αὐτὸ ἑκατόμβας 
θυόντων καὶ χρυσᾶς πλίνθους ἀνατιθέντων. 
ταῦτα πρὸς ἀλλήλους στρέφοντες καὶ κυκῶντες 



came from Pella, a place once flourishing in the time 
of the kings of Macedon but now insignificant, with 
very few inhabitants. There they saw great ser- 
pents, quite tame and gentle, so that they were 
kept by women, slept with children, let themselves 
be stepped upon, were not angry when they were 
stroked, and took milk from the breast just like 
babies. There are many such in the country, and 
that, probably, is what gave currency in former days 
to the story about Olympias; no doubt a serpent of 
that sort slept with her when she was carrying 
Alexander.! So they bought one of the reptiles, 
the finest, for a few coppers; and, in the words of 

Thucydides: “ Here beginneth the war!” 2 
As you might have expected of two consummate 
rascals, greatly daring, fully prepared for mischief, 
who had put their heads together, they readily 
discerned that human life is swayed by two great 
tyrants, hope and fear, and that a man who could 
use both of these toadvantage would speedily enrich 
"himself. For they perceived that both to one who 
. fears and to one who hopes, foreknowledge is very 
essential and very keenly coveted, and that long ago 
not only Delphi, but Delos and Clarus and Bran- 
chidae, had become rich and famous because, thanks 
to the tyrants just mentioned, hope and fear, men 
continually visited their sanctuaries and sought to 
learn the future in advance, and to that end sacrificed 
hecatombs and dedicated ingots of gold. By turning 
all this round and round in conference with one 
1 The story was that Alexander was the son of Zeus, who 

had visited Olympias in the form of a serpent. 
2 Thucydides ii, 1. 

1 ταπεινοῦ Bekker: ταπεινοὺς MSS. 



μαντεῖον συστήσασθαι καὶ χρηστήριον ἐβου- 
λεύοντο" εἰ γὰρ τοῦτο προχωρήσειεν αὐτοῖς, 
αὐτίκα πλούσιοί τε καὶ εὐδαίμονες ἔσεσθαι ἤλπι- 
ζον-- ὅπερ ἐπὶ μεῖξον À κατὰ τὴν πρώτην 
προσδοκίαν ἀπήντησεν αὐτοῖς καὶ κρεῖττον 
διεφάνη τῆς ἐλπίδος. 

Τοὐντεῦθεν τὴν σκέψιν ἐποιοῦντο, πρῶτον μὲν 
περὶ τοῦ ! χωρίου, δεύτερον δὲ ἥτις 7) ἀρχὴ. καὶ ὁ 
τρόπος ἂν γένοιτο τῆς ἐπιχειρήσεως. ὁ μὲν οὖν 
Κοκκωνᾶς τὴν Καλχηδόνα, ἐδοκίμαξεν ἐπιτήδειον 
εἶναι καὶ εὔκαιρον χωρίον, τῇ τε Θράκῃ καὶ τῇ 
Βιθυνία πρόσοικον, οὐχ ἑκὰς οὐδὲ τῆς ᾿Ασίας καὶ 
Γαλατίας καὶ τῶν ὑπερκειμένων ἐθνῶν ἁπάντων' 
ὁ δὲ ᾿Αλέξανδρος ἔμπαλιν τὰ οἴκοι προὔκρινεν, 
λέγων ὅπερ ἀληθὲς ἦν, πρὸς τὴν τῶν τοιούτων 
ἀρχὴν καὶ ἐπιχείρησιν ἀνθρώπων δεῖν παχέων 
καὶ ἠλιθίων τῶν ὑποδεξομένων, οἵους τοὺς Ἠαφλα- 
γόνας εἶναι ἔφασκεν ὗ ὑπεροικοῦντας τὸ τοῦ ᾿Αβώνου 
τείχος, δεισιδαίµονας τοὺς πολλοὺς καὶ πλουσίους, 
καὶ µόνον εἰ φανείη. τις αὐλητὴν ἢ τυμπανιστὴν 
7) κυμβάλοις κροτοῦντα ἐπαγόμενος, κοσκίνῳ τὸ 
τοῦ λόγου μαντευόμενος, αὐτίκα μάλα πάντας 

1 καὶ εὔκαιρον χωρίον A.M.H.: καὶ ἐμπόρων χωρίον MSS. 
ὡς ἐμπόρων χωρίον Schaefer. Cf. Jup. Trag. 14; εὔκαιρον y, 
εὔπορον β; and for the use of the word in connection with 
places, Polybius 1, 18, 4; 4, 38, 1; 4, 44, 1. 

1 Asia here and elsewhere in this piece refers to the Roman 
province of Asia—western Asia Minor. 

2 Proverbial for cheap trickery. | Artemidorus (.Dream-book 
1, 69) says that “if you dream of Pythagoreans, physiogno- 
monics, astragalomants, tyromants, gyromants, coscinomants, 
morphoscopes, chiroscopes, lecanomants, or necyomants, you 
must consider all that they say false and unreliable ; ; for 





another and keeping it astir, they concocted the 
project of founding a prophetic shrine and oracle, 
hoping that if they should succeed in it, they would 
at once be rich and prosperous—which, in fact, befell 
them in greater measure than they at first expected, 
and turned out better than they hoped. 

Then they began planning, first about the place, 
and next, what should be the commencement and 
the character of the venture. Cocconas thought 
Chalcedon a suitable and convenient place, close 
to Thrace and Bithynia, and not far, too, from Asia 1 
and Galatia and all the peoples of the interior. 
Alexander, on the other hand, preferred his own 
home, saying— and it was true—that to commence 
such a venture they needed “ fat-heads " and simple- 
tons to be their victims, and such, he said, were the 
Paphlagonians who lived up above Abonoteichus, who 
were for the most part superstitious and rich; when- 
ever a man but turned up with someone at his heels 
to play the flute or the tambourine or the cymbals, 
telling fortunes with a sieve, as the phrase goes,? 

their trades are such. They do not know even a little bit 
about propheey, but fleeee their patrons by charlatanism and 
fraud." Oneiromants may of course be trusted ! 

The few allusions to coscinomancy in the aneients give no 
clue to the method used. As practised in the sixteenth- 
seventeenth century, to detect thieves, disclose one’s future 
wife, etc., the sieve was either suspended by a string or more 
commonly balanced on the top of a pair of tongs set astride 
the joined middle fingers of the two hands (or of two persons) ; 
then, after an incantation, a list of names was repeated, 
and the one upon which the sieve stirred was the one indi- 
cated by fate. Or the sieve, when suspended, might be set 
spinning; and then the name it stopped on was designated. 
See, in particular, Johannes Praetorius, de Coscinomantia, 
Oder vom Sieb-Lauffe, ete., Curiae Variscorum, 1677. 





κεχηνότας πρὸς αὐτὸν καὶ ὥσπερ τινὰ τῶν 
ἐπουρανίων προσβλέποντας. 

Οὐκ ὀλίγης 1 δὲ τῆς περὶ τοῦτο στάσεως αὐτοῖς 
γενομένης τέλος ἐνίκησεν ὁ ᾿Αλέξανδρος, και 
ἀφικόμενοι εἰς τὴν Χαλκηδόνα---χρήσιμον. γάρ τι 
ὅμως ἡ πόλις αὐτοῖς ἔχειν ἔδοξε---ἐν τῷ ᾿Απόλ 
λωνος ἱερῷ, ὅπερ ἀρχαιότατόν ἐστι τοῖς Χαλκη- 
δονίοις, κατορύττουσι δέλτους χαλκᾶς, λεγούσας 
ὡς αὐτίκα μάλα ὁ ᾿Ασκληπιὸς σὺν τῷ πατρὶ 

f / , . ’ 
᾿Απόλλωνι μέτεισιν εἰς τὸν Ilóvrov καὶ καθέξει 

τὸ τοῦ ᾿Αβώνου τεῖχος. αὗται αἱ δέλτοι ἐξεπί- 
Τηδες εὑρεθεῖσαι διαφοιτῆσαι ῥᾳδίως τὸν λόγον 
τοῦτον εἰς πᾶσαν τὴν Βιθυνίαν καὶ τὸν Πόντον 
ἐποίησαν, καὶ πολὺ πρὸ τῶν ἄλλων εἰς τὸ τοῦ 

š , ^ , ^ . ν ν > 7 
Αβώνου τεῖχος: κακεῖνοι γὰρ καὶ νεῶν αὐτίκα 

ἐψηφίσαντο ἐγεῖραι καὶ τοὺς θεμελίους ἤδη 
ἔσκαπτον. κἀνταῦθα ὁ μὲν Κοκκωνᾶς € ἐν Χαλκη- 
δόνι καταλείπεται, διττούς τινας καὶ ἀμφιβόλους 
καὶ λοξοὺς χρησμοὺς συγγράφων, καὶ μετ᾽ ὀλίγον 
ἐτελεύτησε τὸν βίον, i ὑπὸ ἐχίδνης, οἶμαι, δηχθείς. 
προεισπέµπεται δὲ ὁ ᾿Αλέξανδρος, κομῶν ἤδη καὶ 
πλοκάμους καθειµένος καὶ μεσόλευκον χιτῶνα 
πορφυροῦν ἐνδεδυκὼς καὶ ἱμάτιον ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ 
λευκὸν ἀναβεβλημένος, ἅρπην ἔχων κατὰ τὸν 
Περσέα, ad’ οὗ ἑαυτὸν ἐγενεαλόγει μητρόθεν' καὶ 
οἱ ὄλεθροι ἐκεῖνοι Παφλαγόνες, εἰδότες αὐτοῦ 
ἄμφω τοὺς γονέας ἀφανεῖς καὶ ταπεινούς, 
ἐπίστευον τῷ χρησμῷ λέγοντι 

Περσείδης γενεὴν «Φοίβῳ φίλος οὗτος ὁρᾶται, 
δῖος ᾿Αλέξανδρος, Ποδαλειρίου αἷμα λελογχώς. 

1 οὐκ ὀλίγης G. Hermann: ὀλίγης MSS. 


they were all agog over him on the instant and 
E at him as if he were a god from heaven. 
There was no slight difference of opinion be- 
tween them on that score, but in the end Alexander 
won, and going to Chalcedon, since after all that 
city seemed to them to have some usefulness, in the 
temple of Apollo, which is the most ancient in 
Chalcedon, they buried bronze tablets which said 
that very soon Asclepius, with his father Apollo, 
would move to Pontus and take up his residence at 
Abonoteichus. The opportune discovery of these 
tablets caused this story to spread quickly to all 
Bithynia and Pontus, and to Abonoteichus sooner 
than anywhere else. Indeed, the people of that 
city immediately voted to build a temple and began 
at once to dig for the foundations. Then Cocconas 
was left behind in Chalcedon, composing equivocal, 
ambiguous, obscure oracles, and died before long, 
bitten, I think, by a viper. It was Alexander who 
was sent in first; he now wore his hair long, had 
falling ringlets, dressed in a parti-coloured tunic of 
white and purple, with a white cloak over it, and 
carried a falchion like that of Perseus, from whom 
he claimed descent on his mother's side. And al- 
though those miserable Paphlagonians knew that 
both his parents were obscure, humble folk, they 
believed the oracle when it said: 

“Here in your sight is a scion of Perseus, dear 
unto Phoebus; 
This is divine Alexander, who shareth the blood of 
the Healer !”’ 



οὕτως apa ὁ Ποδαλείριος μάχλος καὶ γυναι- 
κομανὴς τὴν φύσιν, ὡς ἀπὸ Tpixkns μέχρι 
Παφλαγονίας στύεσθαι ἐπὶ τὴν ᾿Αλεξάνδρου 

Ἠὕρητο δὲ χρησμὸς ἤδη, ὡς Σιβύλλης προ- 

Εὐξείνου Πόντοιο παρ᾽ ἠόσιν ἄγχι Σινώπης 
ἔσται τις κατὰ Τύρσιν ὑπ᾽ Λὐσονίοισι προ- 

2 4 M / ^ ΄ 

ἐκ πρώτης δεικνὺς μονάδος τρισσῶν δεκάδων τε 
πένθ᾽ ἑτέρας μονάδας καὶ εἰκοσάδα τρισάριθµον, 
ἀνδρὸς ἀλεξητῆρος ὁμωνυμίην τετράκυκλον. 

Εἰσβαλὼν οὖν ὁ ᾿Αλέξανδρος μετὰ τοιαύτης 
’ A A 5 X / / 
τραγῳδίας διὰ πολλοῦ εἰς τὴν πατρίδα περί- 
βλεπτός τε καὶ λαμπρὸς ἦν, μεμηνέναι προσ- 
ποιούμενος ἐνίοτε καὶ ἀφροῦ ὑποπιμπλάμενος 
τὸ στόμα ῥᾳδίως δὲ τοῦτο ὑπῆρχεν αὐτῷ, 
στρουθίου τῆς βαφικῆς βοτάνης τὴν ῥίξαν δια- 
z : ^ M al A . , a 

μασησαμένῳ" τοῖς δὲ θεῖόν τι καὶ φοβερὸν ἐδόκει 
` e , ’ , / M , ^ ’ ~ 
καὶ 0 ἀφρός. ἐπεποίητο δὲ αὐτοῖς πάλαι καὶ 

’ . , , ’ 3 
κατεσκεύαστο κεφαλὴ δράκοντος ὀθονίνη ἀνθρω- 

1 Podaleirius and his brother Machaon, the Homeric 
healers (Zliad 11, 833), were sons of Asclepius and lived 
in Tricca (now Trikkala), Thessaly. According to the 
Sack of Ilium (Evelyn-White, Hesiod, p. 524) Machaon 
specialized in surgery, Podaleirius in diagnosis and general 



Podaleirius, the Healer, it would appear, was so 
passionate and amorous that his ardour carried him 
all the way from Tricca to Paphlagonia in quest of 
Alexander's mother! ! 

An oracle by now had turned up which purported 
to be a prior prediction by the Sibyl: 

“On the shores of the Euxine sea, in the neigh- 

bourhood of Sinope, 

There shall be born, by a Tower, in the days of the 
Romans, a prophet; 

After the foremost unit and three times ten, he 
will shew forth 

Five more units besides, and a score told three 
times over, 

Matching, with places four, the name of a valiant 
defender !” 2 

Well, upon invading his native land with all this 
pomp and circumstance after a long absence, 
Alexander was a man of mark and note, affecting 
as he did to have occasional fits of madness and 
causing his mouth to fill with foam. This he easily 
managed by chewing the root of soapwort, the plant 
that dyers use; but to his fellow-countrymen even 
the foam seemed supernatural and awe-inspiring. 
Then, too, they had long ago prepared and fitted 
up a serpent's head of linen, which had something 

? Since in the Greek notation numbers are designated by 
letters, this combination (1, 30, 5, 60) is αλεξ (alex). Alexander 
seems to have been a little afraid that some rival might steal 
his thunder if he were not more specific: at all events the 
first two words of the last line give, in the Greek, the entire 
name (andros-alex), 




/ ’ > ΄ ΄ / 
Tomoppov τι ἐπιφαίνουσα, κατάγραφος, πάνυ 
εἰκασμένη, ὑπὸ θριξὶν ἱππείαις ἀνοίγουσά τε καὶ 

9 , ΄ ν , ` ^ ey ΄ 
αὖθις ἐπικλείουσα τὸ στόμα, καὶ γλῶττα οἵα δρά- 
κοντος διττὴ μέλαινα προέκυπτεν, ὑπὸ τριχῶν 

€ ^ 
καὶ αὐτὴ ἑλκομένη. καὶ ὁ lleXXatos δὲ δράκων 
προὺπῆρχεν καὶ οἴκοι ἐτρέφετο, κατὰ καιρὸν 
3 7 , ^ M ᾽ 
ἐπιφανησόμενος αὐτοῖς καὶ συντραγῳδήσων, 

^ ^ λ , , 
μᾶλλον δὲ πρωταγωνιστὴς ἐσόμενος. 

» ὃ δὲ y 0 δέ ^ ’ è 

Ηδη δὲ ἄρχεσθαι δέον, μηχανᾶται τοιόνδε τι 

΄ N . 3. ON \ / ^ N 
νύκτωρ γὰρ ἐλθὼν ἐπὶ τοὺς θεμελίους τοῦ νεὼ 
τοὺς ἄρτι ὀρυττομένους---συνειστήκει δὲ ἐν αὐτοῖς 
ὕδωρ ἢ αὐτόθεν ποθὲν συλλειβόμενον ἢ ἐξ 
οὐρανοῦ πεσόν-- ἐνταῦθα κατατίθεται χήνειον 

ή » 
(OV προκεκενωμένον, ἔνδον φυλάττον ἑρπετόν τι 
f ’ ^ ^ ^ 
ἀρτιγέννητον, καὶ βυθίσας τοῦτο ἐν μυχῷ τοῦ 
πηλοῦ ὀπίσω αὖθις ἀπηλλάττετο. ἕωθεν δὲ 
s M \ 
γυμνὸς εἰς τὴν ἀγορὰν προπηδήσας, διάζωμα περὶ 
τὸ αἰδοῖον ἔχων, κατάχρυσον καὶ τοῦτο, καὶ τὴν 
/ / y 
ἅρπην ἐκείνην φέρων, σείων ἅμα τὴν κόμην ἄνετον 
e ^ ’ / N / 
ὥσπερ οἱ τῇ μητρὶ ἀγείροντές τε καὶ ἐνθεαζόμενοι, 
, r ΣΝ / e NS. \ \ 
ἐδημηγόρει ἐπὶ βωμόν τινα ὑψηλὸν ἀναβὰς καὶ 

. / 3 / , / 4 / 

τὴν πόλιν ἐμακάριξεν αὐτίκα μάλα δεξομένην 
^ , / 
ἐναργῆ τὸν θεόν. οἱ παρόντες δέ---συνδεδραμήκει 
γὰρ σχεδὸν ἅπασα ἡ πόλις ἅμα γυναιξὶ καὶ 
γέρουσι καὶ παιδίοις---ἐτεθήπεσαν καὶ εὔχοντο 
e , 
καὶ προσεκύνουν. ὁ δὲ φωνάς τινας ἀσήμους 
/ / e / A 
φθεγγόμενος, οἷαι γένοιντο ἂν 'Efpaíev ἢ 
/ Igo? . , , , 357 
Φοινίκων, ἐξέπληττε τοὺς ἀνθρώπους οὐκ εἰδότας 
ὅ τι καὶ λέγοι, πλὴν τοῦτο μόνον, ὅτι πᾶσιν 



of a human look, was all painted up, and appeared very 
lifelike. It would open and close its mouth by 
means of horsehairs, and a forked black tongue like 
a snake’s, also controlled by horsehairs, would dart 
out. Besides, the serpent from Pella was ready in 
advance and was being cared for at home, destined 
in due time to manifest himself to them and to take 
a part in their show—in fact, to be cast for the 
leading rôle. 

When at length it was time to begin, he con- 
trived an ingenious ruse. Going at night to the 
foundations of the temple which were just being 
excavated, where a pool of water had gathered 
which either issued from springs somewhere in the 
foundations themselves or had fallen from the sky, 
he secreted there a goose-egg, previously blown, 
which contained asnake just born ; and after burying 
it deep in the mud, he went back again. In the 
morning he ran out into the market-place naked, 
wearing a loin-cloth (this too was gilded),! carrying 
his falchion, and tossing his unconfined mane like 
a devotee of the Great Mother in the frenzy. 
Addressing the people from a high altar upon which 
he had climbed, he congratulated the city because it 
was at once to receive the god in visible presence. 
‘The assembly—for almost the whole city, including 
women, old men, and boys, had come running— 
| marvelled, prayed and made obeisance. Uttering a 
few meaningless words like Hebrew or Phoenician, 
he dazed the creatures, who did not know what he 

1 Why ‘‘this too"? The hilt of the falchion may have 
been gilt, but Lucian has not said so. Perhaps Lucian is 
thinking of Alexander's golden thigh (c. 40), and forgets 
that hc has not yet told us of it. 




ἐγκατεμίγνυ τὸν ᾿Απόλλω καὶ τὸν ᾿Ασκληπιόν. 
εἶτ᾽ ἔθει δρόμῳ ἐπὶ τὸν ᾿ἐσόμενον νεών" καὶ ἐπὶ τὸ 
ὄρυγμα ἐλθὼν καὶ τὴν προῳκονομημένην ! τοῦ 
χρηστηρίου πηγήν, ἐμβὰς εἰς τὸ ὕδωρ ὕμνους τε 
ἦδεν ᾿Ασκληπιοῦ καὶ Απόλλωνος μεγάλῃ τῆ 
φωνῇ καὶ ἐκάλει τὸν θεὸν ἥκειν τύχῃ τῇ ἀγαθὴ 
εἰς τὴν πόλιν. εἶτα φιάλην. αἰτήσας, ἀναδόντος 
τινός, ῥᾳδίως ὑποβαλὼν à ἀνιμᾶται μετὰ τοῦ ὕδατος 
καὶ τοῦ πηλοῦ τὸ ῳὸν ἐκεῖνο ἐν ᾧ ὁ θεὸς αὐτῷ 
κατεκέκλειστο, κηρῷ λευκῷ καὶ γυμυθίῳ τὴν 
ἁρμογὴν τοῦ πώματος συγκεκολλημένον' καὶ 
λαβὼν αὐτὸ εἰς τὰς χεῖρας ἔχειν ἔφασκεν ἤδη 
τὸν ᾿Ασκληπιόν. t δὲ ἀτενὲς ἀπέβλεπον ὅ τι 
καὶ γίγνοιτο, πολὺ το θαυμάσαντες τὸ cv 
ἐν τῷ ὕδατι εὑρημένον. ἐπεὶ δὲ καὶ κατάξας 
αὐτὸ εἰς κοίλην τὴν χεῖρα ὑπεδέξατο τὸ τοῦ 
ἑρπετοῦ ἐκείνου ἔμβρυον καὶ οἱ παρόντες εἶδον 
κινούμενον καὶ περὶ τοῖς δακτύλοις εἰλούμενον, 
ἀνέκραγον εὐθὺς καὶ ἠσπάζοντο τὸν θεὸν καὶ τὴν 
πόλιν ἐμακάριξον καὶ χανδὸν ἕκαστος éve- 
πίμπλατο τῶν εὐχῶν, θησαυροὺς καὶ πλούτους 
καὶ ὑγιείας καὶ τὰ ἄλλα ἀγαθὰ αὐτῶν παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ. 
ὁ δὲ δρομαῖος αὖθις ἐπὶ τὴν οἰκίαν ἵετο φέρων 
ἅμα καὶ τὸν ἀρτιγέννητον ᾿Ασκληπιόν, ‘is 
τεχθέντα, ὅτε ANNO ἅπαξ τίκτοντ᾽ ἄνθρωποι,” 
οὐκ ἐκ Κορωνίδος, μὰ Ai’ οὐδέ γε κορώνης, ἀλλ᾽ 
ἐκ χηνὸς γεγεννημένον. ὁ ) δὲ λεὼς à ἅπας ἠκολούθει, 
πάντες ἔνθεοι καὶ μεμηνότες ὑπὸ τῶν ἐλπίδων. 

1 προφκοδομημένην Bedd. But thisisinconsistent with the 
previous deseription. The pool is merely casual water ; after 
it has served its turn as the prima fons et origo mali, we 
hear nothing more of it. 




was saying save only that he everywhere brought 
in Apollo and Asclepius. Then he ran at full speed 
to the future temple, went to the excavation and 
the previously improvised fountain-head of the 
oracle, entered the water, sang hymns in honour of 
Asclepius and Apollo at the top of his voice, and 
besought the god, under the blessing of Heaven, to 
come to the city. Then he asked for a libation- 
saucer, and when somebody handed him one, deftly 
slipped it underneath and brought up, along with 
water and mud, that egg in which he had immured 
the god; the joint about the plug had been closed 
with wax and white lead. Taking it in his hands, he 
asserted that at that moment he held Asclepius! 
They gazed unwaveringly to see what in the world 
was going to happen; indeed, they had already 
marvelled at the discovery of the egg in the water. 
But when he broke it and received the tiny snake 
into his hollowed hand, and the crowd saw it 
moving and twisting about his fingers, they at once 
raised a shout, welcomed the god, congratulated 
their city, and began each of them to sate him- 
self greedily with prayers, craving treasures, riches, 
health, and every other blessing from him. But 
Alexander went home again at full speed, taking 

‘with him the new-born Asclepius, * born twice, 

when other men are born but once," ! whose mother 
was not Coronis,? by Zeus, nor yet a crow, but a 
goose! And the whole population followed, all full 
of religious fervour and crazed with expectations. 

1 Cf. Odyssey, 12, 22: “Men of two deaths, when other 
men die but once.” 

2 ** Some say that the mother of Asclepius was not Arsinoe, 

daughter of Leucippus, but Coronis, daughter of Phlegyas” 
(Apollodorus, 3, 10, 3). 





Ἡμέρας μὲν οὖν τινας * οἴκοι ἔμεινεν ἐλπίξων 
ὅπερ ἣν, ὑπὸ τῆς φήμης αὐτίκα μάλα παμπόλλους 
τῶν Παφλαγόνων συνδραμεῖσθαι. ἐπεὶ δὲ 
ὑπερεπέπληστο ἀνθρώπων ἡ πόλις, ἁπάντων 
τοὺς ἐγκεφάλους καὶ τὰς καρδίας προεξῃρημένων 
οὐδὲν ἐοικότων σιτοφάγοις ἀνδράσιν, ἀλλὰ μόνῃ 
τῇ μορφῇ μὴ οὐχὶ πρόβατα εἶναι διαφερόντων, ἐν 
οἰκίσκῳ τινὶ ἐπὶ κλίνης καθεζόµενος μάλα 
θεοπρεπῶς ἐσταλ μένος ἐλάμβανεν εἰς τὸν κόλπον 
τὸν Πελλαῖον ἐκεῖνον ᾿Ασκληπιόν, μέγιστόν τε 
καὶ κάλλιστον, ὡς ἔφην, ὄντα, καὶ ὅλον τῷ 
αὑτοῦ τραχήλῳ περιειλήσας καὶ τὴν οὐρὰν ἔξω 
ἀφείς---πολὺς δὲ ἦν---ἐν τῷ προκολπίῳ I po- 
κεχύσθαι αὐτοῦ“ καὶ χαμαὶ τὸ μέρος ἐπισύρεσθαι, 
μόνην τὴν κεφαλὴν ὑπὸ μάλης. ἔχων καὶ ἀπο- 
κρύπτων, ἀνεχομένου πάντα ἐκείνου, προὔφαινεν 
τὴν ὀθονίνην κεφαλὴν κατὰ θάτερον τοῦ 
πώγωνος, ὡς δῆθεν ἐκείνου τοῦ φαινομένου 
πάντως οὖσαν. 

Ki irá μοι ἐπινόησον οἰκίσκον οὐ πάνυ φαιδρὸν 
οὐδὲ εἰς κόρον τοῦ φωτὸς δεχόμενον καὶ πλῆθος 
ἀνθρώπων συγκλύδων,τεταραγμένων καὶ προεκπε- 
πληγμένων καὶ ταῖς ἐλπίσιν ἐπαιωρουμένων, οἷς 
εἰσελθοῦ ῦσι τεράστιον ὡς εἰκὸς τὸ πρᾶγμα “ἐφαίνετο, 
ἐκ τοῦ τέως μικροῦ ἑρπετοῦ ἐντὸς ἡμερῶν ὀλίγων 
τοσοῦτον δράκοντα πεφηνέναι, ἀνθρωπόμορφον 
καὶ ταῦτα καὶ τιθασόν. ἠπείγοντο δὲ αὐτίκα 
πρὸς τὴν ἔξοδον, καὶ πρὶν ἀκριβῶς ἰδεῖν, 
ἐξηλαύνοντο ὑπὸ τῶν ἀεὶ ἐπεισιόντων' ἐτετρύπητο 

1 τινας Fritzsche: not in MSS. Cf. ἐντὸς ἡ ἡμερῶν ὀλίγων 16, 
2 πολὺς δὲ ἦν ws καὶ ἐν τοῦ προκολπίου αὐτοῦ κεχύσθαι β. 






For some days he remained at home, expecting 
what actually happened—that as the news spread, 
crowds of Paphlagonians would come running in. 
When the city had become over-full of people, all 
of them already bereft of their brains and sense, 
and not in the least like bread-eating humans, but 
different from beasts of the field only in their looks, 
he seated himself on a couch in a certain chamber, 
clothed in apparel well suited to a god, and took 
into his bosom his Asclepius from Pella, who, as I 
have said, was of uncommon size and beauty.! Coil- 
ing him about his neck, and letting the tail, which 
was long, stream over his lap and drag part of its 
length on the floor, he concealed only the head by 
holding it under his arm—the creature would sub- 
mit to anything—and showed the linen head at one 
side of his own beard, as if it certainly belonged to 

the creature that was in view. 

Now then, please imagine a little room, not very 
bright and not admitting any too much daylight ; 
also, a crowd of heterogeneous humanity, excited, 
wonder-struck in advance, agog with hopes. When 
they went in, the thing, of course, seemed to 
them a miracle, that the formerly tiny snake 
within a few days had turned into so great a 
serpent, with a human face, moreover, and tame! 
They were immediately crowded towards the exit, 
and before they could look closely were forced out 
by those who kept coming in, for another door 

! There was special significance in this performance. 
‘‘ Anyhow, ‘God in the bosom’ is a countersign of the 
mysteries of Sabazius to theadepts. This is a snake, passed 
through the bosom of the initiates" Clement of Alexandria, 
Protrept, 1, 2, 10). 




δὲ κατὰ τὸ ἀντίθυρον ἄλλη ἔξοδος. οἷόν τι καὶ 
τοὺς Μακεδόνας ἐν Βαβυλῶνι ποιῆσαι ἐπ᾿ 
᾿Αλεξάνδρῳ νοσοῦντι λόγος, ὅτε ὁ μὲν ἤδη 
πονήρως εἶχεν, οἱ δὲ περιστάντες τὰ βασίλεια 
ἐπόθουν ἰδεῖν αὐτὸν καὶ προσειπεῖν τὸ ὕστατον. 
τὴν δὲ ἐπίδειξιν ταύτην οὐχ ἅπαξ ὁ μιαρός, ἀλλὰ 
πολλάκις ποιῆσαι λέγεται, καὶ μάλιστα εἴ τινες 
τῶν πλουσίων ἀφίκοιντο νεαλέστεροι. 

᾿Ενταῦθα, ὦ e pire Κέλσε, εἰ δεῖ τἀληθῆ λέγειν, 
συγγνώμην χρὴ ἀπονέμειν. τοῖς Παφλαγόσι καὶ 

οντικοῖς ἐκείνοις, παχέσι καὶ ἀπαιδεύτοις 
ἀνθρώποις, εἰ ἐξηπατήθησαν ἁπτόμενοι τοῦ 
ὁράκοντος---καὶ γὰρ τοῦτο παρεῖχεν τοῖς BovXo- 
μένοις ὁ ᾿Ἀλέξανδρος-- ὁρῶντές Tel ἐν ἀμυδρῷ 
τῷ φωτὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν δῆθεν αὐτοῦ ἀνοίγουσάν 
τε καὶ συγκλείουσαν τὸ στόμα, ὥστε πάνυ τὸ 
μηχάνημα ἐδεῖτο Δημοκρίτου τινὸς ἢ καὶ αὐτοῦ 
Ἠπικούρου ù . Μητροδώρου 7j τινος ἄλλου 
ἀδαμαντίνην πρὸς τὰ τοιαῦτα τὴν γνώμην ἔχοντος, 
ὡς ἀπιστῆσαι καὶ ὅπερ ἣν εἰκάσαι, καὶ εἰ μὴ 
εὑρεῖν τὸν τρόπον ἐδύνατο, ἐκεῖνο γοῦν προ- 
πεπεισμένου, ὅτι λέληθεν αὐτὸν O τρόπος τῆς 
μαγγανείας, τὸ δ᾽ οὖν πᾶν ψεῦδός ἐστι καὶ 
γενέσθαι ἀδύνατον. 

Kar ὀλίγον οὖν καὶ ἡ Βιθυνία καὶ ἡ Γαλατία 
καὶ ἡ Θράκη συνέρρει, ἑκάστου τῶν ἀπαγγελλόν- 
των κατὰ τὸ εἰκὸς λέγοντος ὡς καὶ γεννώμενον 
ἴδοι τὸν θεὸν καὶ ὕστερον ἄψαιτο μετ᾽ ὀλίγον 
παμμεγέθους αὐτοῦ γεγενημένου καὶ τὸ πρόσωπον 
ἀνθρώπῳ ἐοικότος. γραφαί τε ἐπὶ τούτῳ καὶ 
εὐκόνες καὶ ξόανα, τὰ μὲν ἐκ χαλκοῦ, τὰ δὲ ἐξ 
ἀργύρου εἰκασμένα, καὶ ὄνομά γε τῷ θεῷ ἐπιτεθέν' 


had been opened on the opposite side as an exit. 
That was the way the Macedonians did, they say, 
in Babylon during Alexander's illness, when he was 
in a bad way and they surrounded the palace, 
craving to see him and say good-bye. This exhi- 
bition the scoundrel gave not merely once, they say, 
but again and again, above all if any rich men 
were newly arrived. 

/ In that matter, dear Celsus, to tell the truth, we 
/ must excuse those men of Paphlagonia and Pontus, 
thick-witted, uneducated fellows that they were, for 
being deluded when they touched the serpent— 
Alexander let anyone do so who wished—and be- 
sides saw in a dim light what purported to be its 
head opening and shutting its mouth. Really the 
trick stood in need of a Democritus, or even 
Epicurus himself or Metrodorus, or someone else 
with a mind as firm as adamant toward such 
matters, so as to disbelieve and guess the truth-— 
one who, if he could not discover how it went, 
would at all events be convinced beforehand that 
though the method of the fraud escaped him, it 
was nevertheless all sham and could not possibly 

à Little by little, Bithynia, Galatia, and Thrace 
came pouring in, for everyone who carried the news 
very likely said that he not only had seen the god 
born but had subsequently touched him, after he 
had grown very great in a short time and had a 
face that looked like a man's. Next came paintings 
and statues and cult-images, some made of bronze, 
some of silver, and naturally a name was bestowed 

1 τε A. M.H. : γὰρ y, not in B. 



Γλύκων yap ἐκαλεῖτο ἔκ τινος ἐμμέτρου καὶ 
θείου προστάγματος. ἀνεφώνησε γὰρ ὁ 


Ειμὶ Γλύκων, τρίτον αἷμα Διός, φάος ἀνθρώ- 

Καὶ ἐπειδὴ καιρὸς ἦν, οὗπερ ἕνεκα τὰ πάντα 
ἐμεμηχάνητο, καὶ χρᾶν τοῖς δεομένοις καὶ 
θεσπίζειν, map ᾿Αμϕιλόχου. τοῦ ἐν Κιλικίᾳ τὸ 
ἐνδόσιμον λαβών---καὶ γὰρ ἐκεῖνος, μετὰ τὴν τοῦ 
πατρὸς τελευτὴν τοῦ ᾿Αμϕιάρεω καὶ τὸν ἐν 
Θήβαις ἀφανισμὸν αὐτοῦ ἐκπεσὼν τῆς οἰκείας 1 εἰς 
τὴν Νιλικίαν ἀφικόμενος, οὐ πονήρως ἀπήλλαξεν, 
προθεσπίζων καὶ αὐτὸς τοῖς Κίλιξι τὰ μέλλοντα 
καὶ δύ᾽ ὀβολοὺς ἐφ᾽ ἑκάστῳ χρησμῷ λαμβάνων-- 
ἐκεῖθεν οὖν τὸ ἐνδόσιμον. λαβὼν ὁ ᾿Αλέξανδρος 
προλέγει πᾶσι τοῖς ἀφικομένοις ὡς μαντεύσεται 
ὁ Geos, p ῥητήν τινα ἡμέραν προειπών. ἐκέλευσεν 
δὲ ἕκαστον, οὗ δέοιτο àv καὶ ὃ μάλιστα μαθεῖν 
ἐθέλοι, εἰς βιβλίον ἐγγράψαντα καταρράψαι τε 
καὶ κατασημήνασ αι κηρῷ ἢ πηλῷ η ἄλλῳ 
τοιούτῳ. αὐτὸς δὲ λαβὼν τὰ βιβλία καὶ εἰς TÒ 
ἄδυτον κατελθὼν-- ἤδη γὰρ ὁ νεὼς ἐγήγερτο καὶ 
7 σκηνὴ παρεσκεύαστο--καλέσειν ἔμελλε κατὰ 
τάξιν τοὺς δεδωκότας ὑπὸ κήρυκι καὶ θεολόγῳ, 
καὶ παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ ἀκούων ἕκαστα τὸ μὲν βιβλίον 
ἀποδώσειν σεσημασμένον ὡς εἶχε, τὴν δὲ πρὸς 
αὐτὸ ἀπόκρισιν ὑπογεγ αμμένην, πρὸς ἔπος 
ἀμειβομένου τοῦ θεοῦ περὶ ὅτου τις ἔροιτο. 

1 οἰκείας Fritzsche : οἰκίας MSS. 


upon the god. He was called Glycon in conse- 
quence of a divine behest in metre; for Alexander 
proclaimed : 

( * Glycon am I, the grandson of Zeus, bright beacon 
to mortals ! 

When it was time to carry out the purpose for 
which the whole scheme had been concocted—that 
is to say, to make predictions and give oracles 
to those who sought them—taking his cue from 
Amphilochus in Cilicia, who, as you know, after the 
death and disappearance of his father Amphiaraus 
at Thebes,’ was exiled from his own country, went 
to Cilicia, and got on very well by foretelling the 
future, like his father, for the Cilicians and getting 
two obols for each prediction—taking, as I say, his 
cue from him, Alexander announced to all comers 
that the god would make prophecies, and named a 
date for it in advance. He directed everyone to 
write down in a scroll whatever he wanted and what 
he especially wished to learn, to tie it up, and to 
seal it with wax or clay or something else of that 
sort. Then he himself, after taking the scrolls and 
entering the inner sanctuary—for by that time the 
temple had been erected and the stage set—pro- 
posed to summon in order, with herald and priest, 
those who had submitted them, and after the god 
told him about each case, to give back the scroll 
with the seal upon it, just as it was, and the reply 
to it endorsed upon it; for the god would reply 
explicitly to any question that anyone should put. 

| In speaking of the ‘‘death and disappearance" of 
Amphiaraus, Lucian is rationalizing the myth, according to 

which Zeus clove the earth with a thunderbolt and it 
swallowed him up alive (Pindar, Nem. 9, 57). 



20 "Ην δὲ τὸ μηχάνημα. τοῦτο ἀνδρὶ μὲν οἴῳ σοί, 
εἰ δὲ μὴ φορτικὸν εἰπεῖν, καὶ otw ἐμοί, πρόδηλον 
καὶ γνῶναι ῥάδιον, τοῖς δὲ ἰδιώταις καὶ κορύζης 
μεστοῖς τὴν ῥίνα τεράστιον καὶ πάνυ ἀπίστῳ 
ὅμοιον, ἐπινοήσας γὰρ ποικίλας τῶν σφραγίδων 
τὰς λύσεις ἆ ἀνεγίγνωσκέν τε τὰς ἐ ἐρωτήσεις ἑκάστας 
καὶ τὰ δοκοῦντα πρὸς αὐτὰς ἀπεκρίνετο, εἶτα 
κατειλήσας αὖθις καὶ σημηνάμενος ἀπεδίδου μετὰ 
πολλοῦ θαύματος τοῖς λαμβάνουσιν. καὶ πολὺ 
ἣν παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς TO “' πόθεν γὰρ οὗτος ἠπίστατο ἃ 
ἐγὼ πάνυ ἀσφαλῶς σημηνάμενος αὐτῷ ἔδωκα ὑπὸ 
σφραγῖσιν δυσμιμήτοις, εἰ μὴ θεός τις ὡς ἀληθῶς 
ὁ πάντα γιγνώσκων ἣν» j 

21 Τίνες οὖν αἱ ἐπίνοιαι, ἴσως γὰρ ἐρήσῃ με. 
ἄκουε τοίνυν, ὡς ἔχοις ἐλέγχειν τὰ τοιαῦτα. ἡ 
πρώτη μὲν ἐκείνη, ὦ φίλτατε Κέλσε: βελόνην 
πυρώσας τὸ ὑπὸ τὴν σφραγῖδα μέρος. τοῦ κηροῦ 
διατήκων ἐξύρει καὶ μετὰ τὴν ἀνάγνωσιν τῇ 
Βελόνῃ αὖθις ἐπιχλιάνας τὸν κηρὸν, TOV τε κάτω 
ὑπὸ τῷ λίνῳ καὶ τὸν αὐτὴν τὴν σφραγῖδα č ἔχοντα, 
ῥᾳδίως συνεκόλλα. ἕτερος δὲ τρόπος ὁ διὰ τοῦ 
λεγομένου κολλ.υρίου: σκευαστὸν δὲ τοῦτό ἐστιν 
ἐκ πίττης Βρεττίας καὶ ἀσφάλτου καὶ λίθου τοῦ 
διαφανοῦς τετριμμένον καὶ κηροῦ καὶ μαστίχης. 
ἐκ γὰρ τούτων ἆ ἁπάντων ἀναπλάσας τὸ κολλύριον 
καὶ θερμήνας πυρί, σιάλῳ τὴν σφραγῖδα mpo- 
χρίσας ἐπετίθει καὶ ἀπέματτε τὸν τύπον. εἶτα 
αὐτίκα ξηροῦ ἐκείνου γενομένου, λύσας ῥᾳδίως 
καὶ ἀναγνούς, ἐπιθεὶς τὸν κηρὸν ἀπετύπου ὥσπερ 
ἐκ λίθου τὴν, σφραγῖδα εὖ μάλα τῷ ἀρχετύπῳ 
ἐοικυῖαν. τρίτον ἄλλο πρὸς τούτοις ἄκουσον: 



As a matter of fact, this trick, to a man like you, 
and if it is not out of place to say so, like myself 
also, was obvious and easy to see through, but to 
those drivelling idiots it was miraculous and almost 
as good as incredible. Having discovered various 
ways of undoing the seals, he would read all the 
questions and answer them as he thought best. 
Then he would roll up the scrolls again, seal them, 
and give them back, to the great astonishment of 
the recipients, among whom the comment was 
frequent: “ Why, how did he learn the questions 
which I gave him very securely sealed with impres- 
sions hard to counterfeit, unless there was really 
some god that knew everything?” 

* What were his discoveries, then?” perhaps you 
will ask. Listen, therefore, in order to be able to 
show up such impostors. The first, my dear Celsus, 
was a well-known method; heating a needle, he 
removed the seal by melting through the wax 
underneath it, and after reading the contents he 
warmed the wax once more with the needle, both 
that which was under the thread and that which 
contained the seal, and so stuck it together without 
difficulty. Another method was by using what they 
call plaster; this is a compound of Bruttian pitch, 
asphalt, pulverized gypsum, wax, and gum Arabic. 
Making his plaster out of all these materials and 
warming it over the fire, he applied it to the seal, 
which he had previously wetted with saliva, and 
took a mould of the impression. Then, since the 
plaster hardened at once, after easily opening and 
reading the scrolls, he applied the wax and made an 
impression upon it precisely like the original, just as 
one would with a gem. Let me tell you a third 




τιτάνου γὰρ εἰς κόλλαν ἐμβαλὼν E κολλῶσι τὰ 
βιβλία, καὶ κηρὸν ἐκ τούτου πουήσας, ἔτι ὑγρὸν 
ὄντα ἐπετίθει τῇ σφραγῖδι καὶ ἀφελών--αὐτίκα 
δὲ ξηρὸν γίγνεται καὶ κέρατος, μᾶλλον | δὲ σιδήρου 
παγιώτερον-- τούτῳ ἐχρῆτο πρὸς τὸν τύπον. ἔστι 
δὲ καὶ ἄλλα πολλὰ πρὸς τοῦτο ἐπινενοημένα, 
ὧν οὐκ ἀναγκαῖον μεμνῆσθαι ἁπάντων, ὡς μὴ 
ἀπειρόκαλοι εἶναι δοκοίημεν, καὶ μάλιστα σοῦ ἐν 
οἷς κατὰ μάγων συνέγραψας, καλλίστοις τε ἅμα 
καὶ ὠφελιμωτάτοις συγγράμμασιν καὶ δυναμένοις 
σωφρονίξειν τοὺς ἐντυγχάνοντας, ἱκανὰ παραθε- 
μένου καὶ πολλῷ τούτων πλείονα. 

"Expy οὖν καὶ ἐθέσπιδε, πολλῇ τῇ συνέσει 
ἐνταῦθα χρώμενος καὶ τὸ εἰκαστικὸν τῇ ἐπινοίᾳ 
προσάπτων, τοῖς μὲν λοξὰ καὶ ἀμφίβολα πρὸς 
τὰς ἐρωτήσεις ἀποκρινόμενος, τοῖς δὲ καὶ πάνυ 
ἀσαφῆ! χρησμῳδικὸν γὰρ ἐδόκει αὐτῷ τοῦτο. 
τοὺς δὲ ἀπέτρεπεν ἢ προὔτρεπεν, ὡς ἄμεινον 
ἔδοξεν αὑτῷ εἰκάξοντι' τοῖς δὲ θεραπείας προῦ- 
λεγεν καὶ διαίτας, εἰδώς, ὅπερ ἐν ἀρχῇ ἔφην, 
πολλὰ καὶ χρήσιμα. φάρμακα. μάλιστα δὲ 
εὐδοκίμουν Tap αὐτῷ αἱ κυτμίδες, ἀκόπου τι 
ὄνομα πεπλασμένον, ἐκ λίπους ἀρκείου Ἰ συν- 
TeÜeuuévov.? τὰς μέντοι ἐλπίδας καὶ προκοπὰς 

1 αἰγείου B. 
2 συντεθειµένου Bekker : συντεθειµένον MSS. 

1 S. Hippolytus (Refut. omn. Haeres. IV. 28-42) contains 
a highly interesting section ‘‘against sorcerers,” including 
(34) a treatment of this subject. It is very evidently not his 
own work ; and K. F. Hermann thought it derived from the 
treatise by Celsus. Ganschinietz, in Harnack’s Texte und 
Untersuchungen 39, 2, has disputed this, but upon grounds 



method, in addition to these. Putting marble-dust 
into the glue with which they glue books and 
making a paste of it, he applied that to the seal 
while it was still soft, and then, as it grows hard at 
once, more solid than horn or even iron, he removed 
it and used it for the impression. There are many 
other devices to this end, but they need not all 
be mentioned, for fear that we might seem to be 
wanting in taste, especially in view of the fact that 
in the book which you wrote against the sorcerers, a 
very good and useful treatise, capable of preserving 
common-sense in its readers, you cited instances 
enough, and indeed a great many more than ] 

Well, as I say, Alexander made predictions and 
gave oracles, employing great shrewdness in it and 
combining guesswork with his trickery. He gave 
responses that were sometimes obscure and am-: 
biguous, sometimes downright unintelligible, for 
this seemed to him in the oracular manner. Some 
people he dissuaded or encouraged as seemed best 
to him at a guess. To others he prescribed medical 
treatments and diets, knowing, as I said in the 
beginning, many useful remedies. His * cytmides " 
were in highest favour with him—a name which he 
had coined for a restorative ointment compounded 
of bears grease.? Expectations, however, and 
that'are not convincing. His commentary, however, is 

* It is a nice question whether this reading or that of the 
other group of MSS., ''goat's grease," is to be preferred. 
Galen in his treatment of these ointments (Kuhn xiii, p. 1008) 
does not mention bear's grease. But he considers goats 
grease only moderately good ; and every Yankee knows that 

in America bear's grease only gave place to goose grease 
(also mentioned by Galen) when bears became scarce. 



καὶ κλήρων διαδοχὰς εἰσαῦθις ἀεὶ ἀνεβάλλετο, 
προστιθεὶς ὅτι “ἔσται πάντα ὁπόταν ἐθελήσω 
ἐγὼ καὶ ᾿Αλέξανδρος ὁ ὁ προφήτης µου δεηθῇ καὶ 
εὔξηται ù ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν.) 

23 ᾿Βτέτακτο δὲ ὁ μισθὸς ἐφ᾽ ἑκάστῳ χρησμῷ 
δραχμὴ καὶ δύ ὀβολώ. μὴ μικρὸν ᾿οἰηθῇς, ὧ 
ἑταῖρε, μηδ᾽ ὀλίγον γεγενῆσθαι τὸν πόρον τοῦτον, 
ἀλλ, εἰς ἑπτὰ ἢ ὀκτὼ μυριάδας ἑκάστου ἔτους 
ἤθροιξεν, ἀνὰ δέκα καὶ πεντεκαίδεκα χρησμοὺς 
τῶν ἀνθρώπων ὑπὸ ἀπληστίας ἀναδιδόντων. 
λαμβάνων δὲ οὐκ αὐτὸς ἐχρῆτο μόνος οὐδ᾽ εἰς 
πλοῦτον ἀπεθησαύριξεν, ἀλλὰ πολλοὺς ἤδη περὶ 
αὑτὸν ἔχων συνεργοὺς καὶ ὑπηρέτας καὶ πευθῆνας 
καὶ χρησμοποιοὺς καὶ χρησμοφύλακας καὶ ὑπο- 

γραφέας καὶ ἐπισφραγιστὰς καὶ ἐξηγητάς, ἅπασιν 
ἔνεμεν ἑκάστῳ τὸ κατ᾽ ἀξίαν. 

4 Ἤδη δέ τινας καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν ἀλλοδαπὴν. ἐξέπεμ- 
πεν, φήμας ἐμποιήσοντας τοῖς ἔθνεσιν ὑπὲρ τοῦ 
μαντείου καὶ διηγησομένους ὡς προείποι καὶ 
ἀνεύροι δραπέτας καὶ κλέπτας καὶ λῃστὰς 
ἐξελέγξειε καὶ θησαυροὺς͵ ἀνορύξαι παράσχοι 
καὶ νοσοῦντας ἰάσαιτο, ἐνίους δὲ καὶ ἤδη ἀπο- 
θανόντας ἀναστήσειεν. δρόμος οὖν καὶ ὠθισμὸς 
ἁπανταχόθεν € ἐγίγνετο και θυσίαι καὶ ἀναθήματα, 
καὶ διπλάσια τῷ προφήτῃ καὶ μαθητῇ τοῦ θεοῦ. 
καὶ γὰρ αὖ καὶ οὗτος ἐξέπεσεν ὁ χρησμός" 

Τιέµεναι κέλομαι τὸν ἐμὸν θεράπονθ᾽ ὑποφήτην' 
οὐ γάρ μοι κτεάνων μέλεται ἄγαν, ἀλλ᾽ 

1 Alexander’s price was high. Amphilochus got but two 
obols (one-fourth as much) at Mallus. According to Lucian 



advancements and successions to estates he always 
put off to another day, adding: “It shall all come 
about when I will, and when Alexander, my prophet, 
asks it of me and prays for you." 

A price had been fixed for each oracle, a drachma 
and two obols! Do not think that it was low, my 
friend, or that the revenue from this source was 
scanty! He gleaned as much as seventy or eighty 
thousand? a year, since men were so greedy as to 
send in ten and fifteen questions each. What he 
received he did not use for himself alone nor 
treasure up to make himself rich, but since he had 
many men about him by this time as assistants, 
servants, collectors of information, writers of oracles, 
custodians of oracles, clerks, sealers, and expounders, 
he divided with all, giving each one what was 
proportionate to his worth. 

By now he was even sending men abroad to 
create rumours in the different nations in regard to 
the oracle and to say that he made predictions, 
discovered fugitive slaves, detected thieves and 
robbers, caused treasures to be dug up, healed the 
sick, and in some cases had actually raised the dead. 
So there was a hustling and a bustling from every 
side, with sacrifices and votive offerings—and twice as 
much for the prophet and disciple of the god. 
For this oracle also had come out : 

* Honour I bid you to give my faithful servant, the 
prophet ; 

No great store do I set upon riches, but much on 

the prophet." 

(Timon 6; 12; Epist. Saturn. 21) the wage of a day-labourer 
at this time was but four obols. ? Drachmas. 




᾿Επεὶ δὲ ἤδη πολλοὶ τῶν νοῦν ἐχόντων ὥσπερ 
ἐκ μέθης Baleias ἀναφέροντες συνίσταντο eT. 
αὐτόν, καὶ μάλιστα ὅσοι ᾿Επικούρου ἑταῖροι 
jcav zai ἐν ταῖς πόλεσιν ἐπεφώρατο ἠρέμα ἡ 

πᾶσα μαγγανεία καὶ συσκευὴ τοῦ δράματος, 

ἐκφέρει φόβητρόν τι ἐπ᾿ αὐτούς, λέγων ἀθέων 
ἐμπεπλῆσθαι καὶ «ριστιανῶν τὸν [Πόντον, oi 
περὶ αὐτοῦ τολμῶσι τὰ κάκιστα βλασφημεῖν' 
οὓς ἐκέλευε λίθοις ἐλαύνειν, εἴ γε θέλουσιν ἵλεω 
ἔχειν τὸν θεόν. περὶ δὲ ᾿Επικούρου καὶ τοιοῦτόν 
τινα χρησμὸν ἀπεφθέγξατο: ἐρομένου γάρ τινος 
τί πράττει ἐν" Λιδου ὁ ᾿Επίκουρος ; 

“Μολυβδίνας ἔχων,’ ἔφη, “' πέδας ἐν βορβόρῳ 

εἶτα θαυμάζεις. εἰ ἐπὶ μέγα ἤρθη τὸ χρηστήριον, 
ὁρῶν τὰς ἐρωτήσεις τῶν προσιόντων συνετὰς καὶ 
πεπαιδευμένας ; 

“Ows δὲ ἄσπονδος καὶ ἀκήρυκτος αὐτῷ ὁ 
πόλεμος πρὸς ᾿Επέκουρον ἦν μάλα εἰκότως. τίνι 
γὰρ ἂν ἄλλῳ δικαιότερον προσεπολέμει γόης 
ἄνθρωπος καὶ τερατεία φίλος, ἀληθείᾳ δὲ ἔχθιστος, 
ἢ ᾿Επικούρῳ ἀνδρὶ τὴν φύσιν τῶν πραγμάτων 
καθεωρακότι καὶ μόνῳ τὴν ἐν αὐτοῖς ἀλήθειαν 
εἰδότι ; οἱ μὲν γὰρ ἀμφὶ τὸν Πλάτωνα καὶ Χρύ- 
σιππον καὶ Πυθαγόραν φίλοι, καὶ εἰρήνη βαθεῖα 
πρὸς ἐκείνους jw ὁ δὲ ἄτεγκτος ᾿Επίκουρος--- 
οὕτως γὰρ αὐτὸν ὠνόμαξεν---ἔχθιστος δικαίως, 
πάντα ταῦτα ἐν γέλωτι καὶ παιδιᾷ τιθέμενος. 
διὸ καὶ τὴν “A paar pw ἐμίσει μάλιστα τῶν 
Ποντικῶν πόλεων, ὅτι ἠπίστατο τοὺς περὶ 



When at last many sensible men, recovering, as it 
were, from profound intoxication, combined against 
him, especially all the followers of Epicurus, and 
when in the cities they began gradually to detect 
all the trickery and buncombe of the show, 
he issued a promulgation designed to scare them, 
saying that Pontus was full of atheists and Christians 
who had the hardihood to utter the vilest abuse 
of him; these he bade them drive away with 
stones if they wanted to have the god gracious. 
About Epicurus, moreover, he delivered himself of 
an oracle after this sort; when someone asked him 
how Epicurus was doing in Hades, he replied : 

* With leaden fetters on his feet in filthy mire he 

Do you wonder, then, that the shrine waxed great, 
now that you see that the questions of its visitors 
were intelligent and refined? 

In general, the war that he waged upon Epicurus 
was without truce or parley, naturally enough. 
Upon whom else would a quack who loved humbug 
and bitterly hated truth more fittingly make war 
than upon Epicurus, who discerned the nature of 
things and alone knew the truth in them? The 
followers of Plato and Chrysippus and Pythagoras 
were his friends, and there was profound peace with 
them; but “the impervious Epicurus "—for that is 
what he called him—was rightly his bitter enemy, 
since he considered all that sort of thing a laughirig- 
matter and a joke. So Alexander hated Amastris 
most of all the cities in Pontus because he knew that 

1 καὶ μάλιστα οἱ Ἐπικούρου ἑταῖροι, πολλοὶ δὲ ἦσαν B. 



Λέπιδον καὶ ἄλλους ὁμοίους αὐτοῖς πολλοὺς 
ἐνόντας ἐν τῇ πόλει' οὐδὲ ἐχρησμῴδησε πώποτε 
᾽Αμαστριανῷ ἀνδρί. ὁπότε δὲ καὶ ἐτόλμησεν 
ἀδελφῷ συγκλητικοῦ χρησμῳδῆσαι, κατα- 
γελάστως ἀπήλλαξεν, οὐχ εὑρὼν οὔτε αὐτὸς 
πλάσασθαι χρησμὸν δεξιὸν οὔτε τὸν ποιῆσαι 
πρὸς καιρὸν αὐτῷ δυνησόμενον. μεμφομένῳ γὰρ 
αὐτῷ στομάχου ὀδύνην προστάξαι Βουλόμενος 
ὕειον πόδα μετὰ μαλάχης ἐσκευασμένον ἐσθίειν 
οὕτως ἔφη! 

/ £: e ^ f / 
Μάλβακα χοιράων iep Kupiveve σιπύδνῳ. 

26 Πολλάκις μὲν οὖν, ὡς προεῖπον, ἔδειξε τὸν Spa- 
κοντα τοῖς δεοµένοις, οὐχ ὅλον, ἀλλὰ τὴν οὐρὰν 
μάλιστα καὶ τὸ ἄλλο σῶμα προβεβληκώς, τὴν 
κεφαλὴν δὲ ὑπὸ κόλπου ἀθέατον φυλάττων. 
ἐθελήσας δὲ καὶ μειξόνως ἐκπλῆξαι τὸ πλῆθος, 
ὑπέσχετο καὶ λαλοῦντα παρεξειν τὸν θεόν, αὐτὸν 
ἄνευ ὑποφήτου .Χρησμῳδοῦντα.. εἶτα οὐ χαλεπῶς 
γεράνων ἀρτηρίας συνάψας καὶ διὰ τῆς κεφαλῆς 
ἐκείνης τῆς E πρὸς ὁμοιότητα διεί- 
pas, ἄλλου τινὸς ἔξωθεν ἐμβοῶντος, ἀπεκρίνετο 
πρὸς τὰς ἐρωτήσεις, τῆς φωνῆς διὰ τοῦ ὀθονίνου 
ἐκείνου ᾿Ασκληπιοῦ προπιπτούσης. 

᾿Εκαλοῦντο δὲ οἱ χρησμοὶ οὗτοι αὐτόφωνοι, καὶ 
οὐ πᾶσιν ἐδίδοντο οὐδὲ ἀνέδην, ἀλλὰ τοῖς εὐ- 

1 An inscription from Amastris (C.I.G. 4149) honours 
“Tiberius Claudius Lepidus, Chief Priest of Pontus and 
President of the Metropolis of Pontus” (i.e. Amastris). 
This can be no other than the Lepidus of Lucian. The 
priesthood was that of Augustus. Amastris is almost due 
N. of Angora, on the Black Sea, W. of Abonoteichus. 



the followers of Lepidus! and others like them were 
numerous in the city; and he would never deliver 
an oracle to an Amastrian. Once when he did 
venture to make a prediction for a senator’s brother, 
he acquitted himself ridiculously, since he could 
neither compose a clever response himself nor find 
anyone else who could do it in time. The man com- 
plained of colic, and Alexander, wishing to direct him 
to eat a pig's foot cooked with mallow, said : 

* Mallow with cummin digest in a sacred pipkin of 

Again and again, as I said before, he exhibited the 
serpent to all who requested it, not in its entirety, 
but exposing chiefly the tail and the rest of the body 
and keeping the head out of sight under his arm. 
But as he wished to astonish the crowd still more, 
he promised to produce the god talking— delivering 
oracles in person without a prophet. It was no 
difficult matter for him to fasten cranes’ windpipes 
together and pass them through the head, which he 
had so fashioned as to be lifelike. Then he answered 
the questions through someone else, who spoke into 
the tube from the outside, so that the voice issued 
from his canvas Asclepius.? 

These oracles were called autophones, and were 
not given to everybody promiscuously, but only to 

2 S. Hippolytus (/.c., 28) mentions a tube made of wind- 
pipes of cranes, storks, or swans, and used in a similar way. 
Du Soul has a note in the Hemsterhuys-Reitz Lucian (ii, p. 
234), telling of a wooden head constructed by Thomas Irson 
and exhibited to Charles II, which answered questions in any 
language and produced a great effect until a confederate was 
detected using a speaking-tube in the next room. Du Soul 
had the story from Irson himself. 





παρύφοις καὶ πλουσίοις καὶ μεγαλοδώροις. ὁ 
γοῦν Σευηριανῷ δοθεὶς ὑπὲρ τῆς εἰς ᾿Αρμενίαν 
εἰσόδου τῶν αὐτοφώνων καὶ αὐτὸς ἦν. προτρέπων 
γὰρ αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὴν εἰσβολὴν οὕτως ἔφη: 

Πάρθους ᾿Αρμενίους τε θοῷ ὑπὸ δουρὶ 

νοστήσεις Ῥώμην καὶ Θύβριδος ἀγλαὸν ὕδωρ 

στέμμα φέρων κροτάφοισι μεμιγμένον ἀκτί- 

, e / ^ 
εἶτ᾽ ἐπειδὴ πεισθεὶς ὁ ἠλίθιος ἐκεῖνος Κελτὸς 
> ’ M , / > ^ ^ e 4 ^ 
εἰσέβαλε καὶ ἀπήλλαξεν αὐτῇ στρατιᾷ ὑπὸ τοῦ 
Ὀσρόου: κατακοπείς, τοῦτον μὲν τὸν χρησμὸν 
ἐξαιρεῖ ἐκ τῶν ὑπομνημάτων, ἐντίθησιν δ᾽ ἄλλον 
ἀντ᾽ αὐτοῦ" 
/ » 
Μὴ σύ y èr ᾽Αρμενίους ἐλάαν στρατόν, οὐ 
γὰρ ἄμεινον, 
/ / EON , » \ 
μὴ σοι θηλυχίτων τις ἀνὴρ τόξου ἄπο λυγρὸν 
πότμον ἐπιπροϊεὶς παύση βιότοιο φάους τε. 

Καὶ γὰρ αὖ καὶ τοῦτο σοφώτατον ἐπενόησε, 
τοὺς μεταχρονίους χρησμοὺς ἐπὶ θεραπείᾳ τῶν 
κακῶς προτἐθεσπισµένων καὶ ἀποτετευγμένων. 
πολλάκις γὰρ πρὸ μὲν τῆς τελευτῆς τοῖς νοσοῦσιν 

1 Ὀσρόου Kuhn : ᾿Οθρύου B, Ὀθρυάδου y. Cf. Hist. Conscrib. 
18 and 2). 

1 The corona radiata, worn by Augustus, Nero, and the 
emperors after Caracalla. This passage seems to point to 
its use (in addition to the laurel wreath?) as one of the 
triumphal insignia. 



those who were noble, rich, and free-handed. For 
example, the oracle given to Severianus in regard to 
his invasion of Armenia was one of the autophones. 
Alexander encouraged him to the invasion by saying : 

* Under your charging spear shall fall Armenians 
and Parthi ; 
Then you shall fare to Rome and the glorious 
waters of Tiber 
Wearing upon your brow the chaplet studded 
with sunbeams.” 1 

Then when that silly Celt, being convinced, made 
the invasion and ended by getting himself and his 
army cut to bits by Osroes, Alexander expunged 
this oracle from his records and inserted another in 
its place: 

* Better for you that your forces against Armenia 
march not, 
Lest some man, like a woman bedight, despatch 
from his bowstring 
Grim death, cutting you off from life and enjoy- 
ment of sunlight.” ? 

That was one of his devices, and a very clever 
one—belated oracles to make amends for those in 
which he had made bad predictions and missed the 
mark. Often he would promise good health to sick 

2 The Parthians had been interfering with the succession 
to the throne in Armenia. Severianus, Roman governor of 
Cappadocia, entered Armenia with a small force in 161, and 
was disastrously defeated at Elegeia by Chosroes. According 
to Dio Cassius (71, 2) the entire force was surrounded and 
wiped out. See also Lucian, de Hist, Conscrib. 21, 24, 25. 





ὑγίειαν. ἐπηγγέλλετο, ἀποθανόντων δὲ χρησμὸς 
ἄλλος ἕτοιμος ἦν παλινωδῶν' 

Μηκέτι δίζησθαι νούσοιο λυγρῆς ἐπαρωγήν' 
πότμος γὰρ προφανὴς οὐδ᾽ ἐκφυγέειν δυνατόν 

Εἰδὼς δὲ τοὺς ἐν Κλάρῳ καὶ Διδύμοις. καὶ 
Marið καὶ αὐτοὺς εὐδοκιμοῦντας ἐπὶ τῇ ὁμοίᾳ 
μαντικῇ ταύτῃ, φίλους αὐτοὺς ἐποιεῖτο, πολλοὺς 
τῶν προσιόντων πέμπων ἐπ᾽ αὐτοὺς λέγων: 

"Es Κλάρον (eco νῦν, τοὐμοῦ πατρὸς ὡς ὄπ᾽ 


M ΄ 
καὶ παλιν' 

Βραγχιδέων ἀδύτοισι πελάζεο καὶ κλύε χρη- 


ν g 
καὶ αὖθις' 

"Es Μαλλὸν χώρει θεσπίσματά T ᾽Αμϕιλόχοιο. 

Ταῦτα μὲν ἐντὸς τῶν ὅρων μέχρι τῆς ᾿Ιωνίας 
καὶ Κιλικίας καὶ Παφλαγονίας καὶ Γαλατίας. 
ὡς δὲ καὶ εἰς τὴν Ἰταλίαν διεφοίτησεν τοῦ 
μαντείου τὸ κλέος. καὶ εἰς τὴν “Ῥωμαίων πόλιν 
ἐνέπεσεν, οὐδεὶς ὅστις οὐκ ἄλλος πρὸ ἄλλου 
ἠπείγετο, οἱ μὲν αὐτοὶ ἰόντες, οἱ δὲ πέμποντες, 
καὶ μάλιστα οἱ δυνατώτατοι καὶ μέγιστον ἀξίωμα 
ἐν τῇ πόλει ἔ ἔχοντες". ὧν πρῶτος καὶ -κορυφαιότατος 
ἐγένετο Ῥουτιλιανός, ἀνὴρ τὰ μὲν ἄλλα καλὸς 

1 Apollo. 

2 P. Mummius Sisenna Rutilianus. What office he then 
held (see below) is uncertain. He eventually went through 
the whole cursus honorum, including the consulship (probably 
suffect) and the governorship of Upper Moesia, and ending, 



men before their demise, and when they died 
another oracle would be ready with a recantation : 

“Seek no more for assistance against thy bitter 
affliction ; 
Death now standeth in view ; 'tis beyond thy power 
to'scape him." 

As he was aware that the priests at Clarus and 
Didymi and Mallus were themselves in high repute 
for the same sort of divination, he made them his 
friends by sending many of his visitors to them, 
saying : 

*Now unto Clarus begone, to the voice of my 
father! to hearken.” 

and at another time, 

Visit the fane of the Branchids and hear what the 
oracle sayeth,” 

and again, 

* Make thy way unto Mallus and let Amphilochus 


So far, we have been concerned with his doings 
near the frontier, extending over lonia, Cilicia, Paph- 
lagonia, and Galatia. But when the renown of his 
prophetic shrine spread to [taly and invaded the city 
of Rome, everybody without exception, each on the 
others heels, made haste, some to go in person, 
some to send; this was the case particularly with 
those who had the greatest power and the highest 
rank in the city. The first and foremost of these 
was Rutilianus,?? who, though a man of birth and 

about A.D. 170, with the proconsulship of the province of 




καὶ ἀγαθὸς καὶ ἐν πολλαῖς τάξεσι “Pwpaixais 
ἐξητασμενος, τὰ δὲ περὶ τοὺς θεοὺς πάνυ νοσῶν 
καὶ ἀλλόκοτα περὶ αὐτῶν πεπιστευκώς, εἰ μόνον 
ἀλήηλιμμενον που λίθον ἢ ἐστεφανωμένον θεάσαιτο, 
προσπίπτων εὐθὺς καὶ προσκυνῶν καὶ ἐπὶ πολὺ 
παρεστὼς καὶ εὐχόμενος καὶ τἀγαθὰ παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ 

Οὗτος τοίνυν ἀκούσας τὰ περὶ τοῦ χρηστηρίου 
μικροῦ μὲν ἐδέησεν ἀφεὶς τὴν ἐγκεχειρισμένην 
τάξιν εἰς τὸ τοῦ ᾿Αβώνου τεῖχος ἀναπτῆναι. 
ἔπεμπε δ οὖν ἄλλους ém ἄλλοις" οἱ δὲ πεμπτό- 
μενοι, ἰδιῶταί τινες οἰκέται, ῥᾳδίως ἐξαπατηθέντες 
ἂν -ἐπανῄεσαν, τὰ μὲν ἰδόντες, τὰ δὲ ὡς ἰδόντες 
καὶ ἀκούσαντες: διηγούμενοι καὶ προσεπι- 
μετροῦντες ἔτι πλείω τούτων, ὡς ἐντεμότεροι 
εἶεν παρὰ τῷ δεσπότῃ. ἐξέκαιον οὖν τὸν ἄθλιον 
γέροντα καὶ εἰς μανίαν ἐρρωμένην ἐνέβαλον. ò 
δέ, ὡς àv τοῖς πλείστοις καὶ δυνατωτάτοις φίλος 
Qv, περιήει τὰ μὲν διηγούμενος ὡς ἀκούσειε παρὰ 
τῶν πεμφθέντων, τὰ δὲ καὶ Tap αὑτοῦ προστιθείς. 
ἐνέπλησεν οὖν τὴν πόλιν καὶ διεσάλευσεν οὗτος, 
καὶ τῶν ἐν τῇ AVA τοὺς πλείστους διεθορύβησεν, 
οἳ αὐτίκα καὶ αὐτοὶ ἠπείγοντο ἀκοῦσαί τι τῶν 
καθ αὑτούς. 

O δὲ τοὺς ἀφικνουμένους πάνυ φιλοφρόνως 
ὑποδεχόμενος ξενίοις τε καὶ ταῖς ἄλλαις δωρεαῖς 
πολυτελέσιν εὔνους ἐργαζόμενος αὑτῷ ἀπέπεμπεν 

1 καὶ ὡς ἀκούσαντες y, edd. But ὧς was added by someone 
who thought that καὶ was the conjunction. Its real force 
becomes apparent if one transposes thus; τὰ δὲ καὶ ἀκούσαντες 
ὡς ἰδόντες διηγούμενοι. 



breeding, put to the proof in many Roman offices, 
nevertheless in all that concerned the gods was very 
infirm and held strange beliefs about them. If he 
but saw anywhere a stone smeared with holy oil or 
adorned with a wreath,! he would fall on his face 
forthwith, kiss his hand, and stand beside it for a 
long time making vows and craving blessings from it. 

When this man heard the tales about the oracle, 
he very nearly abandoned the office which had been 
committed to him and took wing to Abonoteichus. 
Anyhow, he sent one set of messengers after another, 
and his emissaries, mere illiterate serving-people, 
were easily deluded, so when they came back, they 
told not only what they had seen but what they had 
heard as if they had seen it, and threw in something 
more for good measure, so as to gain favour with 
their master. Consequently, they inflamed the poor 
old man and made him absolutely crazy. Having 
many powerful friends, he went about not only 
telling what he had heard from his messengers but 
adding still more on his own account. So he flooded 
and convulsed the city, and agitated most of the 
court, who themselves at once hastened to go and 
hear something that concerned them. 

To all who came, Alexander gave a very cordial 
reception, made them think well of him by lavish 
entertainment and expensive presents, and sent 

1 For the Greek worship of stones, see Frazer’s Pausanias, 
vol. iv, 154 sq. ; v, 314 sq., 354. In the note last cited he 
quotes Arnobius adv. Nationes 1, 39: si quando conspexeram 
lubricatam lapidem et exolivi unguine sordidatam, tamquam 
inesset vis praesens adulabar adfabar, beneficia poscebam 
nihil sentiente de trunco. Add Clement of Alexandria, 
Strom. 7, 4, 26: πᾶν ξύλον καὶ πάντα λίθον τὸ δὴ λεγόμενον 
λιπαρὸν προσκυνοῦντες. 

VOL. iV. H 




οὐκ ἀπαγγελοῦντας μόνον τὰς ἐρωτήσεις, αλλὰ 
καὶ ὑμνήσοντας τὸν θεὸν καὶ τεράστια ὑπὲρ τοῦ 
μαντείου καὶ αὐτοὺς γευσομένους. ἀλλὰ καὶ 
μηχανᾶταί τι 0 τρισκατάρατος οὐκ ἄσοφον οὐδὲ 
τοῦ προστυχόντος λῃστοῦ ἄξιον. λύων γὰρ. τὰ 
πεπεμμένα βιβλία καὶ ἀναγιγνώσκων, εἴ τι εὗροι 
ἐπισφαλὲς καὶ παρακεκινδυνευμένον ἐν ταῖς 
ἐρωτήσεσιν, κατεῖχεν αὐτὸς καὶ οὐκ ἀπέπεμπεν, 
ὡς ὑποχειρίους καὶ μονονουχὶ δούλους διὰ τὸ 
δέος ἐ ἔχοι τοὺς πεπομφότας, μεμνημένους οἷα ἦν ἃ 
ἤροντο. συνίης δὲ otas } εἰκὸς τοὺς πλουσίους 
καὶ µέγα δυναµένους τὰς πύστεις πυνθάνεσθαι. 
ἐλάμβανεν οὖν πολλὰ παρ ἐκείνων, εἰδότων ὅτι 
ἐντὸς αὐτοὺς ἔχοι τῶν ἀρκύων. 

Βούλομαι δέ σοι καὶ τῶν 'Ρουτιλιανῷ δοθέντων 
χρησμῶν ἐνίους εἰπεῖν. πυνθανομένῳ. γὰρ αὐτῷ 
ὑπὲρ τοῦ παιδὸς ἐκ προτέρας. γυναικός, παιδείας 
ὥραν ἔχοντος, ὄντινα προστήσεται διδάσκαλον 
τῶν μαθημάτων αὐτοῦ, ἔφη" 

Πυθαγόρην πολέμων τε διάκτορον ἐσθλὸν 

εἶτα «μετ᾽ ὀλίγας ἡμέρας τοῦ παιδὸς ἀποθανόντος, 
ὁ μὲν ἠπόρει καὶ οὐδὲν εἶχεν λέγειν πρὸς τοὺς 
αἰτιωμένους, παρὰ πόδας οὕτως ἐληλεγμένου τοῦ 
χρησμοῦ' ὁ δὲ 'Ρουτελιανὸς αὐτὸς dÜacas o 
βέλτιστος ἀπελογεῖτο ὑπὲρ τοῦ μαντείου λέγων, 
τοῦτο αὐτὸ προδεδηλωκέναι τὸν θεὸν καὶ διὰ τοῦτο 
ζῶντα μὲν κελεῦσαι μηδένα διδάσκαλον ἑλέσθαι 
αὐτῷ, [Πυθαγόραν δὲ καὶ Όμηρον πάλαι τεθνεῶ- 
τας, οἷς εἰκὸς τὸ μειράκιον ἐν" Αιδου νῦν συνεῖναι. 

1 ofas du Soul: οἷα MSS. 


them back not merely to report the answers to their 
questions, but to sing the praises of the god and to 
tell portentous lies about the oracle on their own 
account. At the same time, however, the plaguy 
scoundrel devised a trick which was really clever 
and not what one would expect of your ordinary 
swindler. In opening and reading the forwarded 
scrolls, if he found anything dangerous and venture- 
some in the questions, he would keep them himself 
and not send them back, in order to hold the 
senders in subjection and all but in slavery because 
of their fear, since they remembered what it was 
that they had asked. You understand what 
questions are likely to be put by men who are rich 
and very powerful. So he used to derive much gain 
from those men, who knew that he had them in his 

I should like to tell you some of the responses 
that were given to Rutilianus. Asking about his 
son by a former marriage, who was then in the full 
bloom of youth, he enquired who should be appointed 
his tutor in his studies, The reply was: 

* Be it Pythagoras ; aye, and the good bard, master 
of warfare.” 

Then after a few days the boy died, and Alexander 
was at his wit’s end, with nothing to say to his critics, 
as the oracle had been shown up so obviously. But 
Rutilianus himself, good soul, made haste to defend 
the oracle by saying that the god had predicted pre- 
cisely this outcome, and on account of it had bidden 
him to select as his tutor nobody then alive, but 
rather Pythagoras and Homer, who died long ago, 
with whom, no doubt, the lad was then studying 



τί τοίνυν μέμφεσθαι ἄξιον ᾿Αλεξάνδρῳ, εἰ τοιού- 
τοις ἀνθρωπίσκοις ἐνδιατρίβειν ἠξίου ; ; 

34 Αὖθις δὲ πυνθανομένῳ αὐτῷ τὴν τίνος ψυχὴν 
αὐτὸς διεδέξατο, ἔφη" 

Πρῶτον llgXe(ógs ἐγένου, μετὰ ταῦτα Mé- 

sf) Δ - ΄ \ > e \ 3 4 

εἶθ᾽ ὃς νῦν φαίνη, μετὰ Ò ἔσσεαι ἡλιὰς ἀκτίς, 

ζήσεις Ò ὀγδώκοντ᾽ ἐπὶ τοῖς ἑκατὸν λυκά- 

ὁ δὲ ἑβδομηκοντούτης ἀπέθανεν μελαγχολήσας, 
35 οὐ περιμεύνας τὴν τοῦ θεοῦ ἱ ὑπόσχεσιν. καὶ οὗτος 
ὁ χρησμὸς τῶν αὐτοφώνων ἦν. 

᾿Ερομένῳ δὲ αὐτῷ ποτε καὶ περὶ γάμου ῥητῶς 
Γῆμον ᾿Αλεξάνδρου τε Σεληναίης τε θύγατρα. 

διεδεδώκει δὲ πάλαι λόγον ὡς τῆς θυγατρός, ἢ ἣν 
εἶχεν, ἐκ Σελήνης αὐτῷ γενομένης: τὴν γὰρ 
Σελήνην ἔρωτι ἁλῶναι αὐτοῦ καθεύδοντά ποτε 
ἰδοῦσαν, ὅπερ αὐτῇ ἔθος, κοιμωμένων ἐρᾶν τῶν 
καλῶν. ὁ δ᾽ οὐδὲν μελλήσας ὁ συνετώτατος 
“Ρουτιλιανὸς ἔπεμπεν εὐθὺς ἐπὶ τὴν κόρην καὶ 
τοὺς γάμους συνετέλει ἑξηκοντούτης νυμφίος καὶ 
συνῆν, τὴν πενθερὰν Σελήνην ἑκατόμβαις ὅλαις 
ἱλασκόμενος καὶ τῶν ἐπουρανίων εἷς καὶ αὐτὸς 
οἰόμενος γεγονέναι. 

36 Ὁ ὃ ὡς ἅπαξ τῶν ἐν Ἰταλίᾳ πραγμάτων ἐλά- 
Bero, μείξω ἀεὶ προσεπενόει καὶ πάντοσε τῆς 

1 A reference to the story of Endymion. 


in Hades. What fault, then, should we find with 
Alexander if he thought fit to amuse himself at the 
expense of such homunculi ? 

At another time, when Rutilianus enquired whose 
soul he had inherited, the reply was: 

* Peleus son wert thou at the first; thereafter 
Then what thou seemest now, and hereafter shalt 
turn to a sunbeam. 
Four score seasons of life shall be given thee over 
a hundred.” 

But as a matter of fact he died insane at seventy 
without awaiting the fulfilment of the god’s promise! 
This oracle too was one of the autophones. 

When one time he enquired about getting 
married, Alexander said explicitly : | 

“Take Alexander's daughter to wife, who was born 
of Selene.” 

He had long before given out a story to the 
effect that his daughter was by Selene; for Selene 
had fallen in love with him on seeing him asleep 
` once upon a time—it is a habit of hers, you 
know, to adore handsome lads in their sleep!! 
Without any hesitation that prince of sages Rutili- 
anus sent for the girl at once, celebrated his nuptials 
as a sexagenarian bridegroom, and took her to wife, 
propitiating his mother-in-law, the moon, with whole 
hecatombs and imagining that he himself had 
become one of the Celestials ! 

No sooner did Alexander get Italy in hand than 
he began to devise projects that were ever greater 
and greater, and sent oracle-mongers everywhere in 





“Ῥωμαίων ἀρχῆς ἔπεμπε χρησμολόγους, ταῖς 
πόλεσι προλέγων λοιμοὺς καὶ πυρκαϊὰς φυλάσ- 
σεσθαι καὶ σεισμούς: καὶ ἀσφαλῶς βοηθήσειν, 
ὡς μὴ γένοιτό τι τούτων, αὐτὸς ὑπισχνεῖτο αὐτοῖς. 
ἕνα δέ τινα χρησμόν, αὐτόφωνον καὶ αὐτόν, εἰς 
ἅπαντα τὰ ἔθνη ἐν τῷ λοιμῷ διεπέμψατο' ἦν δὲ 
τὸ ἔπος ἕν' 

Φοῖβος ἀκειρεκόμης 1 λοιμοῦ νεφέλην ἀπερύκει. 

καὶ τοῦτο ἦν ἰδεῖν τὸ ἔπος πανταχοῦ ἐπὶ τῶν 
πυλώνων γεγραμμένον ὡς τοῦ λοιμοῦ ἀλεξιφάρ- 
parov. TÒ Ò εἰς τοὐναντίον τοῖς πλείστοις 
προὐχώρει κατὰ γάρ τινα τύχην αὗται μάλιστα 
αἱ οἰκίαι ἐκενώθησαν αἷς τὸ emos ἐπεγέγραπτο. 
καὶ μή µε νομίσῃς τοῦτο λέγειν, ὅτι διὰ τὸ ἔπος 
ἀπώλλυντο" ἀλλὰ τύχῃ τινὶ οὕτως ἐγένετο. τάχα 
δὲ καὶ οἱ πολλοὶ θαρροῦντες τῴ στίχῳ ἠμέλουν 
καὶ ῥᾳθυμότερον διητῶντο, οὐδὲν τῷ χρησμῷ 
πρὸς τῆν νόσον συντελοῦντες, ὡς ἂν ἔχοντες 
προμαχομένας αὑτῶν τὰς συλλαβὰς καὶ τὸν 
ἀκειρεκόμην ? Φοῖβον ἀποτοξεύοντα τὸν λοιμόν, 

Ἠευθῆνας μέντοι ἐν αὐτῆ Ῥώμῃ κατεστήσατο 
πάνυ πολλοὺς τῶν συνωμοτῶν, οἳ τὰς ἑκάστου 
γνώμας διήγγελλον αὐτῷ καὶ τὰς ἐρωτήσεις 
προεμήνυον καὶ ὧν μάλιστα ἐφίενται, ὡς ἕτοιμον 
αὐτὸν πρὸς τὰς ἀποκρίσεις καὶ πρὶν ἥκειν τοὺς 
πεμπομένους καταλαμβάνεσθαι. 

Καὶ πρὸς μὲν τὰ ἐν τῇ Ιταλία ταῦτα ὃ προε- 

1 ἀκερσεκόμης β. 
5 ἀτερσεκόμην B. 
3 ταύτα καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα Y. 



the Roman Empire, warning the cities to be on their 
guard against plagues and conflagrations and earth- 
quakes ; he promised that he would himself afford 
them infallible aid so that none of these calamities 
should befall them. There was one oracle, also an 
autophone, which he despatched to all the nations 
during the pestilence 1; it was but a single verse : 

* Phoebus, the god unshorn, keepeth off plague's 
nebulous onset.” 

This verse was to be seen everywhere written 
over doorways as a charm against the plague; but 
in most cases it had the contrary result. By 
some chance it was particularly the houses on which 
the verse was inscribed that were depopulated! Do 
not suppose me to mean that they were stricken on 
account of the verse—by some chance or other it 
turned out that way, and perhaps, too, people 
neglected precautions because of their confidence in 
the line and lived too carelessly, giving the oracle no 
assistance against the disease becausethey were going 
to have the syllables to defend them and “ unshorn 
Phoebus " to drive away the plague with his arrows! 

Moreover, Alexander posted a great number of 
his fellow-conspirators in Rome itself as his agents, 
who reported everyone's views to him and gave him 
advance information about the questions and the 
especial wishes of those who consulted him, so that 
the messengers might find him ready to answer even 
before they arrived ! 

He made these preparations to meet the situation 
in Italy, and also made notable preparations at home. 

! The terrible plague which swept the whole Empire 
about a.D. 165. 



μηχανᾶτο' «οἴκοι δὲ καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα. >! τελετήν τε 
γάρ τινα συνίσταται καὶ δᾳδουχίας καὶ tepo- 
φαντίας, τριῶν ἑξῆς ἀεὶ τελουμένων ἡμερῶν. kai 
ἐν μὲν τῇ πρώτῃ πρόρρησις ἦν ὥσπερ ᾿Αθήνησι 
΄ κ TM "0 A ν A? , 
τοιαύτη" “ Ki τις ἄθεος ἢ Χριστιανὸς ἢ Επικου- 
peros ἥκει κατάσκοπος τῶν ὀργίων, φευγέτω’ οἱ 
δὲ πιστεύοντες τῷ θεῷ τελείσθωσαν τύχῃ τῇ 
’ ^» 4 » >. , » ^ »-7 3o " 
ayab.” eit εὐθὺς ἐν ἀρχῆ ἐξέλασις ἐγίγνετο 
καὶ ὁ μὲν ἡγεῖτο λέγων ““EEw Χριστιανούς, τὸ δὲ . 
πλῆθος ἅπαν ἐπεφθέγγετο '“"Ἔξω ' Emucovpetovs." 
9 ^ 3. xf f E / KI 
εἶτα Λητοῦς ἐγίγνετο λοχεία καὶ Απολλωνος 
\ . / ’ \ 3 M 
γοναὶ καὶ Kopwvidos γάμος καὶ ᾿Ασκληπιὸς 
3 ? > b A / , 3 ΄ 
ἐτίκτετο. ἐν δὲ τῇ δευτέρᾳ Γλύκωνος ἐπιφάνεια 
M ’ ^ ^ , \ e / 
καὶ γέννησις τοῦ θεοῦ. τρίτῃ δὲ ἡμέρᾳ Ποδα- 
λειρίου ἦν καὶ τῆς μητρὸς ᾿Αλεξάνδρου γάμος" 
Δαδὶς δὲ ἐκαλεῖτο καὶ δᾷδες δὲ ἐκαίοντο. καὶ 
τελευταῖον Σελήνης καὶ ᾿Αλεξάνδρου ἔρως καὶ 
’ ae ^ ο ’ , f 
τικτοµένη τοῦ Ῥουτιλιανοῦ ἡ γυνή. ἐδᾳδούχει δὲ 
καὶ ἱεροφάντει ὁ Ενδυμίων ᾿Αλέξανδρος. καὶ ὁ 
μὲν καθεύδων δῆθεν κατέκειτο ἐν τῷ μέσῳ, κατήει 
δὲ ἐπ᾿ αὐτὸν ἀπὸ τῆς ὀροφῆς ὡς ἐξ οὐρανοῦ ἀντὶ 
^ = ’ e , e , ^ 
τῆς Σελήνης Ῥουτιλία τις ὠὡραιοτάτη, τῶν 
Καίσαρος οἰκονόμων τινὸς γυνή, ὡς ἀληθῶς ἐρῶσα 
τοῦ ᾿Αλεξάνδρου καὶ ἀντερωμένη ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ, καὶ 
ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖς τοῦ ὀλεθρίου ἐκείνου ἀνδρὸς φιλή- 
µατά τε ἐγίγνετο ἐν τῷ μέσῳ καὶ περιπλοκαί. εἰ 


! Supplement by A. M.H. (after Fritzsche). The preceding 
μὲν and the following γὰρ prove a gap in the text, which one 
would expect to be of 17-19 letters—a line in the y 8 




He established a celebration of mysteries, with torch- 
light ceremonies and priestly offices, which was to be 
held annually, for three days in succession, in per- 
petuity. | On the first day, as at Athens,! there was 
a proclamation, worded as follows: “ If any atheist 
or Christian or Epicurean has come to spy upon the 
rites, let him be off, and let those who believe in 
the god perform the mysteries, under the blessing 
of Heaven.” 4 Then, at the very outset, there was an 
* expulsion," in which he took the lead, saying: 
** Out with the Christians," and the whole multitude 

chanted in response, “Out with the Epicureans!". . 

Then there was the child-bed of Leto, the birth of 
Apollo, his marriage to Coronis, and the birth of 
Asclepius. On the second day came the mani- 

festation of Glycon, including the birth of the god. 

On the third day there was the union of Podaleirius 
and the mother of Alexander—it was called the Day 
of Torches, and torches were burned. In conclusion 
there was the amour of Selene and Alexander, and 
the birth of Rutilianus' wife. The torch-bearer and 
hierophant was our Endymion, Alexander. While 
he lay in full view, pretending to be asleep, there 
came down to him from the roof, as if from heaven, 
not Selene but Rutilia, a very pretty woman, married 
to one of the Emperors stewards. She was 
genuinely in love with Alexander and he with her; 
and before the eyes of her worthless husband there 
were kisses and embraces in public. If the torches 

! 'The reference is to the proclamation that preceded the 
Eleusinian mysteries. Its entire content is unknown, but it 
required that the celebrants be clean of hand, pure of heart, 
and Greek in speech. Barbarians, homicides, and traitors 
were excluded; and there was some sort of restriction in 
regard to previous diet. 






δὲ μὴ πολλαὶ ἦσαν αἱ δᾷδες, τάχα ἄν τι καὶ τῶν 
ὑπὸ κόλπου ἐπράττετο. μετὰ μικρὸν δὲ εἰσήει 
πάλιν ἱεροφαντικῶς ἐσκευασμένος ἐν πολλῇ τῇ 
σιωπῇ, καὶ αὐτὸς μὲν ἔλεγε μεγάλῃ τῇ φωνῇ, 
‘ln Γλύκων ἐπεφθέγγοντο δὲ αὐτῷ ἐπακολου- 
θοῦντες [ὐμολπίδαι δῆθεν καὶ Κήρυκές τινες 
Παφλαγόνες, καρβατίνας ὑποδεδεμένοι, πολλὴν 

\ ΄ ? , κκ Ἐν» / » 
τὴν σκοροδάλµην ἐρυγγάνοντες, '* I3 ᾿Αλέξανδρε. 

Πολλάκις δὲ ἐν τῇ δαδουχία καὶ τοῖς μυστικοῖς 
σκιρτήμασιν γυμνωθεὶς ὁ μηρὸς αὐτοῦ ἐξεπίτηδες 
χρυσοῦς διεφάνη, δέρματος ὡς εἰκὸς ἐπιχρύσου 
περιτεθέντος καὶ πρὸς τὴν αὐγὴν τῶν λαμπάδων 
ἀποστίλβοντος. ὥστε καὶ γενομένης ποτὲ ζητή- 
σεως δύο τισὶ τῶν μωροσόφων ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ, εἴτε 
Πυθαγόρου τὴν ψυχὴν ἔχοι διὰ τὸν χρυσοῦν 
μηρὸν εἴτε ἄλλην ὁμοίαν αὐτῆ, καὶ τὴν ζήτησιν 
ταύτην αὐτῷ ᾿Αλεξάνδρῳ ἐπανενεγκόντων, ὁ 
Βασιλεὺς Γλύκων χρησμῷ ἔλυσεν τὴν ἀπορίαν" 

Πυθαγόρου ψυχὴ ποτὲ μὲν φθίνει, ἄλλοτε δ᾽ 

ἡ δὲ προφητείη Sins φρενὸς ἐστιν ἀπορρώξ. 
καὶ μιν ἔπεμψε πατὴρ ἀγαθῶν ἀνδρῶν 

καὶ πάλιν ἐς Διὸς εἶσι Διὸς βληθεῖσα κεραυνῷ. 

Προλέγων δὲ πᾶσιν ἀπέχεσθαι παιδίου συνου- 
σίας, ὡς ἀσεβὲς ὄν, αὐτὸς τοιόνδε τι ὁ γεννάδας 
ἐτεχνήσατο. ταῖς γὰρ πόλεσι ταῖς Ποντικαῖς 
καὶ ταῖς Παφλαγονικαῖς ἐπήγγελλε θεηκόλους 

1 Hereditary priesthoods in the Eleusinian mysteries. 

2 As Pythagoras had a golden thigh (Plutarch, Numa, 65; 
Aelian, Var. Hist., 2, 26), a believer in metempsyehosis might 
think that Alexander was a reincarnation of Pythagoras. 



had not been numerous, perhaps the thing would 
have been carried even further. After a short time 
Alexander entered again, robed as a priest, amid 
profound silence, and said in a loud voice, over and 
over again, * Hail, Glycon," while, following in his 
train, a number of would-be Eumolpids and Ceryces! 
from Paphlagonia, with brogans on their feet and 
breaths that reeked of garlic, shouted in response, 
** Hail, Alexander! " 

Often in the course of the torchlight ceremonies 
and the gambols of the mysteries his thigh was 
bared purposely and showed golden. No doubt 
gilded leather had been put about it, which gleamed 
in the light of the cressets. There was once a 
discussion between two of our learned idiots in 
regard to him, whether he had the soul of Pytha- 
goras, on account of the golden thigh, or some other 
soul akin to it.? They referred this question to 
Alexander himself, and King Glycon resolved their 
doubt with an oracle: 

* Nay, Pythagoras’ soul now waneth and other 

times waxeth ; 

His, with prophecy gifted, from God's mind taketh 
its issue, 

Sent by the Father to aid good men in the stress 
of the conflict ; 

Then it to God will return, by God's own thunder- 
bolt smitten." 

Although he cautioned all to abstain from inter- 
course with boys on the ground that it was impious, 
for his own part this pattern of propriety made a 
clever arrangement. He commanded the cities in 
Pontus and Paphlagonia to send choir-boys for three 





πέμπειν εἰς τριετίαν, ὑμνήσοντας παρ᾽ αὐτῷ τὸν 
θεόν, καὶ ἔδει δοκιμασθέντας καὶ προκριθέντας 
τοὺς εὐγενεστάτους καὶ ὡραιοτάτους καὶ κάλλει 
διαφέροντας πεμφθῆ ἦναι' οὓς ἐγκλεισάμενος ὦ ὥσπερ 
ἀργυρωνήτοις ἐχρῆτο, συγκαθεύδων καὶ πάντα 
τρόπον ἐμπαροινῶν. καὶ νόμον δὲ ἐπεποίητο, 
ὑπὲρ τὰ ὀκτωκαίδεκα ἔτη μηδένα τῷ αὐτοῦ 
στόματι δεξιοῦσθαι μηδὲ φιλήματι ἀσπάξεσθαι, 
ἀλλὰ τοῖς ἄλλοις προτείνων τὴν χεῖρα κύσαι 
μόνους τοὺς ὡραίους κατεφίλει, καὶ ἐκαλοῦντο 
οἱ ἐντὸς τοῦ φιλήματος. 

Τοιαῦτα ἐντρυφῶν τοῖς ἀνοήτοις διετέλει, 
γυναῖκάς τε ἀνέδην διαφθείρων καὶ παισὶ συνών. 
καὶ ἦν μέγα καὶ εὐκτὸν ἑκάστῳ, εἴ τινος γυναικὶ 
προσβλέψειεν' εἰ δὲ καὶ φιλήματος ἀξιώσειεν, 
ἀθρόαν τὴν ἀγαθὴν τύχην BETO ἕκαστος eis THY 
οἰκίαν αὐτῷ εἰσρυήσεσθαι. πολλαὶ δὲ καὶ ηὔχουν 
τετοκέναι παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ, καὶ οἱ ἄνδρες ἐπεμαρτύρουν 
ὅτι ἀληθῆ λέγουσιν. 

᾿Εθέλω δέ σοι καὶ διάλογον διηγήσασθαι τοῦ 
Γλύκωνος καὶ Σακερδῶτός τίνος, Τιανοῦ ἀνθρώ- 
mov’ ὁποίου τινὸς τὴν σύνεσιν, εἴση ἀπὸ τῶν 
ἐρωτήσεων. ἀνέγνων δὲ αὐτὸν χρυσοῖς γράμ- 
μασιν γεγραμμένον. ἐν Tig, ἐν τῇ τοῦ Σακερδῶτος 
οἰκίᾳ. “ Eire yap pou ἔφη, “ὦ δέσποτα 
Γλύκων, τίς el ~ Ey e», ἡ ἢ Ò ὅς, ““ ᾿Ασκληπιὸς 
νέος. “ "Αλλος παρ᾽ ἐκεῖνον τὸν πρότερον ; πῶς 
λέγεις ; ” “Οὐ θέμις ἀκοῦσαί σε τοῦτό ye.” 
««]]όσα δὲ ἡμῖν ἔτη παραμενεῖς χρησμῳδῶν ; jd 
“Τρίτον πρὸς τοῖς χιλίοις." “Εἶτα ποῖ μετα- 
oTájon: ‘CEs Βάκτρα καὶ τὴν ἐκεῖ γῆν" δεῖ γὰρ 
ἀπολαῦσαι καὶ τοὺς βαρβάρους τῆς ἐπιδημίας 



, years’ service, to sing hymns to the god in his 

household ; they were required to examine, select, 
and send the noblest, youngest, and most handsome. 
These he kept under ward and treated like bought 
slaves, sleeping with them and affronting them in 
every way. He made it a rule, too, not to greet 
anyone over eighteen years with his lips, or to 
embrace and kiss him; he kissed only the young, 
extending his hand to the others to be kissed by 
them. They were called “those within the kiss." 
He duped the simpletons in this way from first 
to last, ruining women right and left as well as 
living with favourites. Indeed, it was a great thing 
that everyone coveted if he simply cast his eyes 
upon a man's wife; if, however, he deemed her 
worthy of a kiss, each husband thought that good 
fortune would flood his house. Many women even 
boasted that they had had children by Alexander, 
and their husbands bore witness that they spoke the 
truth! -- ---.. 
I want to include in my tale al dialogue between 
Glycon and one Sacerdos, a man of Fius, whose 
intelligence you will be able to appraise from his 
questions. I read the conversation in an inscription 
in letters of gold, at Tius, in the house of Sacerdos. 
“Tell me, Master Glycon," said he, “who are 
you?" “I am the latter-day Asclepius,” he 
replied. “A different person from the one of 
former times? What do vou mean?” “It is not 
permitted you to hear that." * How many years 
will you tarry among us delivering oracles?” 
“One thousand and three." “Then where shall 
you go?" “To Bactra and that region, for the 
barbarians too must profit by my presence among 



τῆς ἐμῆς. “ Τὰ δ ἄλλα χρηστήρια, τὸ ἐν 
Διδύμοις. καὶ τὸ ἐν Κλάρῳ καὶ τὸ ἐν Δελφοῖς, 
έχουσι τὸν πατέρα τὸν ᾽Απόλλω χρησμωδοῦντα, 
7)! ψευδεῖς εἰσιν οἱ νῦν ἐκπίπτοντες ἐκεῖ χρησμοί; 5 
“ Μηδὲ τοῦτο -ἐθελήσῃς εἰδέναι οὐ γὰρ θέμις." 

Eyo δὲ τίς ἔσομαι μετὰ τὸν νῦν βίον Σ᾿ 
“ Κάμηλος, εἶτα ἵππος, εἶτ᾽ ἀνὴρ σοφὸς καὶ 
προφήτης οὐ μείων ᾿Αλεξάνδρου.” 

Τοιαῦτα μὲν ὁ Γλύκων τῷ Σακερδῶτι διελέχθη. 
ἐπὶ τέλει δὲ χρησμὸν ἔμμετρον ἐφθέγξατο, εἰδὼς 
αὐτὸν Λεπίδῳ ἑταῖρον ὄντα' 

Μὴ Tebou Λεπίδῳ, ἐπεὶ ἢ λυγρὸς οἶτος 

πάνυ γὰρ ἐδεδίει τὸν ᾿Βπίκουρον, ὡς προεῖπον, ὥς 
τινα ἀντίτεχνον καὶ ἀντισοφιστὴν τῆς μαγγανείας 

44 “Eva γοῦν τινα τῶν "Ἐπικουρείων, τολμήσαντα 
καὶ διελέγχειν. αὐτὸν ἐπὶ πολλῶν τῶν παρόντων, 
εἰς κίνδυνον οὐ μικρὸν κατέστησεν. ὁ μὲν γὰρ 
προσελθὼν ἔλεγεν μεγάλῃ τῇ φωνῇ’ '' Σὺ μέντοι 
γε, ὦ ᾿Αλέξανδρε, τὸν δεῖνα Ἡαφλαγόνα προσ- 
αγαγεῖν οἰκέτας αὐτοῦ τῷ ἡγουμένῳ τῆς La- 
λατίας τὴν ἐπὶ θανάτῳ ἀνέπεισας ὡς ἀπεκτονότας 
τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ ἐν ᾿Αλεξανδρείᾳ παιδευόµενον, ὁ 
δὲ νεανίσκος ζῇ καὶ ἐπανελήλυθε ζῶν μετὰ τὴν 
τῶν οἰκετῶν ἀπώλειαν, θηρίοις ὑπὸ σοῦ παρα- 
δοθέντων." τοιοῦτον δέ τι ἐγεγένητο' ἀναπλεύσας 
ὁ νεανίσκος εἰς Αἴγυπτον ἄχρι τοῦ Κλύσματος, 
πλοίου ἀναγομένου ἐπείσθη καὶ αὐτὸς εἰς ᾿Ινδίαν 

1 ἔτι σου τὸν προπάτορα ἔχει τὸν ᾿Απόλλω, ἢ B. 

1 See p. 211, note 1. 



men." ‘ What of the other prophetic shrines, the 
one in Didymi, the one in Clarus, and the one in 
Delphi—do they still have your father Apollo as the 
source of their oracles, or are the predictions now 
given out there false?" “This too you must not 
wish to know ; it is not permitted." “ What about 
myself—what shall I be after my present life?” 
“A camel, then a horse, then a wise man and 
prophet just as great as Alexander." 

That was Glycon's conversation with Sacerdos; 
and in conclusion he uttered an oracle in verse, 
knowing that Sacerdos was a follower of Lepidus :! 

* Put not in Lepidus faith, for a pitiful doom is 
in waiting." 
That was because he greatly feared Epicurus, as I 
have said before, sceing in him an opponent and 
critic of his trickery. 
Indeed, he seriously imperilled one of the Epi- 
cureans who ventured to expose him in the presence 
of a great crowd. The man went up to him and 
said in a loud voice : ** Come now, Alexander! You 
prevailed upon such-and-such a Paphlagonian to 
put his servants on trial for their lives before the 
governor of Galatia on the charge that they had 
murdered his son, a student at Alexandria, But the 
young man is living, and has come back alive after 
the execution of the servants, whom you gave over 
to the wild beasts." What had happened was this. 
The young man cruised up the Nile as far as Clysma,? 
and as a vessel was just putting to s j d=. 
to join others in a voyage to India. Ὁ Then because 

? Probably Suez; the ancient canal from the Nile to the 
Red Sea ended there. 





^ ?, ν ὁ 3 / e ^ 
πλεῦσαι, κἀπειδήπερ ἐβράδυνεν, οἱ δυστυχεῖς 
> ^ 3 , 3 ^ 3 / a 3 A 4 
ἐκεῖνοι οἰκέται αὐτοῦ, οἰηθέντες ἢ ἐν τῷ Νείλῳ 
πλέοντα διεφθάρθαι τὸν νεανίσκον ἢ καὶ ὑπὸ 
- \ \ 9 / , ^ 
ληστῶν — πολλοὶ δὲ ἦσαν τότε--- ἀνῃρῆσθαι, 
ἐπανῆλθον ἀπαγγέλλοντες αὐτοῦ τὸν ἀφανισμόν. 
b € 
εἶτα ὁ χρησμὸς καὶ ἡ καταδίκη, μεθ’ ἣν ἐπέστη ὁ 
νεανίσκος διηγούμενος τὴν ἀποδημίαν. 
Ὃ μὲν ταῦτα ἔλεγεν. ὁ δὲ ᾿Αλέξανδρος 
/ ^ λ ^ 
ἀγανακτήσας ἐπὶ τῷ ἐλέγχῳ καὶ μὴ φέρων τοῦ 
, , . $ / 354 A A ’ 
ὀνείδους τὴν ἀλήθειαν ἐκέλευεν τοὺς παρόντας 
λίθοις βάλλειν αὐτόν, ἢ καὶ αὐτοὺς ἐναγεῖς ἔσεσθαι 
καὶ ᾿Εἰπικουρείους κληθήσεσθαι. τῶν δὲ βάλλειν 
3 / Ld ? 7 ^ ^ r 
ἀρξαμένων Δημόστρατός τις ἐπιδημῶν, τοῦ Πόν- 
του πρῶτος, περιχυθεὶς ἐρρύσατο τοῦ θανάτου 
τὸν ἄνθρωπον μικροῦ δεῖν καταλευσθέντα, πάνυ 
δικαίως. τί γὰρ ἔδει μόνον φρονεῖν ἐν τοσούτοις 
μεμηνόσιν καὶ παραπολαῦσαι τῆς Παφλαγόνων 
μωρίας ; 
Kai τὰ μὲν κατ᾽ ἐκεῖνον τοιαῦτα. εἰ δέ τινι, 
b ^ ^ 
προσκαλουμένων κατὰ τάξιν τῶν χρησμῶν---πρὸ 
- ^ ^ [4 
μιᾶς δὲ τοῦτο τοῦ θεσπίζειν ἐγίγνετο---καὶ ἐρομένου 
^ f 3 ’ 9 ὃ 1 3 - x ὃ 8 ` 
τοῦ κήρυκος εἰ θεσπίζει τῷδε, ἀνεῖπεν ἔνδοθεν 
“Es κόρακας, οὐκέτι τὸν τοιοῦτον οὔτε στέγῃ 
, £ » ΔΝ Aa ef , , ? 3 
τις ἐδέχετο οὔτε πυρὸς ἢ ὕδατος ἐκοινωνει, ἀλλ, 
» ^ * ^ 7 e , ^ . y 
ἔδει γῆν πρὸ γῆς ἐλαύνεσθαι ὡς ἀσεβῆ καὶ ἄθεον 
v3 ΄ er . € ’ ΄ 
καὶ ᾿Επικούρειον, ἥπερ ἦν ἡ μεγίστη λοιδορία. 

1 τῷδε c, Seager: τῷ δὲ MSS. 



he was overdue, those ill-starred servants concluded 
that the young man either had lost his life during — | 
his cruise upon the Nile or had been made away | 
with by brigands, who were nano up duas J 
and they returned with the report of his disappear- 
ance. ‘Then followed the oracle and their condem- 
nation, after which the young man presented himself, 
telling of his travels. 

When he told this tale, Alexander, indignant at 
the exposure and unable to bear the truth of the 
reproach, told the bystanders to stone him, or else 
they themselves would be accurst and would bear 
the name of Epicureans. They had begun to throw 
stones when a man named Demostratus who happened 
to be in the city, one of the most prominent men 
in Pontus. flung his arms about the fellow and 
saved him from death. But he had come very 
near to being overwhelmed with stones, and quite 
properly! Why did he have to be the only man of 
sense among all those lunatics and suffer from the 
idiocy of the Paphlagonians? 

That man, then, was thus dealt with. Moreover, if 
in any case, when men were called up in the order of 
their applications (which took place the day before 
the prophecies were given out) and the herald 
enquired: “Has he a prophecy for So-and-so,’’ the 
reply came from within: “To the ravens,” nobody 
would ever again receive such a person under his roof 
or give him fire or water, but he had to be harried 
from country to country as an impious man, an 

| atheist, and an Epicurean—which, indeed, was their 
strongest term of abuse. 

* I suspect that the Greek phrase is really a title, but 

cannot prove it ; the use of πρῶτος without the article seems to 
make the phrase mean ‘‘ One of the First Citizens." 





"Ev γοῦν καὶ γελοιότατον ἐποίησεν ὁ ' AXé£av- 
ὃ b ES \ A CS ΄ , δα \ 
pos’ εὑρὼν γὰρ τὰς ᾿Επικούρου κυρίας δόξας, τὸ 
κάλλιστον, ὡς οἶσθα, τῶν βιβλίων καὶ κεφαλαιώδη 
, ^ / 
περιέχον τῆς τἀνδρὸς σοφίας τὰ δόγματα, κομίσας 
εἰς τὴν ἀγορὰν μέσην ἔκαυσεν ἐπὶ ξύλων συκίνων 
e ^ , ν / . h . , 
ὡς δῆθεν αὐτὸν καταφλέγων, καὶ τὴν σποδὸν εἰς 
M ’ , / » b . 3 
τὴν θάλασσαν ἐξέβαλεν, ἔτι καὶ χρησμὸν er- 
Πυρπολέειν κέλομαι δόξας ἀλαοῖο γέροντος" 

οὐκ εἰδὼς ὁ κατάρατος ὅσων ἀγαθῶν τὸ βιβλίον 
ἐκεῖνο τοῖς ἐντυχοῦσιν αἴτιον γίγνεται, καὶ ὅσην 
3 ^ 3 , M , ’ . 3 7 
αὐτοῖς εἰρήνην καὶ ἀταραξίαν καὶ ἐλευθερίαν 
ἐνεργάξεται, δειμάτων μὲν καὶ φασμάτων καὶ 
lA > /, M > ’ 7 . 
τεράτων ἀπαλλάττον καὶ ἐλπίδων ματαίων καὶ 
^ , ^ ^ M ~ 3 ’ > X 
περιττῶν ἐπιθυμιῶν, νοῦν δὲ καὶ ἀλήθειαν ἐντιθὲν 
καὶ καθαῖρον ὡς ἀληθῶς τὰς γνώμας, οὐχ ὑπὸ 
M ^ / M ^ 7 / 
δαδὶ καὶ σκίλλῃ καὶ ταις τοιαύταις Φλυαρίαις, 
3 . f > ^ . 3 [ή . ’ 
ἀλλὰ λόγῳ ὀρθῷ καὶ ἀληθείᾳ καὶ παρρησία. 
> ~ ^ , 
Εν δὲ τοῖς ἄλλοις ἕν τι καὶ μέγιστον τόλμημα 
^ ^ M 
τοῦ μιαροῦ ἀνδρὸς ἄκουσον. ἔχων γὰρ οὐ μικρὰν 
8; » t Ν 7 ` M > Ν N 
ἐπίβασιν ἐπὶ τὰ βασίλεια καὶ τὴν αὐλὴν TOV 
Ῥουτιλιανὸν εὐδοκιμοῦντα, διαπέμπεται χρησμὸν 
^ 3 ’ , , ’ e x 
τοῦ ἐν Γερμανίᾳ πολέμου ἀκμάζοντος, ὅτε θεὸς 
Μάρκος ἤδη τοῖς Μαρκομάνοις καὶ Kovadots 
’ » 7 M t ^ ÁF ’ 
συνεπλέκετο. ἠξίου δὲ ὁ χρησμὸς δύο λέοντας 
ἐμβληθῆναι ζῶντας εἰς τὸν Ἴστρον μετὰ πολλῶν 


One of Alexander’s acts in this connection was 
^ mostcomical. Hitting upon the “ Established Beliefs" 
of Epicurus, which is the finest of his books, as you 
know, and contains in summary the articles of the 
man’s philosophic creed,' he brought it into the 
middle of the market-place, burned it on fagots of 
fig-wood just as if he were burning the man in 
person, and threw the ashes into the sea, even 
adding an oracle also: 

“ Burn with fire, I command you, the creed of a 
purblind dotard !” 

But the scoundrel had no idea what blessings that 
book creates for its readers and what peace, tran- 
quillity, and freedom it engenders in them, liberating 
them as it does from terrors and apparitions and 
portents, from vain hopes and extravagant cravings, 
developing in them intelligence and truth, and truly 
purifying their understanding, not with torches and 
squills and that sort of foolery, but with straight 
thinking, truthfulness and frankness. 

Of all this blackguard's emprises, however, hear 
one, the greatest. Since he had no slight influence 
in the palace and at court through the favour which 
Rutilianus enjoyed, he published an oracle at the 
height of the war in Germany, when the late 
Emperor Marcus himself had at last come to grips 
with the Marcomanni and Quadi. The oracle recom- 
mended that two lions be cast into the Danube 
alive, together with a quantity of perfumes and 

1 Quis enim vostrum non edidicit Epicuri κυρίας δόξας, id 
est, quasi maxume ratas, quia gravissumae sint ad beate 
vivendum breviter enuntiatae sententiae? Cicero, de Fin. 
Bon. et Mal., ii, 7, 20. 



ἀρωμάτων καὶ θυσιῶν μεγαλοπρεπῶν. ἄμεινον 
δὲ αὐτὸν εἰπεῖν τὸν χρησμόν" - 
"Es δίνας "Io rpoto διιπετέος ποταμοῖο 
ἐσβαλέειν κέλομαι δοιοὺς Κυβέλης θεράποντας, 
θῆρας ὀριτρεφέας, καὶ ὅσα τρέφει ᾿Ινδικὸς ἀήρ 
ἄνθεα καὶ βοτάνας εὐώδεας' αὐτίκα Ò ἔσται 
νίκη καὶ μέγα κῦδος ἅμ εἰρήνῃ ἐρατεινῇ. 
γενομένων δὲ τούτων ὡς προσέταξεν, τοὺς μὲν 
λέοντας ἐκνηξαμένους εἰς τὴν πολεμίαν οἱ 
βάρβαροι ξύλοις κατε!ιργάσαντο ὥς τινας κύνας 
7) λύκους ξενικούς" αὐτίκα δὲ τὸ μέγιστον τραῦμα 
τοῖς ἡμετέροις ἐγένετο, δισμυρίων που σχεδὸν 
ἀθρόων * ἀπολομένων. εἶτα ἐπηκολούθησε τὰ 
περὶ ᾿Ακυληΐαν γενόμενα καὶ 7) παρὰ μικρὸν τῆς 
πόλεως ἐκείνης ἅλωσις. ὁ δὲ πρὸς τὸ ἀποβεβηκὸς 
τὴν Δελφικὴν ἐκείνην ἀπολογίαν καὶ τὸν τοῦ 
Κροίσου χρησμὸν ψυχρῶς παρῆγεν' νίκην μὲν 
γὰρ προειπεῖν τὸν θεόν, μὴ μέντοι δηλῶσαι 
Ῥωμαίων ἢ τῶν πολεμίων. 

49 Ἤδη δὲ πολλῶν ἐπὶ πολλοῖς ἐπεισρεόντων Kal 
τῆς πόλεως αὐτῶν θλιβομένης ὑπὸ τοῦ πλήθους 
τῶν ἐπὶ τὸ χρηστήριον. ἀφικνουμένων καὶ τὰ 
ἐπιτήδεια διαρκῆ μὴ ἐχούσης, ἐπινοεῖ τοὺς 

1 ἀθρόων N, vulg. : ἀθρόον yB. 

1 The invading tribes flooded Rhaetia, Noricum, upper 
and lower Pannonia, and Dacia, taking a vast number of 
Roman settlers prisoner, and even entered Italy, capturing 
and destroying Oderzo. Details are uncertain; so is the 
exact date, which was probably between 167 and 169. On 
the column of Marcus Aurelius in Rome, one of the scenes 
depicts two animals swimming across a river, near a boat. 
These have been thought to be the lions of the oracle, and 



magnificent offerings. But it will be better to 
repeat the oracle itself. 

“Into the pools of the Ister, the stream that from 

Zeus taketh issue, 

Hurl, I command you, a pair of Cybele’s faithful 

Beasts that dwell on the mountains, and all that 
the Indian climate 

Yieldeth of flower and herb that is fragrant ; 
amain there shall follow 

Victory and great glory, and welcome peace in 
their footsteps.” 

But when all this had been done as he had directed, 
the lions swam across to the enemy territory and 
the barbarians slaughtered them with clubs, thinking 
them some kind of foreign dogs or wolves; and 
* amain " that tremendous disaster befel our side, in 
which a matter of twenty thousand were wiped out 
ata blow. Then came what happened at Aquileia, 
and that city's narrow escape from capture. To meet 
this issue, Alexander was flat enough to adduce the 
Delphian defence in the matter ofthe oracle given to 
Croesus, that the God had indeed foretold victory, 
but had not indicated whether it would go to the 
Romans or to the enemy.! 

As by this time throngs upon throngs were pour- 
ing in and their city was becoming overcrowded on 
account of the multitude of visitors to the shrine, 
so that it had not sufficient provisions, he devised 

indeed they look like lions in the representation of Bartoli 
(Pl. XIII). But Petersen takes them to be bisons. It is 
clear, too, from Lucian that Alexander's oracle was given 
before the campaign depicted on the column 




νυκτερινοὺς καλουμένους χρησμούς. λαμβάνων 

Ν . ’ 3 ^ e y , ^ 
yap τὰ βιβλία ἐπεκοιμᾶτο, ὡς ἔφασκεν, αὐτοῖς 
καὶ ὡς ὄναρ παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ ἀκούων ἀπεκρίνετο, 

/ ^ 

οὐ μέντοι σαφεῖς τοὺς πολλούς, ἀλλ. ἀμφιβόλους 
καὶ τεταραγμένους καὶ μάλιστα εἴ ποτε θεάσαιτο 
περιεργότερον τὸ βιβλίον κατεσφραγισμένον. οὐ 

. Ò 2 b , . 1 » e f 
yap παρακινδυνεύων, τὸ émeA00v ἄλλως ὑπέ- 

^ N ^ / 

γραφε, χρησμοῖς πρέπον καὶ τὸ τοιοῦτον οἰόμενος. 
καὶ ἡσάν τινες ἐξηγηταὶ ἐπὶ τοῦτο καθήμενοι καὶ 
μισθοὺς οὐκ ὀλίγους ἐκλέγοντες παρὰ τῶν τοὺς 
τοιούτους χρησμοὺς λαμβανόντων ἐπὶ τῇ ἐξηγήσει 
καὶ διαλύσει αὐτῶν. καὶ τοῦτο αὐτῶν τὸ ἔργον 
ὑπόμισθον ἦν' ἐτέλουν γὰρ οἱ ἐξηγηταὶ τῷ 
᾿Αλεξάνδρῳ τάλαντον ᾿Αττικὸν ἑκάτερος. 

> 7: A f 3 7 b f , 

Ενίοτε δὲ μήτε ἐρομένου τινὸς μήτε πεμφθέντος, 
ἀλλ᾽ οὐδὲ ὅλως ὄντος ἐχρησμώδει πρὸς ἔκπληξιν 

bt : : ATEM p n 

τῶν ἀνοήτων, οἷον καὶ τοῦτο' 

Δίξεαι ὅστις σὴν ἄλοχον μάλα πάγχυ λεληθὼς 

Καλλιγένειαν ὑπὲρ λεχέων σαλαγεῖ κατὰ δῶμα; 

δοῦλος Πρωτογένης, τῷ δὴ σύ γε πάντα 

» . 3 ^ € X 4 M / 

ὤπουιες γὰρ ἐκεῖνον, ὁ Ò αὖθις σὴν παράκοιτιν, 

ἀντίδοσιν ταύτην ὕβρεως ἄκρην ? ἀποτίνων. 

ἀλλ ἐπὶ σοὶ δὴ φάρμακ᾽ ἀπ᾽ αὐτῶν λυγρὰ 

ε f 9 2 oA. f ) > / ^ ^ 

ὡς μήτ᾽ εἰσαΐοις μήτ᾽ εἰσοράοις ἃ ποιοῦσιν. 

1 ἐπελθὸν vulg. : ὑπελθὸν y. οὐ γὰρ παρακινῶν Td ἔδεθλον B. 
2 ἄκρην A.M.H.: ἀκαρὴν B, ἰδίας y, edd. 



the so-called * nocturnal" responses. Taking the 
scrolls, he slept on them, so he said, and gave 
replies that he pretended to have heard from the 
god in a dream ; which, however, were in most cases 
not clear but ambiguous and confused, particularly 
when he observed that the scroll had been sealed 
up with unusual care. Taking no extra chances, 
he would append at random whatever answer came 
into his head, thinking that this procedure too was 
appropriate to oracles; and there were certain 
expounders who sat by with that in view and 
garnered large fees from the recipients of such 
oracles for explaining and unriddling them. More- 
over, this task of theirs was subject to a levy ; the 
expounders paid Alexander an Attic talent each. 

Sometimes, to amaze dolts, he would deliver an 
oracle for the benefit of someone who had neither 
enquired nor sent— who, in fact, did not exist at 
al. For example: 

* Seek thou out that man who in utmost secrecy 
Tumbleth at home on the couch thy helpmeet 
Slave Protogenes, him upon whom thou fully 


He was corrupted by thee, and now thy wife he 

Making a bitter return unto thee for his own 

Aye more, now against thee a baneful charm they 
have fashioned 

So that thou mayst not hear nor see what deeds 
they are doing; 



εὑρήσεις δὲ κάτω ὑπὸ σῷ λέχει ἀγχόθι, τοίχου 
πρὸς κεφαλῆς. καὶ σὴ θεράπαινα σύνοιδε 


τίς οὐκ ἂν Δημόκριτος διεταράχθη ἀκούσας 
ὀνόματα καὶ τόπους ἀκριβῶς, εἶτα μετ᾽ ὀλίγον 
κατέπτυσεν ἄν, συνεὶς τὴν ἐπίνοιαν αὐτῶν ; 

52% "Αλλῳ ὃ πάλιν οὔτε παρόντι οὔτε ὅλως τινὶ. 


ὄντι ἔφη ἄνευ μέτρου ἀναστρέφειν ὀπίσω' “ὁ yàp 
πέμψας σε τέθνηκεν ὑπὸ τοῦ γείτονος Διοκλέους 
τήμερον, λῃστῶν ἐπαχθέντων Μάγνου καὶ Βου- 
βάλου, οἳ καὶ ἤδη δέδενται ληφθέντες. ia 

᾿Αλλὰ καὶ βαρβάροις πολλάκις ἔχρησεν, εἴ τις 
τῇ πα τρις ἔροιτο φωνῇ, Συριστὶ ἡ Κελτιστί, 
ῥᾳδίως ἐξευρίσκων τινὰς ἐπιδημοῦντας ὁμοεθνεῖς 
τοῖς δεδωκόσιν. διὰ τοῦτο καὶ πολὺς ὁ ἐν μέσῳ 
χρόνος ἣν τῆς τε δόσεως τῶν βιβλίων καὶ τῆς 
χρησμῳδίας, ὡς ἐν τοσούτῳ κατὰ σχολὴν λύοιντό 
τε οἱ χρησμοὶ ἀσφαλῶς καὶ εὑρίσκοιντο οἱ 
ἑρμηνεῦσαι δυνάμενοι ἕκαστα. οἷος καὶ ὁ τῷ 
Σκύθῃ δοθεὶς χρησμὸς ἦν' 

Μορφὴν εὐβάργουλας εἰς σκιὰν χνεχικραγη 
λείψει φάος." 

1 Chapters 51 and 52 transposed by Fritzsche. 
2 ἄλλῳ Α.Μ.Η.: ἄλλος By. But for οὔτε ὅλως B has οὔτε 
ἄλλφ. the correction introduced in the wrong place. 
οὐ ῥᾳδίως B. 
4 Text T: popped nuápyovAos ἰσχιάγχνε xi gt φάος δα U 
(8 group). B reads as U, but βάργουλος and δάος. 

! Democritus of Abdera is adduced as a typical hard- 
headed sceptic; see above, c. 17, and the Lover of Lies, 32 
(iii, p. 369). 

2 The oracle seems to contain some Greek, in the two 



This shalt thou find on the floor, beneath thy bed, 
by the wall-side, 

Close to the head; thy servant Calypso shareth 
the secret.” 

What Democritus! would not have been disturbed 
on hearing names and places specified—and would 
not have been filled with contempt soon afterward, 
when he saw through their stratagem ? 

Again, to someone else who was not there and 
did not exist at all, he said in prose: “Go back; 
he who sent you was killed to-day by his neighbour 
Diocles, with the help of the bandits Magnus, Celer, 
and Bubalus, who already have been caught and 

l may say too that he often gave oracles to 
barbarians, when anyone put a question in his native 
language, in Syrian or in Celtic; since he readily 
found strangers in the city who belonged to the 
same nation as his questioners. That is why the 
time between the presentation of the scrolls and 
the delivery of the oracle was long, so that in the 
interval the questions might be unsealed at leisure 
without risk and men might be found who would be 
able to translate them fully. Of this sort was the 
response given to the Scythian: 

* Morphen eubargoulis eis skian chnechikrage 
leipsei phaos.” 2 

phrases eis skian (into the darkness) and leipsei phaos (thou 
shalt leave the light of day); it is uncertain, however, 
whether these phrases belong to the original text, or to 
someone's interpretation, which has become confused with 
the text, or are mere corruptions due to a scribe's effort to 
convert “Scythian” into Greek. The ‘‘Scythian” part 
itself is à complete mystery. 



53 ᾿Ὀλίγους δὲ καὶ τῶν ἐμοὶ δοθέντων ἄκουσον' 
ἐρομένου γάρ µου εἶ φαλακρός ἐστιν ᾿Αλέξανδρος, 
καὶ κατασημηναμένου περιέργως καὶ προφανῶς 
ὑπογράφεται χρησμὸς νυκτερήσιος, 

Σαβαρδαλαχου µαλαχααττηαλος ἦν.ὶ 

Καὶ πάλιν ἐμοῦ ἐρομένου ἐν δύο βιβλίοις ĉia- 
φόροι, τὴν αὐτὴν ἐρώτησιν, πόθεν ἡ ἣν "Όμηρος ὁ 
ποιητής, ἐπ ἄλλου καὶ ἄλλου ὀνόματος, τῷ 
ἑτέρῳ μὲν ὑπέγραψεν ἐξαπατηθεὶς ù ὑπὸ τοῦ ἐμοῦ 
νεανίσκου---ἐρωτηθεὶς γὰρ ἐφ᾽ ὅ τι ἧκεν, “Θερα- 
meias, ἔφη, '' αἰτήσων πρὸς ὀδύνην πλευροῦ”--- 

Κυτμίδα χρίεσθαι κέλομαι δροσίην τε κέλητος" 

τῷ δὲ ἑτέρῳ, ἐπειδὴ καὶ τοῦτο ἠκηκόει ὡς ἐρομένου 
τοῦ πέμψαντος, εἴτε oi? πλεῦσαι ἐπ ᾿Ιταλίαν 
εἴτε πεζοπορῆσαι λῴον, ἀπεκρίνατο οὐδὲν πρὸς 
τὸν Ougporv: 

/ / \ s , 
Μὴ σύ ye πλωέμεναι, πεζὴν δὲ κατ οἶμον ἡ 

54 Πολλὰ γὰρ τοιαῦτα καὶ αὐτὸς ἐπεμηχανησάμην 
αὐτῷ, οἷον καὶ ἐκεῖνο" μίαν ἐρώτησιν. ἐρωτήσας 
ἐπέγραψα. τῷ. βιβλίῳ κατὰ τὸ ἔθος" «τοῦ δεῖνος 
χρησμοὶ ὀκτώ, γευσάμενός τι -ὄνομα, καὶ τὰς 
ὀκτὼ δραχμὰς καὶ τὸ γιγνόμενον ἔτι πρὸς ταύταις 

1 Text T: σαμµαρδάχου paña ἄττης ἀλλοήν U, σαβαρδάχον 
μάλα ἅττης ἄλλο ἦν B 

2 κέλητος Seidler: κελητοῦς γ, καὶ λητοῦς β. 

3 εἴτε of Seager: εἰ δέοι B, εἴτε μοι sy. 

4 κατ᾽ οἶμον vulg. : καθ᾽ οἶμον By. 



Let me also tell you a few of the responses 
that were given to me. When I asked whether 
Alexander was bald, and sealed the question care- 
fully and conspicuously, a “nocturnal” oracle was 
appended : 

* Sabardalachou malachaattealos en.” 1 

At another time, I asked a single question in 
each of two scrolls under a different name, “ What 
was the poet Homer's country?" In one case, 
misled by my serving-man, who had been asked why 
he came and had said, * To request a cure for a 
pain in the side," he replied: 

* Cytmis? I bid you apply, combined with the 
spume of a charger." 

To the other, since in this case he had been told 
that the one who sent it enquired whether it would 
be better for him to go to Italy by sea or by land, 
he gave an answer which had nothing to do with 

* Make not your journey by sea, but travel afoot 
by the highway." 

Many such traps, in fact, were set for him by me 
and by others. For example, I put a single question, 
and wrote upon the outside of the scroll, following 
the usual form: * Eight questions from So-and-so,”’ 
using a fictitious name and sending the eight 
drachmas and whatever it came to besides. Rely- 

! In failing to submit this to the official interpreters, 
Lucian lost a priceless opportunity. 

2 Alexander's nostrum ; cf ο, 22. 

3 Since the price of each oracle was one drachma, two 
obols, the indefinite plus was sixteen obols, or 2dr. 4 obols. 




πέµψας' ὁ δὲ πιστεύσας τῇ ἀποπομπῇ τοῦ 
μισθοῦ καὶ τῇ ἐπιγραφῇ. τοῦ βιβλίου, πρὸς μίαν 
ἐρώτησιν---ἦν δὲ αὕτη" “ πότε ἁλώσεται μαγγα- 
νεύων ᾿Αλέξανδρος $ ἑπ-ὀκτώ μοι χρησμοὺς 
ἔπεμψεν, οὔτε γῆς φασιν οὔτε οὐρανοῦ ἁπτο- 
μένους, ἀνοήτους δὲ καὶ δυσνοήτους ἅπαντας. 
"A ý ἰσθόμενο καὶ ὅτι Ῥουτιλιανὸ 
περ ὕστερον αἰσθόμενος, καὶ ὅτι Ῥουτιλιανὸν 
ἐγὼ ἀπέτρεπον τοῦ γάμου καὶ τοῦ πάνυ προσ- 
κεῖσθαι ταῖς τοῦ χρηστηρίου ἐλπίσιν, ἐμίσει, 
ὡς τὸ εἰκός, καὶ -ἔχθιστον ἡγεῖτο. καί ποτε περὶ 
ἐμοῦ ἐρομένῳ τῷ Ρουτιλιανῷ ἔφη' 

Νυκτιπλάνοις ὀάροις χαίρει κοίταις τε δυσ- 

καὶ ὅλως ἔχθιστος εἰκότως ἦν ἐγώ. 

Κάπειδὴ εἰσελθόντα, με εἰς τὴν πόλιν ἤσθετο 
καὶ ἔμαθεν ὡς ἐκεῖνος εἴην ὁ Λονκιανός---ἐπηγόμην 
δὲ καὶ στρατιώτας δύο, λογχοφόρον καὶ κοντο- 
φόρον, παρὰ. τοῦ ἡγουμένου τῆς Καππαδοκίας, 
φίλου τότε ὄντος, λαβών, ὥς µε παραπέµψειαν 
μέχρι πρὸς τὴν θάλατταν- -αὐτίκα μεταστέλλεται 
δεξιῶς πάνυ καὶ μετὰ πολλῆς φιλοφροσύνης. 
ἐλθὼν δὲ é ἐγὼ πολλοὺς καταλαμβάνω περὶ αὐτόν" 
συνεπηγόμην δὲ καὶ τοὺς στρατιώτας τύχῃ τινὶ 
ἀγαθῃ. καὶ ὁ μὲν προῦτεινέ μοι κύσαι τὴν 
δεξιάν, ὥσπερ εἰώθει τοῖς πολλοῖς, ἐγὼ δὲ 
προσφὺς ὡς φιλήσων, δήγματι χρηστῷ πάνυ 
μικροῦ δεῖν χωλὴν αὐτῷ ἐποίησα τὴν χεῖρα. 

Οἱ μὲν οὖν παρόντες ἄγχειν. με καὶ παίειν 
ἐπειρῶντο WS ἱερόσυλον, καὶ πρότερον ἔτι ἆγα- 
νακτήσαντες ὅτι ᾿Αλέξανδρον αὐτόν, ἀλλὰ μὴ 
προφήτην προσεῖπον, ὁ δὲ πάνυ γεννικῶς 


ing upon the fee that had been sent and upon the 
inscription on the roll, to the single question : 
“When will Alexander be caught cheating?” he 
sent me eight responses which, as the saying goes, 
had no connection with earth or with heaven, but 
were silly and nonsensical every one. 

When he found out about all this afterward, and 
also that it was I who was attempting to dissuade 
Rutilianus from the marriage and from his great 
dependence upon the hopes inspired by the shrine, 
he began to hate me, as was natural, and to count 
me a bitter enemy. Once when Rutilianus asked 
about me, he replied: 

* Low-voiced walks in the dusk are his pleasure, 
and impious matings.” 

And generally, I was of course the man he most 

When he discovered that I had entered the city 
and ascertained that I was the Lucian of whom he 
had heard (I had brought, I may add, two soldiers 
with me, a pikeman and a spearman borrowed from 
the Governor of Cappadocia, then a friend of mine, 
to escort me to the sea), he at once sent for me 
very politely and with great show of friendliness. 
When I went, I found many about him; but I had 
brought along my two soldiers, as luck would have 
it. He extended me his right hand to kiss, as his 
custom was with the public; I clasped it as if to kiss 
it, and almost crippled it with a right good bite! 

The bystanders tried to choke and beat me for 
sacrilege ; even before that, they had been indignant 
because I had addressed him as Alexander and not 
as “ Prophet.” But he mastered himself very hand- 



καρτερήσας κατέπαυέν τε αὐτοὺς καὶ t ὑπισχνεῖτο 
τιθασὀν µε ῥᾳδίως. ἀποφανεῖν καὶ δείξειν τὴν 
Γλύκωνος ἀρετήν, ὅτι καὶ τοὺς πάνυ τραχυνο- 
μένους φίλους ἀπεργάζεται. καὶ μεταστησάμενος 
ἅπαντας ἐδικαιολογεῖτο πρός µε, λέγων πάνυ µε 
εἰδέναι καὶ τὰ ὑπ᾽ ἐμοῦ “Ρουτιλιανῷ συμβουλευό- 
μενα, καὶ “Ti παθὼν ταῦτά µε εἰργάσω, δυνά- 
μενος ὑπ᾽ ἐμοῦ ἐπὶ μέγα προαχθῆναι παρ αὐτῷ”; 
κἀγὼ ἄσμενος ἤδη ἐδεχόμην τὴν φιλοφροσύνην 
ταύτην ὁρῶν οἷ κινδύνου καθειστήκειν, καὶ μετ᾽ 
ὀλίγον προῆλθον φίλος γεγενημένος. καὶ τοῦτο 
οὐ μικρὸν θαῦμα τοῖς ὁρῶσιν ἔδοξεν, οὕτω ῥᾳδία 
γενομένη µου ἡ µεταβολή. 

56 Eira δή μου ἐκπλεῖν προαιρουµένου ξένια καὶ 
δῶρα πολλὰ πέμψας---μόνος δὲ σὺν τῷ Ξενοφῶντι 
ἔτυχον ἐπιδημῶν, τὸν πατέρα καὶ τοὺς ἐμοὺς εἰς 
"Άμαστριν «προεκπεπομφώς — ὑπισχνεῖται καὶ 
πλοῖον αὐτὸς παρέξειν καὶ ἐ ἐρέτας τοὺς ἀπάξοντας. 
κἀγὼ μὲν puw ἁπλοῦν τι τοῦτο εἶναι καὶ δεξιόν' 
ἐπεὶ δὲ κατὰ μέσον τὸν πόρον ἐγενόμην, δακρύοντα 
ὁρῶν τὸν κυβερνήτην καὶ τοῖς ναύταις τι ἀντιλέ- 
γοντα οὐκ ἀγαθὰς εἶχον. περὶ τῶν μελλόντων 
ἐλπίδας. ἦν δὲ αὐτοῖς ἐπεσταλμένον ὑπὸ τοῦ 
᾿Αλεξάνδρου ἀραμένους. ῥῖψαι ἡμᾶς εἰς τὴν 
θάλασσαν' ὅπερ εἰ ἐγένετο, ῥᾳδίως ἂν αὐτῷ 
διεπεπολέμητο τὰ πρὸς ἐμέ. ἀλλὰ δακρύων 
ἐκεῖνος ἔπεισεν καὶ τοὺς συνναύτας μηδὲν ἡμᾶς 
δεινὸν ἐργάσασθαι, καὶ πρὸς ἐμὲ ἔφη, "Erg 
ἑξήκοντα, ὡς ὁρᾷς, ἀνεπίληπτον βίον καὶ ὅσιον 
προβεβηκὼς οὐκ ἂν βουλοίμην, ἐν τούτῳ τῆς 
ἡλικίας καὶ γυναῖκα καὶ τέκνα ἔχων, μιᾶναι ovo 



somely, held them in check, and promised that he 
would easily make me tame and would demonstrate 
Glycon’s worth by showing that he transformed 
even bitter foes into friends. Then he removed 
everybody and had it out with me, professing to 
know very well who I was and what advice I was 
giving Rutilianus, and saying, ** What possessed you 
to do this to me, when I can advance you tremend- 
ously in his favour?" By that time 1 was glad to 
receive this proffer of friendship, since 1 saw what 
a perilous position I had taken up; so, after a little, 
| reappeared as his friend, and it seemed quite a 
miracle to the observers that my change of heart 
had been so easily effected. 

Then, when I decided to sail—it chanced that 
I was accompanied only by Xenophon! during my 
visit, as I had previously sent my father and my 
family on to Amastris—he sent me many remem- 
brances and presents, and promised too that he 
himself would furnish a boat and a crew to transport 
me. I considered this a sincere and polite offer; 
but when I was in mid-passage, I saw the master 
in tears, disputing with the sailors, and began to be 
very doubtful about the prospects. It was a fact 
that they had received orders from Alexander to 
throw us bodily into the sea. If that had been 
done, his quarrel with me would have been settled 
without ado; but by his tears the master prevailed 
upon his crew to do us no harm. “ For sixty years, 
as you see," said he to me, “f have led a blameless 
and God-fearing life, and I should not wish, at this 
age and with a wife and children, to stain my hands 

1 Probably a slave or a freedman. He is not mentioned 
elsewhere in Lucian. 



Tas χεῖρας, ' δηλῶν ἐφ᾽ ὅπερ ἡμᾶς ἀνειλήφει, καὶ 

57 τὰ ὑπὸ τοῦ ᾿Αλεξάνδρου προστεταγμένα. κατα- 
θέμενος δὲ ἡμᾶς ἐν Αἰγιαλοῖς, ὧν καὶ ὁ καλὸς 
Όμηρος μέμνηται, ὀπίσω ἀπήλαυνον. 

"EvOa ἐγὼ παραπλέοντας εὑρὼν Βοσποριανούς 
τινας, πρέσβεις παρ Εὐπάτορος τοῦ βασιλέως 
εἰς τὴν Βιθυνίαν ἀπιόντας ἐπὶ κομιδῇ τῆς ἐπετείου 
συντάξεως, καὶ διηγησάμενος αὐτοῖς τὸν περι- 
στάντα ἡμᾶς κίνδυνον, καὶ δεξιῶν αὐτῶν τυχών, 
ἀναληφθεὶς ἐπὶ τὸ πλοῖον διασώξομαι εἰς τὴν 
"ApacTpw, mapa τοσοῦτον ἐλθὼν ἀποθανεῖν. 

Τοὐντεῦθεν καὶ αὐτὸς ἐπεκορυσσόμην αὐτῷ καὶ 
πάντα κάλων ἐκίνουν ἀμύνασθαι βουλόμενος, καὶ 
πρὸ τῆς ἐπιβουλῆς ἤδη μισῶν αὐτὸν καὶ ἔχθιστον 
ἡγούμενος διὰ τὴν τοῦ τρόπου μιαρίαν, καὶ πρὸς 
την κατηγορίαν ὡρμήμην πολλοὺς συναγωνιστὰς 
ἔχων καὶ μάλιστα τοὺς ἀπὸ Ἐιμοκράτους τοῦ 
“Ἡρακλεώτου φιλοσόφου" ἀλλ᾽ ὁ τότε ἡγούμενος 
Βιθυνίας καὶ τοῦ Πόντου Αὔειτος} ἐπέσχε, 
μονονουχὶ ἱκετεύων καὶ ἀντιβολῶν παύσεσθαι: 
διὰ γὰρ τὴν πρὸς Ῥουτιλιανὸν εὔνοιαν μὴ ἂν 
δύνασθαι, καὶ εἰ φανερῶς λάβοι ἀδικοῦντα, 
κολάσαι αὐτόν. οὕτω μὲν ἀνεκόπην τῆς ὁρμῆς 
καὶ ἐπαυσάμην οὐκ ἐν δέοντι θρασυνόμενος ἐφ᾽ 
οὕτω δικαστοῦ διακειμένου. 

1 Αὔειτος Burmeister: vertos B, αὐτὸς γ 

1 Iliad, 2, 855. 

2 Tiberius Julius Eupator succeeded Rhoemetalces as King 
of the (Cimmerian) Bosporus, on the Tauric Chersonese ; its 
capital was Panticapaeum (Kertch). The period of his reign 
is about A.D. 154-171. At this time the kingdom seems to 
have been paying tribute to the Scythians annually as well 
as to the Empire ( Toxaris, 44). 


with murder;" and he explained for what purpose 
he had taken us aboard, and what orders had been 
given by Alexander. He set us ashore at Aegiali 
(which noble Homer mentions 1), and then they went 
back again. 

There I found some men from the Bosporus who 
were voyaging along the coast. They were going 
as ambassadors from King Eupator to Bithynia, to 
bring the yearly contribution. I told them of the 
peril in which we had been, found them courteous, was 
taken aboard their vessel, and won safely through 
to Amastris, after coming so close to losing my life. 

Thereupon I myself began to prepare for battle 
with him, and to employ every resource in my desire 
to pay him back. Even before his attempt upon 
me, I detested him and held him in bitter enmity 
on account of the vileness of his character. So I 
undertook to prosecute him, and had many associ- 
ates, particularly the followers of Timocrates, the 
philosopher from Heraclea. But the then governor 
of Bithynia and Pontus, Avitus,? checked me, all 
but beseeching and imploring me to leave off, be- 
cause out of good will to Rutilianus he could not, 
he said, punish Alexander even if he should find 
him clearly guilty of crime. In that way my effort 
was thwarted, and I left off exhibiting misplaced 
zeal before a judge who was in that state of mind. 

3 L. Lollianus Avitus, consul Α.Ρ. 144, proconsul Africae 
ca. 156, praeses Dithyniae 165. 

4 Of course Lucian's case, as it stood, was weak, as Avitus 
tactfully hinted. But this does not excuse Avitus. The 
chances of securing enough evidence to convict Alexander in 
a Roman court were distinctly good, and fear of Alexander’s 
influence is the only reasonable explanation of the failure to 






᾿Εκεῖνο δὲ πῶς οὐ μέγα ἐν τοῦς ἄλλοις τὸ τόλ- 
pnpa τοῦ ᾿Αλεξάνδρου, τὸ αἰτῆσαι παρὰ τοῦ 
αὐτοκράτορος μετονομασθῆναι τὸ τοῦ ᾿Αβώνου 
τεῖχος καὶ Ἰωνόπολιν κληθῆναι, καὶ νόμισμα 
καινὸν κόψαι ἐγκεχαραγμένον τῇ μὲν τοῦ Γλύ- 
κωνος, κατὰ θάτερα δὲ ᾿Αλεξάνδρου, στέμματά 
τε τοῦ πάππου ᾿Ασκληπιοῦ καὶ τὴν ἅρπην ἐκείνην 
τοῦ πατρομήτορος Περσέως ἔχοντος ; 7 

Προειπὼν δὲ διὰ χρησμοῦ περὶ αὑτοῦ ὅτι δῆσαι 
εἵμαρται αὐτῷ ἔτη πεντήκοντα καὶ ἑκατόν, εἶτα 
κεραυνῷ βληθέντα ἀποθανεῖν, οἰκτίστῳ τέλει 
οὐδὲ ἑβδομήκοντα ἔτη γεγονὼς ἀπέθανεν, ὡς 
Ποδαλειρίου υἱὸς διασαπεὶς τὸν πόδα μέχρι τοῦ 
βουβῶνος καὶ σκωλήκων δέσας' ὅτεπερ καὶ 
ἐφωράθη φαλακρός. OV, παρέχων τοῖς ἰατροῖς 
ἐπιβρέχειν αὐτοῦ τὴν κεφαλὴν διὰ τὴν ὀδύνην, 
ὃ οὐκ ἂν ποιῆσαι ἐδύναντο μὴ οὐχὶ τῆς φενάκης 

Τοιοῦτο τέλος τῆς ᾿Αλεξάνδρου τραγωδίας καὶ 
αὕτη τοῦ παντὸς δράματος ἡ καταστροφὴ ἐγένετο, 
ὡς εἰκάξειν προνοίας τινὸς τὸ τοιοῦτον, εἰ καὶ 
κατὰ τύχην συνέβη. ἔδει δὲ καὶ τὸν ἐπιτάφιον 
αὐτοῦ ἄξιον γενέσθαι τοῦ βίου, καὶ ἀγῶνά τινα 
συστήσασθαι ὑπὲρ τοῦ χρηστηρίου, τῶν συνω- 
μοτῶν ἐκείνων καὶ γοήτων, ὅσοι κορυφαῖοι ἦσαν, 
ἀνελθόντων ἐπὶ διαιτητὴν τὸν “Ρουτιλιανόν, τίνα 
χρὴ προκριθῆναι αὐτῶν καὶ διαδέξασθαι τὸ 
μαντεῖον καὶ στεφανωθῆναι τῷ ἱεροφαντικῷ καὶ 

1 The request was granted, at least in part. Beginning 
with the reign of Verus, the legends ΙΩΝΟΠΟΛΕΙΤΩΝ and 
ΓΛΥΚΩΝ appear on the coins; and they continue to bear 



S Was it not also a great piece of impudence on the 
^ part of Alexander that he should petition the 
Emperor to change the name of Abonoteichus and 
call it Ionopolis, and to strike a new coin bearing 
on one side the likeness of Glycon and on the other 
that of Alexander, wearing the fillets of his grand- 
father Asclepius and holding the falchion of his 
maternal ancestor Perseus?! 

In spite of his prediction in an oracle that he was 
fated to live a hundred and fifty years and then die 
by a stroke of lightning, he met a most wretched 
end before reaching the age of seventy, in a manner 
that befitted a son of Podaleirius;? for his leg 
became mortified quite to the groin and was infested 
with maggots. lt was then that his baldness was 
detected when because of the pain he let the doctors 
foment his head, which they could not have done 
unless his wig had been removed. 

Such was the conclusion of Alexander's spectacular 
career, and such the dénouement of the whole play ; 
being as it was, it resembled an act of Providence, 
although it came about by chance. It was inevitable, 
too, that he should have funeral games worthy of 
his career—that a contest for the shrine should 
arise. The foremost of his fellow-conspirators and 
impostors referred it to Rutilianus to decide which 
of them should be given the preference, should 
succeed to the shrine, and should be crowned with 

the representation of a snake with human head to the middle 
of the third century (Head, Hist. Numm., 432, Cumont l.c., 
p. 42) The modern name Inéboli is a corruption of 

* As son of Podaleirius, it was fitting, thinks Lucian, that 
his leg (poda-) should be affected. 




προφητικῷ στέμματι. ἣν δὲ ἐν αὐτοῖς καὶ Παῖτος, 
ἰατρὸς τὴν τέχνην, πολιός Tis, οὔτε ἰατρῷ 
πρέποντα οὔτε πολιῷ ἀνδρὶ ταῦτα ποιῶν. ἀλλ᾽ 
ὁ ἀγωνοθέτης Ῥουτιλιανὸς ἀστεφανώτους αὐτοὺς 
ἀπέπεμψεν αὐτῷ τὴν προφητείαν φυλάττων μετὰ 
τὴν ἐντεῦθεν ἀπαλλαγήν. 

Ταῦτα, ὦ φιλότης, ὀλίγα ἐκ πολλῶν δείγματος 
ἕνεκα γράψαι ἠξίωσα, καὶ σοὶ μὲν χαριξόµενος, 
ἀνδρὶ ἑ ἑταίρῳ καὶ φίλῳ καὶ ὃν ἐγὼ πάντων μάλιστα 

θαυμάσας € ἔχω. ἐπί τε σοφίᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς ἀλήθειαν 

ἔρωτι καὶ τρόπου πραότητι καὶ ἐπιεικείᾳ καὶ 
γαλήνη βίου καὶ δεξιότητι πρὸς τοὺς συνόντας, 
τὸ πλέον δέ---ὅπερ καὶ σοὶ ἥδιον,--- Ἐπικούρῳ 
τιμωρῶν, ἀνδρὶ ὡς ἀληθῶς ἱερῷ καὶ θεσπεσίῳ 
τὴν φύσιν καὶ μόνῳ μετ᾽ ἀληθείας τὰ καλὰ 
ἐγνωκότι καὶ παραδεδωκότι καὶ ἐλευθερωτῇ τῶν 
ὁμιλησάντων αὐτῷ γενομένῳ. οἶμαι δὲ ὅ ὅτι καὶ 
τοῖς ἐντυχοῦσι χρήσιμόν τι ἔχειν δόξει ἡ 7) γραφή, 
τὰ μὲν διεξελέγχουσα, τὰ δὲ ἐν ταῖς τῶν εὖ 
φρονούντων γνώμαις βεβαιοῦσα. 

1 πολιός τις A. M.H. : πολίτης ὃς yB: πολιὸς Gv Fritzsche, 


U vx 


the fillet of priest and prophet. Paetus was one of 
them, a physician by profession, a greybeard, who 
conducted himself in a way that befitted neither a 
physician nor a greybeard. But Rutilianus, the 
umpire, sent them off unfilleted, keeping the post 
of prophet for the master after his departure from 
this life. 

This, my friend, is but a little out of a great deal ; 
I have thought fit to set it down as a specimen, not 
only to pleasure you as an associate and friend whom 
above all others I hold in admiration for your wisdom, 
your love of truth, the gentleness and reasonable- 
ness of your ways, the peacefulness of your life, 
and your courtesy toward all whom you encounter, 
but mostly—and this will give greater pleasure to 
you also—to right the wrongs of Epicurus, a man 
truly saintly and divine in his nature, who alone 
truly discerned right ideals and handed them down, 
who proved himself the liberator of all who sought 
his converse. I think too that to its readers the 
writing will seem to have some usefulness, refuting 
as it does certain falsehoods and- confirming certain 
truths in the minds of all men of sense. 



An elaborate compliment to Panthea, a girl of Smyrna, 
favourite of the Emperor Verus. It was written in the East, 
almost certainly at Antioch, before the death of Verus 
(a.D. 169) and probably during his residence in the East 

It is ungallant to say with La Croze: '' Hic adulatornm 
derisor Lucianus omnes adulatores vincit!" No doubt it is 
Panthea of whom Capitolinus speaks so slightingly (7, 10). 
But that a scribbler who never saw her called her a vulgaris 
amica is less significant, I submit, than that an emperor who 
knew her *'laid aside his beard” to suit her whim, She was 
not of high rank, it may be, but she was certainly attractive. 
And in all seriousness she cannot have been wholly unworthy. 
When Marcus Aurelius says (8, 37): ‘‘ Does Panthea still sit 
by the sepulchre of her lord?” it accords with what we 
are told here of her devotion to him ; and in Lucian's praise 
of her character there is a warmth that ensures its sincerity. 

For Lucian's circle the piece was an interesting novelty. 
Making literary portraits by synthesis, though not un- 
exampled in poetry, was not hackneyed even there, and in 
prose quite new. It was original, too, to use dialogue as a 
vehicle for encomium, which commonly took the form of a 
poem or & speech. 

In this piece and in the next, its sequel, the Greek word 
eikon creates unusual difficulty for the translator. In the 
first place, it denotes any kind of portrayal, whether painting 
or statue; but its nearest equivalents—likeness, portrait, 
sketch—all suggest the flat, not the round. Indeed, for a 
portrait-statue we have no proper word. Moreover—and 
this, though perhaps less obviously awkward in its con- 
sequences, is even more serious—it also means a comparison, 
or simile; and as Lucian's likenesses are for the most part 
nothing but comparisons of one sort or another, his jew d'esprit 
owes a great measure of its effectiveness to a word-play which 
cannot be transferred, 




"AAN ἡ τοιοῦτόν τι ἔπασχον οἱ τὴν Γοργὼ 
ἰδόντες οἷον ἐγὼ ἔναγχος ἔπαθον, ὦ Πολύστρατε, 
παγκάλην τινὰ γυναῖκα ἰδών: αὐτὸ γὰρ τὸ τοῦ 
μύθου ἐκεῖνο, μικροῦ δέω λίθος ἐξ ἀνθρώπου σοι 
γεγονέναι πεπηγὼς ὑπὸ τοῦ θαύματος. 


Ἡράκλεις, ὑπερφυές τι τὸ θέαµα phs καὶ δεινῶς 
βίαιον, εἴ γε καὶ Λυκῖνον ἐξέπληξε γυνή τις οὖσα: 
σὺ γὰρ ὑπὸ μὲν τῶν μειρακίων καὶ πάνυ ῥᾳδίως 
αὐτὸ πάσχεις, ὥστε θᾶττον ἄν τις ὅλον τὸν Σί- 
πυλον μετακινήσειεν ἢ σὲ τῶν καλῶν ἀπάγοι μὴ 
οὐχὶ παρεστάναι αὐτοῖς κεχηνότα καὶ ἐπιδακρύ- 
οντά γε πολλάκις ὥσπερ ἐκείνην αὐτὴν τὴν τοῦ 
TavráXov. ἀτὰρ εἰπέ μοι, τίς ἡ λιθοποιὸς αὕτη 
Μέδουσα ἡμῖν ἐστιν καὶ πόθεν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς 
ἴδοιμεν: οὐ γάρ, οἶμαι, φθονήσεις ἡμῖν τῆς θέας 
οὐδὲ ζηλοτυπήσεις, εἰ μέλλοιμεν πλησίον που καὶ 
αὐτοὶ παραπεπηγέναι σοι ἰδόντες. 

Available in photographs: T,UN. 

1 A double allusion. The Niobe story has already been 

introduced by the mention of Mount Sipylus, where Niobe 
was turned into stone; and now, by styling her the daughter 




Upon my word, Polystratus, those who saw the 
Gorgon must have been affected by it very much as 
I was recently when ] saw a perfectly beautiful 
woman: I was struck stiff with amazement and came 
within an ace of being turned into stone, my friend, 
just as it is in the fable! 


Heracles! An extraordinary spectacle, that, and 
a terribly potent one, to astound Lycinus when it 
was only a woman. To be sure you are very easily 
affected in that way by boys, so that it would be a 
simpler matter to move all Sipylus from its base 
than to drag you away from your pretties and keep 
you from standing beside them with parted lips, yes, 
and not infrequently tears in your eyes, the very 
image of the daughter of Tantalus. But tell me 
about this petrifying Medusa, who she is and where 
she comes from, so that we, too, may have a look at 
her. You surely will not begrudge us the sight or 
be jealous, if we ourselves are going to be struck 
stiff at your elbow on seeing her! 

of Tantalus, Polystratus compares the plight of Lycinus to 
that of Tantalus also. 




Καὶ μὴν εὖ εὐδέναι ) σε, ὦ κἂν ἐκ ωπῆ 
μὴ ᾿χρή σε, ὡς περιωπῆς 
μόνον ἀπίδῃς εἰς αὐτήν, ἀχανῆ σε καὶ τῶν ἀνδριάν- 
των ἀκινητότερον ἀποφανεῖ. καίτοι τοῦτο μὲν 
ἴσως εἰρηνικώτερόν ἐστιν καὶ τὸ τραῦμα ἧττον 
καίριον, εἰ αὐτὸς ἴδοις’ εἰ δὲ κἀκείνη προσβλέψειέ 
σε, Tis ἔσται μηχανὴ ἀποστῆναι αὐτῆς ; ἀπάξει 
γάρ σε ἀναδησαμένη ἔνθα ἂν ἐθέλῃ, ὅπερ καὶ ἡ 

λίθος ἡ Ἡρακλεία δρᾷ τὸν σίδηρον. 

Παύου, ὦ Λυκῖνε, τεράστιὀν τι κάλλος ἆνα- 
7 3 5 3 ld / e ~ 3 
πλάττων, ἀλλ. ELME, TLS ἡ γυνή εστιν. 


Οἴει γάρ µε ὑπερβαλέσθαι τῷ λόγῳ, ὃς δέδια 
μή σοι ἰδόντι ἀσθενής τις ἐπαινέσαι δόξω, παρὰ 
τοσοῦτον ἀμείνων φανεῖται ; πλὴν ἀλλὰ ἥτις μέν, 
οὐκ ἂν εἰπεῖν ἔχοιμι, θεραπεία δὲ πολλὴ καὶ ἡ 
ἄλλη περὶ αὐτὴν παρασκενὴ λαμπρὰ καὶ εὐνού ων 
τι πλῆθος καὶ ἅβραι πάνυ πολλαί, καὶ ὅλως 
μεῖζόν γε ἢ κατὰ ἰδιωτικὴν τύχην ἐδόκει τὸ 
πρᾶγμα εἶναι. 

Οὐδὲ τοὔνομα ἐπύθου σύ γε ἥτις καλοῖτο ; 

Οὐδαμῶς, ἢ τοῦτο μόνον, τῆς Ἰωνίας ἐστίν' 
τῶν θεατῶν γάρ τις ἀπιδὼν εἰς τὸν πλησίον, 
ἐπεὶ παρῆλθεν, i Τοιαῦτα μέντοι, ἔφη, “τὰ 
Σμυρναϊκὰ κάλλη" καὶ θαυμαστὸν οὐδέν, εἰ ἡ 




You may be very certain that if you get but a 
distant view of her she will strike you dumb, and 
more motionless than any statue. Yet the effect, 
perhaps, is not so violent and the wound less serious 
if it should be you who catch sight of her. But if 
she should look at you as well, how shall you manage 
to tear yourself away from her? She will fetter you 
to herself and hale you off wherever she wishes, 
doing just what the magnet does to iron. 


Don't keep evoking fancies of miraculous loveli- 
ness, Lycinus, but tell me who the woman is. 


Why, do you suppose that I am exaggerating? 
No, I am afraid that when you have seen her you 
will take me to be a poor hand at turning com- 
pliments, so far superior will she prove to be. 
Anyhow, I can’t say who she is, but she received 
much attention, kept splendid state in every way, 
had a number of eunuchs and a great many maids, 
and, in general, the thing seemed to be on a greater 
scale than accords with private station. 

You didn’t learn even the name they gave her? 
v g 

No; only that she comes from Ionia, for one of 
the onlookers glanced at his neighbour after she had 
passed and said: “Well, that is what Smyrna’s 
beauties are like, and it is no wonder that the fairest 



a ? ^ / 
καλλίστη τῶν ᾿Ιωνικῶν πόλεων τὴν καλλίστην 
γυναῖκα ἤνεγκεν." ἐδόκει δέ μοι Σμυρναῖος καὶ 
αὐτὸς ὁ λέγων εἶναι, οὕτως ἐσεμνύνετο ém αὐτῇ. 

Οὐκοῦν ἐπεὶ λίθου τοῦτό γε ὡς ἀληθῶς ἐποίησας 
οὔτε παρακολουθήσας οὔτε τὸν Σμυρναῖον ἐκεῖνον 
ἐρόμενος, ὅστις ἦν, κἂν τὸ εἶδος ὡς οἷόν τε 
ὑπόδειξον τῷ λόγῳ' τάχα γὰρ ἂν οὕτως 

‘Opas ἡλίκον τοῦτο ἤτησας ; οὐ κατὰ λόγων 
δύναμιν, καὶ μάλιστά͵ γε τῶν ἐμῶν, ἐμφανίσαι 
θαυμασίαν. οὕτως εἰκόνα, πρὸς ἣν μόλις ἂν ἢ 
᾿Απελλῆς 7) Ζεῦξις 7) Παρράσιος ἱκανοὶ ἔδοξαν, 
À, εἴ τις Φειδίας ἡ ἢ ᾽Αλκαμένης" ἐγὼ δὲ λυμανοῦμαι 
τὸ ἀρχέτυπον ἀσθενείᾳ τῆς τέχνης. 

"Όμως, ὦ Λυκῖνε, ποία τις τὴν ὄψιν ;; οὐ γὰρ 
ἐπισφαλὲς τὸ τόλμημα, εἰ φίλῳ ἀνδρὶ ἐπιδείξαις 
τὴν εἰκόνα, ὅπως ἂν τῆς γραμμῆς EXN. 


Καὶ μὴν ἀσφαλέστερον αὐτὸς ποιήσειν μοι 
δοκῶ τῶν παλαιῶν τινας ἐκείνων τεχνιτῶν παρα- 
καλέσας ἐπὶ τὸ ἔργον, ὡς ἀναπλάσειάν por τὴν 


Πῶς τοῦτο φής; ἢ πῶς ἂν ἀφίκοιντό σοι πρὸ 
τοσούτων ἐτῶν ἀποθανόντες ; 


of Ionian cities has produced the fairest of women!" 
It seemed to me that the speaker himself was of 
Smyrna because he was so set up over her. 

Well, inasmuch as you really and truly behaved 
like a stone in one way, at least, since you neither 
followed her nor questioned that Smyrniote, whoever 
he was, at least sketch her appearance in words as 
best you can. Perhaps in that way I might 
recognize her. 


Are you aware what you have demanded? It is 
not in the power of words, not mine, certainly, to 
call into being a portrait so marvellous, to which 
hardly Apelles or Zeuxis or Parrhasius would have 
seemed equal, or even perhaps a Phidias or an 
Alcamenes. As for me, I shall but dim the lustre 
of the original by the feebleness of my skill. 


Nevertheless, Lycinus, what did she look like? 
It would not be dangerously bold if you should show 
your picture to a friend, no matter how well or ill it 
may be drawn. 


But [ think I shall act in a way that involves less 
risk for myself if I call in some of those famous 
artists of old for the undertaking, to model me a 
statue of the woman. 


What do you mean by that? How can they come 
to you when they died so many years ago? 



‘Padios, ἤνπερ σὺ μὴ ὀκνήσης ἀποκρίνασθαί 
τί μοι. 
3 , $ 
Epæora μόνον. 
4 ᾿Επεδήμησάς ποτε, ὦ Πολύστρατε, τῇ Κνιδίων ; 

Καὶ µάλα. 
Οὐκοῦν καὶ τὴν ᾿Αφροδίτην εἶδες πάντως 
αὐτῶν ; 
Νὴ Δία, τῶν Πραξιτέλους ποιημάτων τὸ 
᾿Αλλὰ καὶ τὸν μῦθον ἤκουσας, ὃν λέγουσιν 
οἱ ἐπιχώριοι περὶ αὐτῆς, ὡς ἐρασθείη τις τοῦ 
ἀγάλματος καὶ λαθὼν ὑπολειφθεὶς ἐν ἱερῷ συγ- 
γένοιτο, ὡς δυνατὸν ἀγάλματι. τοῦτο μέντοι] 
ἄλλως ἱστορείσθω. σὺ δὲ---ταύτην γάρ, ὡς φής, 
εἷἶδες---ἴθι μοὶ καὶ τόδε ἀπόκριναι, εἰ καὶ τὴν ἐν 
κήποις ᾿Αθήνησι τὴν ᾿Αλκαμένους ἑώρακας. 

Ἢ πάντων y ἄν, ὦ Λυκῖνε, ὁ ῥᾳθυμότατος 

! μέντοι Lehmann : μέν σοι MSS. 

! Furtwängler, Greek and Roman Sculpture, pl. xxv, 
opposite p. 91. 

* The story, which can be traced back to Posidonius, is 
told at greater length in the Amores. 


Easily, if only you do not refuse to answer me a 
question or two. 
You have but to ask. 

Were you ever in Cnidus, Polystratus ? 

Yes indeed | 

Then you certainly saw the Aphrodite there ? 

Yes, by Zeus! The fairest of the creations of 


Well, have you also heard the story that the 
natives tell about it—that someone fell in love with 
the statue, was left behind unnoticed in the temple, 
and embraced it to the best of his endeavours? But 
no matter about that. Since you have seen her, 
as you say, tell me whether you have also seen 
the Aphrodite in the Gardens, at Athens, by 
Alcamenes ? 3 

Surely I should be the laziest man in all the world 

* Furtwingler’s suggestion that the well-known ‘ Venus 
Genetrix ” is a copy of this work is generally accepted. The 
head is well reproduced in Mitchell, History of Ancient 
Sculpture, opposite p. 320. The Gardens lay outside the 
walls, on the bank of the Ilissos, opposite the Stadium. 



ἦν, εἰ τὸ κάλλιστον τῶν ᾿Αλκαμένους πλασμάτων 
Ἐκεῖνο μέν γε, ὦ Πολύστρατε, οὐκ ἐξερήσομαί 
> ’ 3 . 3 ’ 3 . ` 
σε, εἰ πολλάκις εἰς την ἀκρόπολιν ἀνελθὼν καὶ 
τὴν Καλάμιδος Σωσάνδραν τεθέασαι. 

Εἶδον κἀκείνην πολλάκις. 

᾿Αλλὰ καὶ ταῦτα μὲν ἱκανῶς. τῶν δὲ Φειδίου 
ἔργων τί μάλιστα ἐπήνεσας ; 

Tí δ᾽ ἄλλο ἢ τὴν Λημνίαν, ᾗ καὶ ἐπιγράψαι 

s e [4 3 / M [4 ` 
τοὔνομα ὁ Φειδίας ἠξίωσε; καὶ νὴ Δία τὴν 
> / A > , ^ , 

Apalova τὴν ἐπερειδομένην τῷ δορατίῳ. 

Τὰ κάλλιστα, ὦ ἑταῖρε, ὥστ᾽ οὐκέτ᾽ ἄλλων 
τεχνιτῶν δεήσει. φέρε δή, ἐξ ἁπασῶν ἤδη 
τούτων ὡς οἷόν τε συναρμόσας μίαν σοι εἰκόνα 
ἐπιδείξω, τὸ ἐξαίρετον παρ᾽ ἑκάστης ἔχουσαν. 

K \ / A d \ 4 
αι τινα ἂν τροπον TOUTL γένοιτο ; 

1 No copy of the Sosandra is known, nor is it clear 
whether she was a goddess or a woman. 

* For the beautiful head in Bologna that is believed to be 
copied from this statue (a work in bronze, dedicated on the 
Acropolis by certain Lemnians) see Furtwängler, Masterpieces 
of Greck Sculpture, pl. i-iii, and Fig. 3. 



if I had neglected the most beautiful of the sculptures 
of Alcamenes. 


One question, at all events, I shall not ask you, 

Polystratus—whether you have often gone up to the 
Acropolis to look at the Sosandra of Calamis ? 1! 

l have often seen that, too. 

So far, so good. But among the works of Phidias 
what did you praise most highly ? 


What could it be but the Lemnian Athena, on 
which Phidias deigned actually to inscribe his 
name?? Oh, yes! and the Amazon who leans upon 
her spear.? 


These are the most beautiful, my friend, so that 
we shall not need any other artists. Come now, out 
of them all I shall make a combination as best I can, 
and shall display to you a single portrait-statue 
that comprises whatever is most exquisite in each. 

How can that be done? 

3 Copies of the Phidian Amazon have not been identified 
with any certainty. For the several types of Amazon statue 
that come into consideration, see Michaelis, Jahrbuch des k. 
deutschen Archaeologischen Instituts, i, p. 14 sqq., and Furt- 
wängler, Masterpieces, p. 128 sqq. 



Où χαλεπόν, e . Πολύστρατε, εἰ τὸ ἀπὸ τοῦδε 
παραδόντες τὰς εἰκόνας τῷ λόγῳ, ἐπιτρέψαιμεν 
αὐτῷ μετακοσμεῖν καὶ συντιθέναι καὶ ἁρμόζειν 
ὡς ἂν εὐρυθμότατα δύναιτο, φυλάττων ἅμα τὸ 
συμμιγὲς ἐκεῖνο καὶ ποικίλον. 

Εὖ λέγεις: καὶ δὴ παραλαβὼν δεικνύτω" ἐθέλω 
γὰρ εἰδέναι ὅ τι καὶ χρήσεται αὐταῖς, ἢ ὅπως 
ἐκ τοσούτων μίαν τινὰ συ, θεὶς οὐκ ἀπάᾷδουσαν 



Καὶ μὴν ἤδη σοι ὁρᾶν παρέχει γιγνομένην τὴν 
εἰκόνα, ὧδε συναρμόξων, τῆς ἐκ Κνίδου ἡκούσης 
μόνον τὴν κεφαλὴν. λαβών: οὐδὲν γὰρ. τοῦ ἄλλου 
σώματος γυμνοῦ. ὄντος δεήσεται" τὰ μὲν ἀμφὶ 
τὴν κόμην καὶ μέτωπον ὀφρύων τε τὸ εὔγραμμον 
ἐάσει ἔχειν ὥσπερ ὁ Πραξιτέλης ἐποίησεν, καὶ 
τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν δὲ τὸ ὑγρὸν ἅμα τῷ φαιδρῷ καὶ 
κεχαρισμένῳ, καὶ τοῦτο διαφυλάξει κατὰ τὸ 
Πραξιτέλει δοκοῦν: τὰ μῆλα δὲ καὶ ὅσα τῆς 
ὄψεως ἀντωπὰ παρ᾽ ᾿Αλκαμένους καὶ τῆς ἐν 
κήποις λήψεται, καὶ προσέτι χειρῶν ἄκρα καὶ 
καρπῶν τὸ εὔρυθμον καὶ δακτύλων τὸ εὐάγωγον 
εἰς λεπτὸν ἀπολῆγον παρὰ τῆς ἐν κήποις καὶ 
ταῦτα. τὴν δὲ τοῦ παντὸς προσώπου περιγραφὴν 
καὶ παρειῶν τὸ ἁπαλὸν καὶ ῥῖνα σύμμετρον ἡ 
Λημνία παρέξει καὶ Φειδίας: ἔτι καὶ στόματος 
ἁρμογὴν αὐτὸς καὶ τὸν αὐχένα, παρὰ τῆς 
᾿Αμαξόνος λαβών: ἡ Σωσάνδρα δὲ καὶ Ιάλαμις 



Nothing hard about it, Polystratus, if from now 
on we give Master Eloquence a free hand with those 
statues and allow him to adapt, combine, and unite 
them as harmoniously as he can, retaining at the 
same time that composite effect and the variety. 

Very well; by all means let him have a free hand 
and show us his powers, for I am eager to know 
what he really can do with the statues and how he 
can combine so many into one without making it 
Well, he permits you to look upon the statue 
even now, as it comes into being; and this is the 
way he makes the blend. From the Cnidian he 
takes only the head, as the body, which is unclothed, 
will not meet his needs. He will allow the arrange- 
ment of the hair, the forehead, and the fair line of 
the brows to remain as Praxiteles made them; and 
in the eyes also, that gaze so liquid, and at the same 
time so clear and winsome—that too shall be 
retained as Praxiteles conceived it. But he will 
take the round of the cheeks and all the fore part 
of the face from Alcamenes and from Our Lady in 
the Gardens; so too the hands, the graceful wrists, 
and the supple, tapering fingers shall come from Our 
Lady in the Gardens. But the contour of the entire 
face, the delicate sides of it, and the shapely nose 
will be supplied by the Lemnian Athena and by 
Phidias, and the master will also furnish the meeting 
of the lips, and the neck, taking these from his 
Amazon. Sosandra and Calamis shall adorn her with 


αἰδοῖ κοσμήσουσιν αὐτήν, καὶ τὸ μειδίαμα σεμνὸν 
καὶ λεληθὸς ὥσπερ τὸ ἐκείνης ἔσται' καὶ τὸ eù- 
σταλὲς δὲ καὶ κόσμιον τῆς ἀναβολῆς παρὰ τῆς 
Σωσάνδρας, πλὴν ὅτι ἀκατακάλυπτος αὕτη ἔσται 

M / a € / ` b 2 ey / 
τὴν κεφαλήν. τῆς ἡλικίας δὲ τὸ μέτρον ἡλίκον 
ἂν γένοιτο, κατὰ τὴν ἐν Kvidw ἐκείνην μάλιστα. 
καὶ γὰρ καὶ τοῦτο κατὰ τὸν Πραξιτέλη 

Τί σοι, ὦ Πολύστρατε, δοκεῖ ; καλὴ γενήσεσθαι 
ἡ εἰκών ; 


Καὶ μάλιστα, ἐπειδὰν εἰς τὸ ἀκριβέστατον 

ἀποτελεσθῇ' ἔτι γάρ, ὦ πάντων γενναιότατε, 
/ 4 ’ N A 3 4 

καταλέλοιπάς τι κάλλος ἔξω τοῦ ἀγάλματος 
οὕτως πάντα εἰς τὸ αὐτὸ συμπεφορηκώς. 

Ti τοῦτο ; 

Οὐ τὸ} μικρότατον, ὦ φιλότης, εἰ μή σοι δόξει 
ὀλίγα πρὸς εὐμορφίαν συντελεῖν χρόα καὶ τὸ 
ἑκάστω πρέπον, ὡς μέλανα μὲν εἶναι ἀκριβῶς 
ὁπόσα μέλανα, λευκὰ δὲ ὅσα τοιαῦτα χρή, καὶ 
τὸ ἐρύθημα ἐπανθεῖν καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα' κινδυνεύει 
τοῦ μεγίστου ἔτι ἡμῖν προσδεῖν. 

Πόθεν otv καὶ ταῦτα πορισαίμεθ᾽ ἄν; ἢ mapa- 
’ hI \ / . ΄ 

καλέσαιμεν δηλαδὴ τοὺς γραφέας, καὶ μάλιστα 
ὁπόσοι αὐτῶν ἄριστοι ἐγένοντο κεράσασθαι τὰ 
χρώματα καὶ εὔκαιρον ποιεῖσθαι τὴν ἐπιβολὴν 
αὐτῶν; καὶ δὴ παρακεκλήσθω [Πολύγνωτος καὶ 


modesty, and her smile shall be grave and faint 
like that of Sosandra, fron whom shall come also the 
simplicity and seemliness of her drapery, except that 
she shall have her head uncovered. In the measure 
of her years, whatever it may be, she shall agree 
most closely with the Cnidian Aphrodite; that, too, 
Praxiteles may determine. 

What do you think, Polystratus? Will the statue 
be beautiful ? 


Yes, surely, when it has been completed to the 
uttermost detail; for there is still, despite your 
unexampled zeal, one beauty that you have left out 
of your statue in collecting and combining everything 
as you did. 

What is that? 

Not the most unimportant, my friend, unless you 
will maintain that perfection of form is but little 
enhanced by colour and appropriateness in each 
detail, so that just those parts will be black which 
should be black and those white which should be, 
and the flush of life will glow upon the surface, and 
so forth. I fear we still stand in need of the most 
important feature ! 

Where then can we get all that? Or shall 
we call in the painters, of course, and particularly 
those who excelled in mixing their colours and in 
applying them judiciously? Come, then, let us call 

1 τί τοῦτο; ov τὸ Heusde: τοῦτο MSS. 



Εὐφράνωρ ἐκεῖνος καὶ ᾿Απελλῆς καὶ ᾿Αετίων: 
οὗτοι δὲ διελόμενοι τὸ ἔργον ὁ μὲν Εὐφράνωρ 
χρωσάτω τὴν κόμην οἷαν τῆς “Hpas ἔγραψεν, 
ὁ Πολύγνωτος δὲ ὀφρύων τὸ ἐπιπρεπὲς καὶ 
παρειῶν τὸ ἐνερευθὲς otav τὴν Κασάνδραν ἐν 
τῇ λέσχη ἐποίησεν τοῖς Δελφοῖς, καὶ ἐσθῆτα δὲ 
οὗτος ποιησάτω εἰς τὸ λεπτότατον ἐξειργασμένην, 
ὡς συνεστάλθαι μὲν ὅσα χρή, διηνεμῶσθαι δὲ τὰ 
πολλά’ τὸ δὲ ἄλλο σῶμα ὁ ᾿Απελλῆς δειξάτω 
κατὰ τὴν Πακάτην μάλιστα, μὴ ἄγαν λευκὸν 
ἀλλὰ ἔναιμον ἁπλῶς" τὰ χείλη δὲ οἷα Ῥωξάνης 
ὁ ᾿Δετίων ποιησάτω. μᾶλλον δὲ τὸν ἄριστον 
τῶν γραφέων ΄Όμηρον παρόντος Εὐφράνορος καὶ 
, ^ / ΄ ^ ^ 
Απελλοῦ δεδέγμεθα' olov γάρ τι τοῖς Μενελάου 
μηροῖς τὸ χρῶμα ἐκεῖνος ἐπέβαλεν ἐλέφαντι 
εἰκάσας ἠρέμα πεφοινιγμένῳ, τοιόνδε ἔστω τὸ 
^ M , 3^ -N ? M A 3 . 
πᾶν" ὁ ὃ αὐτὸς οὗτος καὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς 
γραψάτω βοῶπίν τινα ποιήσας αὐτήν. συνεπι- 
λήψεται δὲ τοῦ ἔργου αὐτῷ καὶ ὁ Θηβαῖος 
ποιητής, ὡς ἰοβλέφαρον᾽ ἐξεργάσασθαι: καὶ 
^ N 9 z . / 
φιλομειδῆ δὲ "Όμηρος ποιήσει καὶ λευκώλενον 
A € / \ ο ^ ^ 9 / 
καὶ ῥοδοδάκτυλον, καὶ ὅλως τῇ χρυσῇ ᾿Αφροδίτη 
εἰκάσει πολὺ δικαιότερον ἢ τὴν τοῦ Βρισέως. 

1 Ιοβλέφαρον du Soul: τὸ βλέφαρον MSS. 

1 Painted as one of the Twelve Gods in the portico of Zeus 
Eleutherius at Athens (Pausanias 1, 3, 3; Pliny 35, 129). 

2 “« Above the Cassotis is a building with paintings by 
Polyguotus; it was dedicated by the Cnidians, and is called 
by the Delphians the Club-room (Lesche, ‘place of talk"), 
because here they used of old to meet and talk over both 
mythological and more serious subjects. . . . Cassandra her- 
self is seated on the ground and is holding the image of 



in Polygnotus and Euphranor of old, and Apelles and 
Aétion. Let them divide up the work, and let 
Euphranor colour the hair as he painted Hera's:! 
let Polygnotus do the becomingness of her brows 
and the faint flush of her cheeks, just as he did 
Cassandra in the Lesche at Delphi,? and let him also 
do her clothing, which shall be of the most delicate 
texture, so that it not only clings close where it 
should, but a great deal of it floats in the air. The 
body Apelles shall represent after the manner of his 
Pacate,? not too white but just suffused with red; 
and her lips shall be done by Aétion like Roxana's.* 
But stay! We have Homer, the best of all painters, 
even in the presence of Euphranor and Apelles. 
Let her be throughout of a colour like that which 
Homer gave to the thighs of Menelaus when he 
likened them to ivory tinged with crimson;? and 
let him also paint the eyes and make her “ ox-eyed." 
The Theban poet, too, shall lend him a hand in the 
work, to give her “violet brows.'$ Yes, and 
Homer shall make her *'laughter-loving" and 
* white-armed ' and “ rosy-fingered," and, in a word, 
shall liken her to golden Aphrodite far more fittingly 
than he did the daughter of Briseus.? 

Athena, for she overturned the wooden image from its 
pedestal when Ajax dragged her out of the sanctuary." 
(Pausanias 10, 25, 1 and 26, 3, Frazer's translation.) 

3 Called Pancaste by Aelian (Var. Hist., 12, 34), Pancaspe 
by Pliny (35, 86). She was a girl of Larissa, the first sweet- 
heart of Alexander the Great. 

4 In the famous '' Marriage of Alexander and Roxana,” 
described fully in Lucian's Herodotus, c. 4—6. 

5 Iliad 4, 141 sqq. 

6 Pindar; the poem in which he applied this epithet to 
Aphrodite (cf. p. 333) is lost. 

7 Iliad 19, 282. 



9 Ταῦτα μὲν οὖν πλαστῶν καὶ γραφέων καὶ 
ποιητῶν παῖδες ἐργάσονται. ὃ δὲ πᾶσιν ἐπανθεῖ 
τούτοις, ἡ χάρις, μᾶλλον δὲ πᾶσαι ἅμα ὁπόσαι 
Χάριτες καὶ ὁπόσοι Ἴδρωτες περιχορεύοντες, τίς 
ἂν μιμήσασθαι δύναιτο ; 

Θεσπέσιόὀν τι χρῆμα, ὦ Λυκῖνε, φὴς καί òu- 
πετὲς ὡς ἀληθῶς, olov τι τῶν ἐξ οὐρανοῦ γένοιτο. 
τί δὲ πράσσουσαν εἶδες αὐτήν ; 


Βιβλίον ἐν ταῖν χεροῖν εἶχεν εἰς δύο συνει- 
λημένον, καὶ ἐῴκει τὸ μέν τι ἀναγιγνώσκεσθαι 
αὐτοῦ, τὸ δὲ ἤδη ἀνεγνωκέναι. μεταξὺ δὲ προϊοῦσα 
διελέγετο τῶν παρομαρτούντων τινὶ οὐκ οἶδα ὅ τι; 
οὐ γὰρ εἰς ἐπήκοον ἐφθέγγετο. πλὴν μειδιάσασά 
ye, ὦ lloAvoTpare, ὀδόντας ἐξέφηνε πῶς ἂν 
εἴποιμί σοι ὅπως μὲν λευκούς, ὅπως δὲ suu- 
μέτρους καὶ πρὸς ἀλλήλους συνηρμοσμένους ; εἴ 
που κάλλιστον ὅρμον εἶδες ἐκ τῶν στιλπνοτάτων 
καὶ ἰσομεγεθῶν μαργαριτῶν, οὕτως ἐπὶ στίχου 
ἐπεφύκεσαν: ἐκοσμοῦντο δὲ μάλιστα τῷ τῶν 
χειλῶν ἐρυθήματι. ὑπεφαίνοντο γοῦν, αὐτὸ δὴ 
τὸ τοῦ Ὁμήρου, ἐλέφαντι τῷ mU TO ὅμοιοι, οὐχ 
οἱ μὲν πλατύτεροι αὐτῶν, οἱ δὲ yupol, οἱ δὲ προέ- 

1 οἱ δὲ γυροὶ added from the margin of T. 

1 The Trojan Palladium was '*dropt from the skies” 
according to the myth (Apollodorus 3, 12, 3); so also the 
image of Athena Tauropolos at Halae in Attica, that was 
thought to have been brought there from the country of the 
Taurians where it fell (Euripides, /ph. in Taur. 87, 977, 986). 



This, then, is what sculptors and painters and 
poets can achieve; but who could counterfeit the 
fine flower of it all—the grace; nay, all the Graces 
in company, and all the Loves, too, circling hand in 
hand about her? 


lt is a miraculous creature that you describe, 
Lycinus; “dropt from the skies"! in very truth, 
quite like something out of Heaven. But what was 
she doing when you saw her? 


She had a scroll in her hands, with both ends of it 
rolled up, so that she seemed to be readiug the one 
part and to have already read the other.? As she 
walked along, she was discussing something or other 
with one of her escorts; I do not know what it was, 
for she did not speak so that it could be overheard. 
But when she smiled, Polystratus, she disclosed such 
teeth! How can I tell you how white they were, 
how symmetrical and well matched? If you have 
ever seen a lovely string of very lustrous, equal 
pearls, that is the way they stood in row ; and they 
were especially set off by the redness of her lips. 
They shone, just as Homer says, like sawn ivory.? 
Nor could you say that some of them were too broad, 

* Lucian's expression amounts to saying that the book was 
open at the middle. In reading an ancient book, one 
generally held the roll in the right hand and took the end of 
it in the left, rolling up in that hand the part that one was 
done with. 

3 Odyssey 18, 196. 




χοντες 7) διεστηκότες οἷοι ταῖς πλείσταις, ἀλλά 
τις πάντων ἰσοτιμία καὶ ὁμόχροια καὶ μέγεθος êv 
καὶ προσεχεῖς -ὁμοίως, καὶ ὅλως μέγα τι θαῦμα 
καὶ θέαμα πᾶσαν τὴν ἀνθρωπίνην εὐμορφίαν 


"Ex ἀτρέμας. συνίημι γὰρ ἤδη πάνυ σαφῶς 
ἥντινα καὶ λέγεις τὴν γυναῖκα, τούτοις τε αὐτοῖς 
γνωρίσας καὶ τῇ πατρίδι. καὶ εὐνούχους δέ τινας 
ἕπεσθαι αὐτῇ ἔφης. 

M ΄ `~ ’ /, 
Νὴ Δία, καὶ στρατιώτας τινάς. 

Τὴν βασιλεῖ συνοῦσαν, ὦ μακάριε, τὴν ἀοίδιμον 
ταύτην λέγεις. 
Τί δέ ἐστιν αὐτῇ τοὔνομα ; 

Πάνυ καὶ τοῦτο γλαφυρόν, ὦ Λυκῖνε, καὶ 
ἐπέραστον' ὁμώνυμος γάρ ἐστιν τῇ τοῦ Λβραδάτα 
ἐκείνῃ τῇ καλῆ' οἶσθα πολλάκις ἀκούσας Ἐενο- 
φῶντος ἐπαινοῦντος τίνα σώφρονα καὶ καλὴν 


\ / ` ο e A 5 N GA 
Νὴ Δία, καὶ ὥσπερ γε ὁρῶν αὐτὴν οὕτω cia- 
bd ^ , 
τέθειμαι, ὁπόταν KAT ἐκεῖνό που ἀναγιγνώσκων 
1 Panthea, “the woman of Susa, who is said to have been 

the fairest in Asia,” whose story is told in the Cyropaedia (4, 6, 
11; 5,1, 2-18; 6,1, 33-51; 6,4,2-11; 7,3, 2-16). Polystratus 



others misshapen, and others prominent or wide 
apart, as they are with most women. On the 
contrary, all were of equal distinction, of the self- 
same whiteness, of uniform size, and similarly close 
together. In short, it was a great marvel; a 
spectacle transcending all human beauty ! 


Hold still! I perceive now quite clearly who the 
woman is that you describe; I recognize her by just 
these points and also by her country. Besides, you 
said that there were eunuchs in her following. 

Yes, and several soldiers. 


It is the Emperor's mistress, you simpleton—the 
woman who is so famous! 

What is her name? 


Like herself, it is very pretty and charming. 
She has the same name as the beautiful wife of 
Abradatas. You know whom I mean, for you have 
often heard Xenophon praise her as a good and 
beautiful woman.! 


Yes, and it makes me feel as if I saw her when I 
reach that place in my reading; I can almost hear 
says ‘‘heard” because of the ancient practice of reading 

aloud, to which the Lessons of the Church bear present 




γένωμαι, καὶ μονονουχὶ καὶ ἀκούω λεγούσης 
αὐτῆς ἃ πεποίηται λέγουσα, καὶ ὡς ὥπλιξε τὸν 
ἄνδρα καὶ οἷα ἦν παραπέµπουσα αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὴν 

ANN, ὦ ἄριστε, σὺ μὲν ὥσπερ τινὰ ἀστραπὴν 
παραδραμοῦσαν ἅπαξ εἶδες αὐτήν, καὶ ἔοικας τὰ 
πρόχειρα ταῦτα, λέγω δὲ τὸ σῶμα καὶ τὴν 
μορφήν, ἐπαινεῖν: τῶν δὲ τῆς ψυχῆς ἀγαθῶν 
ἀθέατος el, οὐδὲ οἶσθα ὅσον τὸ κάλλος ἐκεῖνό 
ἐστιν αὐτῆς, μακρῷ τινι ἄμεινον καὶ θεοειδέστερον 
τοῦ σώματος. ἐγὼ δὲ συνήθης γάρ εὐμι καὶ 
λόγων ἐκοινώνησα πολλάκις ὁμοεθνὴς Ov. καὶ 
γάρ, ὡς οἶσθα καὶ αὐτός, τὸ ἥμερον καὶ φιλάν- 
θρωπον καὶ τὸ μεγαλόφρον καὶ σωφροσύνην καὶ 
παιδείαν πρὸ τοῦ κάλλους ἐπαινῶ" ἄξια γὰρ 
προκεκρίσθαι ταῦτα τοῦ σώματος" ἐπεὶ ἄλογον 
ἂν εἴη καὶ γελοῖον, ὥσπερ εἴ τις τὴν ἐσθῆτα πρὸ 
τοῦ σώματος θαυμάξοι. τὸ δ᾽ ἐντελὲς κάλλος, 
οἶμαι, τοῦτό ἐστιν, ὁπόταν εἰς τὸ αὐτὸ συνδράμῃ 
ψυχῆς ἀρετὴ καὶ εὐμορφία σώματος. ἀμέλει 
πολλὰς ἄν σοι δείξαιμι μορφῆς μὲν εὖ ἠκούσας, 
τὰ ὃ ἄλλα αἰσχυνούσας τὸ κάλλος, ὡς καὶ μόνον 
φθεγξαμένων ἀπανθεῖν αὐτὸ καὶ ἀπομαραίνεσθαι 
ἐλεγχόμενόν τε καὶ ἀσχημονοῦν καὶ παρ᾽ ἀξίαν 
συνὸν πονηρᾷ τινι δεσποίνῃ τῇ γυχῆ. καὶ at 
ye τοιαῦται -δμοιαί μοι δοκοῦσιν τοῖς Αἰγυπτίοις 
ἱεροῖς" κἀκεῖ γὰρ αὐτὸς μὲν ὁ νεὼς κάλλιστός τε 
καὶ μέγιστος, λίθοις τοῖς πολυτελέσιν ἠσκημένος 
καὶ χρυσῷ καὶ γραφαῖς διηνθισ μένος, ἔνδον δὲ 
ἣν ζητῇς τὸν θεόν, ἢ ἢ πίθηκός ἐστιν ἢ ipis ἡ 7) τράγος 
ἢ αἴλουρος. τοιαύτας πολλὰς ἰδεῖν ἔνεστιν. 


her say what she is described as saying, aud see how 
she armed her husband and what she was like when 
she sent him off to the battle. 


But, my friend, you caught sight of her just once, 
flying past like a flash, and naturally have praised 
only what was obvious—I mean, her person and her 
physical beauty. The good points of her soul you 
have not beheld, and you do not know how great that 
beauty is in her, far more notable and more divine than 
that of her body. I do, for I am acquainted with 
her, and have often conversed with her, being of the 
same nationality. As you yourself know, I commend 
gentleness, kindliness, high-mindedness, self-control, 
and culture rather than beauty, for these qualities 
deserve to be preferred over those of the body. To 
do otherwise would be illogical and ridiculous, as if 
one were to admire her clothing rather than her 
person. Perfect beauty, to my mind, is when there 
is a union of spiritual excellence and physical love- 
liness. In truth, I could point you out a great many 
women who are well endowed with good looks, but 
in every way discredit their beauty, so that if they 
merely speak it fades and withers, since it suffers 
by contrast and cuts a shabby figure, unworthily 
housing as it does with a soul that is but a sorry 
mistress. Such women seem to me like the temples 
of Egypt, where the temple itself is fair and great, 
built of costly stones and adorned with gold and 
with paintings, but if you seek out the god within, 
it is either a monkey or an ibis or a goat or a cat! 
Women of that sort are to be seen in plenty. 





, / $7. X / , ` ; 

Οὐ τοίνυν ἀπόχρη τὸ κάλλος, εἰ μη κεκὀσµη- 
ται τοῖς δικαίοις κοσμήμασι, λέγω δὴ οὐκ ἐσθῆτι 
ἁλουργεῖ καὶ ὅρμοις, ἀλλ, οἷς προεῖπον ἐκείνοις, 
ἀρετῆ καὶ σωφροσύνῃ καὶ ἐπιεικείᾳ καὶ φιλαν- 
θρωπίᾳ καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις ὁπόσα ταύτης ὅρος ἐστίν. 


Οὐκοῦν, ὦ Πολύστρατε, μῦθον ἀντὶ μύθου 
ἄμειψαι αὐτῷ τῷ μέτρῳ, φασίν, ἢ καὶ λώϊον, 
δύνασαι γάρ, καί τινα εἰκόνα γραψάµενος τῆς 
ψυχῆς ἐπίδειξον, ὡς μὴ ἐξ ἡμισείας θαυμάξοιμι 


Οὐ μικρόν, ὦ ἑταῖρε, τὸ ἀγώνισμα προστάτ- 
TELS" ov γὰρ ὅμοιον τὸ πᾶσι προφανὲς ἐπαινέσαι 
καὶ τὰ ἄδηλα ἐμφανίσαι τῷ λόγῳ. καί μοι. δοκῶ 
συνεργῶν καὶ AUTOS δεήσεσθαι πρὸς τὴν εἰκόνα, 
οὐ πλαστῶν οὐδὲ γραφέων μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ 
φιλοσόφων, ὡς πρὸς τοὺς ἐκείνων κανόνας ἆ ἀπευ- 
θῦναι τὸ ἄγαλμα καὶ δεῖξαι κατὰ τὴν ἀρχαίαν 
πλαστικὴν κατεσκευασμένον. 

Καὶ δὴ πεποιήσθω. αὐδήεσσα, μὲν τὸ πρῶτον 
καὶ λίγεια, καὶ τὸ τιον μέλιτος ἀπὸ τῆς 
γλώττης᾽ περὶ αὐτῆς: μᾶλλον. ἢ περὶ τοῦ Πυλίου 
γέροντος ἐκείνου ὁ "Όμηρος εἴρηκεν. πᾶς ? δὲ ὁ 0 
τόνος τοῦ φθέγματος οἷος ἁπαλώτατος, οὔτε 
βαρὺς ὡς εἰς τὸ ἀνδρεῖον ἡρμόσθαι οὔτε πάνυ 
λεπτὸς ὡς θηλύτατός τε εἶναι καὶ κομιδῇ ἔκλυτος, 
ἀλλ᾽ οἷος γένοιτ᾽ ἂν παιδὶ μήπω ἡβάσκοντι, ἡδὺς 
καὶ προσηνὴς καὶ πράως παραδυόμενος εἰς τὴν 

1 περὶ αὐτῆς N : not in γβ. 
2 πᾶς vulg. : πῶς MSS. 


Beauty, then, is not enough unless it is set off 
with its just enhancements, by which I mean, not 
purple raiment and necklaces, but those I have 
already mentioned—virtue, self-control, goodness, 
kindliness, and everything else that is included in 
the definition of virtue. 


Well then, Polystratus, trade me description for 
description, giving, as the saying goes, measure for 
measure, or even better than that, since you can. 
Do a likeness of her soul and display it to me, so 
that I need not admire her by halves. 


It is no light task, my friend, that you are setting 
me; for it is not the same thing to laud what is 
manifest to all, and to reveal in words what is in- 
visible. I think that I too shall need fellow-work- 
men for the portrait, philosophers as well as sculptors 
and painters, so that I can make my work of art 
conform to their canons and can exhibit it as 
modelled in the style of the ancients. 

Come now, imagine it made. It will be “ gifted 
with speech,” 1 first of all, and ‘ clear-voiced ” ; 2 
and Homer’s phrase “sweeter than honey from the 
tongue” applies to her rather than to that old man 
from Pylos.” The whole tone of her voice is as soft 
as can be; not deep, so as to resemble a man’s, nor 
very high, so as to be quite womanish and wholly 
strengthless, but like the voice of a boy still imma- 
ture, delicious and winning, that gently steals into 

1 Like Circe (Odyssey 10, 136). 

2 Like the Muse (Odyssey 24, 62). 

8 Applied in Homer to the words of Nestor (Iliad 1, 949). 



ἀκοήν, ὡς καὶ παυσαμένης ἔναυλον εἶναι τὴν 
βοὴν καί τι λείψανον ἐνδιατρίβειν καὶ περι- 
βομβεῖν τὰ OTA, καθάπερ ἠχώ τινα παρατείνου- 
σαν τὴν. ἀκρόασιν καὶ ἴχνη τῶν λόγων μελιχρὰ 
ἄττα καὶ πειθοῦς μεστὰ ἐπὶ τῆς ψυχῆς ἀπολιμ- 
πάνουσαν. ὁπόταν δὲ καὶ τὸ καλὸν ἐκεῖνο ἄδη, 
καὶ μάλιστα πρὸς τὴν κιδάραν, τότε δη τότε 1 
apa μὲν σιωπᾶν τάχιστα τ ἀλκυόσι καὶ τέττιξι 
καὶ τοῖς κύκνοις' ἄμουσα yàp ὡς πρὸς ἐκείνην 
ἅπαντα: κἂν τὴν Πανδίονος εἴπῃς, ἰδιῶτις κἀκείνη 
καὶ ἄτεχνος, εἰ καὶ πολνηχέα τὴν φωνὴν ἀφίησιν. 
14 ᾿Ὀρφεὺς δὲ καὶ ᾽Αμϕίων, οἵπερ ἐπαγωγότατοι 
ἐγένοντο τῶν ἀκροατῶν, ὡς καὶ τὰ ἄψυχα ἐπικα- 
λέσασθαι πρὸς τὸ μέλος, αὐτοὶ ἄν, οἶμαι, εἴ γε 
ἤκουσαν, καταλιπόντες ἂν τὰς κιθάρας παρεστή- 
κεσαν σιωπῇ ἀκροώμενοι. τὸ γὰρ τῆς τε ἁρμονίας 
τὸ ἀκριβέστατον διαφυλάττειν, ὡς μὴ παραβαί- 
νειν τι τοῦ ῥυθμοῦ, ἀλλ᾽ -εὐκαίρῳ τῇ ἄρσει καὶ 
θέσει διαμεμετρῆσθαι τὸ ἆσμα καὶ συνῳδὸν εἶναι 
τὴν κιθάραν καὶ ὁμοχρονεῖν τῇ γλώττη τὸ πλῆ- 
κτρον, καὶ τὸ εὐαφὲς τῶν δακτύλων καὶ τὸ 
εὐκαμπὲς τῶν μελῶν, πόθεν ἂν ταῦτα ὑπῆρχε τῷ 
Opari ἐκείνῳ καὶ τῷ ἀνὰ τὸν Κιθαιρῶνα μεταξὺ 
βουκολοῦντι καὶ κιθαρίζειν μελετῶντι ; ; 
"Ώστε ἢ ἦν ποτε, ὦ Λυκῖνε, καὶ ἀδούσης ἀκούῃς 
αὐτῆς, οὐκέτι τὸ τῶν Γοργόνων ἐκεῖνο éon μόνον 
πεπονθώς, λίθος ἐξ ἀνθρώπου γενόμενος, ἀλλὰ 

! τότε δὴ τότε du Soul: τότε δὴ τίποτε MSS. 
2 τάχιστα Jacobitz: ταῦτα MSS. 

1 Pandion’s daughter is the nightingale; the inimitable 
πολυηχέα comes from Homer (Odyssey 19, 521). 



the ear, so that even after she has ceased the sound 
abides, some remnant of it lingering and filling the 
ears with resonance, like an echo that prolongs 
audition and leaves in the soul vague traces of her 
words, honey-sweet and full of persuasion. And 
when she lifts that glorious voice in song, above 
all to the lyre, then—ah, then it is the hour for 
haleyons and cicadas and swans to hush forthwith ; 
for they are one and all unmelodious as against her, 
and even Pandion's daughter, should you mention her, 
is an inexpert amateur, however * soundful" the 
voice that she pours out.! And as for Orpheus 
and Amphion, who exercised so very potent a spell 
upon their auditors that even inanimate things 
answered the call of their song, they themselves 
in my opinion would have abandoned their lyres, 
had they heard her, and would have stood by in 
silence, listening. That scrupulous observance of 
time, so that she makes no mistakes in the rhythm, 
but her singing throughout keeps measure with 
a beat that is accurate in its rise and fall,?? while 
her lyre is in full accord, and her plectrum keeps 
pace with her tongue; that delicacy of touch; that 
flexibility of modulations—how could all this be 
attained by your Thracian, or by that other who 
studied lyre-playing on the slopes of Cithaeron in 
the intervals of tending cattle?? 

Therefore, if ever you hear her sing, Lycinus, not 
only will you have learned by experience, through 
being turned into stone, what the Gorgons can do, 

2 Compare Horace, Odes 4, 6, 36: Lesbium servate pedem, 
meique pollicis ictum. 
3 Orpheus and Amphion, respectively. 

VOL. 1V. K 



καὶ τὸ τῶν Σειρήνων εἴσῃ ὁποῖόν τι ἦν' mape- 
/ \ 3 16 [4 /ὃ M 
στήξη yap εὖ οἶδα κεκηλημένος, πατρίδος καὶ 
οἰκείων ἐπιλαθόμενος. καὶ ἣν κηρῷ ἐπιφράξῃ 
τὰ ὦτα, καὶ διὰ τοῦ κηροῦ διαδύσεταί σοι τὸ 
μέλος. τοιοῦτόν τι ἄκουσμά ἐστι, Τερψιχόρης 
/ ^ 
τινὸς ἢ Μελπομένης ἢ Καλλιόπης αὐτῆς παί- 
\ ’ - a 
δευµα, μυρία τὰ θέλγητρα καὶ παντοῖα ἐν ἑαυτῷ 
[4 / 
ἔχον. ἑνί τε λόγῳ συνελὼν φαίην ἄν, τοιαύτης 
- ^ e" 
μοι τῆς ᾠδῆς ἀκούειν νόμιζε, otav εἰκὸς εἶναι τὴν 
’ - > 3 ’ ` ^ * 7 
διὰ τοιούτων χειλῶν, δι ἐκείνων δὲ τῶν ὀδόντων 
» - e? X . » M ο e) 
ἐξιοῦσαν. ἑώρακας δὲ καὶ αὐτὸς ἥν φημι, ὥστε 
ἀκηκοέναι νόμιξε. 
\ ^ A ^ 
Τὸ μὲν γὰρ ἀκριβὲς τοῦτο τῆς φωνῆς καὶ κα- 
^ e A 
θαρῶς ᾿Ιωνικὸν καὶ ὅτι ὁμιλῆσαι στωμύλη καὶ 
\ ^ , ^ / y Or , 
πολὺ τῶν ᾿Αττικῶν χαρίτων ἔχουσα οὐδὲ θαυμά- 
5 x ^ 
ζειν ἄξιον' πάτριον γὰρ αὐτῇ καὶ προγονικόν, 
οὐδὲ ἄλλως ἐχρῆν μετέχουσαν τῶν ᾿Αθηναίων 
κατὰ τὴν. ἀποικίαν. οὐδὲ γὰρ οὐδὲ ἐκεῖνο θαυ- 
μάσαιμ. ἄν, εἰ καὶ ποιήσει χαίρει καὶ τὰ πολλὰ 
^ ae / ^ 
ταύτῃ ὁμιλεῖ, τοῦ Ὁμήρου πολῖτις οὖσα. 
Μία μὲν δή σοι, ὦ Λυκῖνε, καλλιφωνίας αὕτη 
ν 30m > ’ ε y 2 ὶ M 3/. > ’ 
καὶ WONS ELKWY, WS ἄν τις ETL TO ἔλαττον eika- 
, ` . M s N , \ f 
σειεν. σκόπει δὲ δὴ καὶ τὰς ἄλλας' οὐ γὰρ μίαν 
ὥσπερ σὺ ἐκ πολλῶν συνθεὶς ἐπιδεῖξαι διέγνωκα 
e^ ή 
---ἧττον γὰρ τοῦτο καὶ γραφικὸν, συντελεσθὲν ! 
^ [4 A 
KAAN) τοσαῦτα καὶ πολυειδέ τι ἐκ πολλῶν 
ἀποτελεῖν αὐτὸ αὑτῷ ἀνθαμιλλώμενον---ἀλλ᾽ αἱ 
1 συντελεσθέν: corrupt. An infinitive is wanted, e.g. 

συντιθέναι. The usual reading, γραφικῶς συντελεσθέν, leaves 
κάλλη τοσαῦτα floating. 



but you will know also what the effect of the Sirens 
was like; for you will stand there enchanted, [ know 
right well, forgetful of country and of kin; and 
if you stop your ears with wax, the song, in spite 
of you, will slip through the very wax! Such 
music is it, a lesson learned of some Terpsichore or 
Melpomene, or of Calliope herself, fraught with a 
thousand witcheries of every sort. I may sum it 
up by saying: “Imagine that you are listening to 
such singing as would naturally come from such 
lips and from those teeth." You yourself have seen 
the lady in question, so consider that you have 
heard her. 

As to the precision of her language, and its pure 
Ionic quality, as to the fact that she has a ready 
tongue in conversation and is full of Attic wit— 
that is nothing to wonder at. It is an inherited 
trait in her, and ancestral, and nothing else was to 
be expected, since she partakes of Athenian blood 
through the settlement which they planted.! Nor 
indeed am I disposed to wonder at the further fact 
that a countrywoman of Homer likes poetry and 
holds much converse with it. 

There you have one picture, Lycinus, that of her 
exquisite speech and her singing, as it might be por- 
trayed in an inadequate sort of way. And now look 
at the others—for I have decided not to exhibit a 
single picture made up, like yours, out of many. 
That is really less artistic, to combine beauties so 
numerous and create, out of many, a thing of many 
different aspects, completely at odds with itself. 

! Athens and Theseus were thought to have had a hand in 
the foundation of Smyrna. Lucian’s contemporary Aristides 
makes much of this. 



πᾶσαι τῆς ψυχῆς ἀρεταὶ καθ ἑκάστην εἰκὼν μία 
γεγράψεται πρὸς τὸ ἀρχέτυπον μεμιμημένη. 

“Βορτήν, à Πολύστρατε, καὶ πανδαισίαν ἐπαγ- 
γέλλεις. ἔοικας γοῦν λώϊον ὡς ἀληθῶς ἀποδώσειν 
μοι. τὸ μέτρον. ἐπιμέτρει δ᾽ οὖν; ὡς οὐκ ἔστιν ὃ 
τι ἂν ἄλλο ποιήσας μᾶλλον χαρίσαιὀ pot. 


16 Οὐκοῦν ἐπειδὴ πάντων καλῶν παιδείαν ἡγεῖ- 
σθαι ἀνάγκη, καὶ μάλιστα τούτων ὁπόσα µε- 
λετητά, φέρε καὶ ταύτην ἤδη συστησώμεθα, 
ποικίλην μέντοι καὶ πολύμορφον, ὡς μηδὲ κατὰ 
τοῦτο ἀπολιποίμεθα τῆς σῆς πλαστικῆς. καὶ δὴ 
γεγράφθω πάντα συλλήβδην τὰ ἐκ τοῦ Ἑλικῶνος 
ἀγαθὰ ë ἔχουσα, οὐχ ὥσπερ ἡ Κλειὼ καὶ 7 Πολύ- 
pna kai ἡ Καλλιόπη καὶ αἱ ἄλλαι ἕν τι ἑκάστη 
ἐπισταμένη, ἀλλὰ τὰ] πασῶν καὶ προσέτι τὰ 
“Ἑρμοῦ καὶ ᾿Απόλλωνος. ὁπόσα γὰρ ἢ ποιηταὶ 
μέτροις διακοσμήσαντες ἢ ῥήτορες δεινότητι 
κρατύναντες ἐξενηνόχασιν ὴ συγγραφεῖς ἱστορή- 
κασιν͵ ἢ φιλόσοφοι παρῃνέκασι,". πᾶσι τούτοις 
7) εἰκὼν κεκοσμήσθω, οὐκ ἄχρι τοῦ ἐπικεχρῶσθαι 
μόνον, ἀλλ, εἰς βάθος δευσοποιοῖς τισι φαρμάκοις 
eis Kopov καταβαφεῖσα. καὶ συγγνώμη, εἰ μηδὲν 
ἀρχέτυπον ἐπιδεῖξαι ταύτης δυναίμην τῆς γραφῆς 
οὐ γὰρ ἔσθ᾽ ὅ TL τοιοῦτον ἐν τοῖς πάλαι παιδείας 
πέρι μνημονεύεται. πλὴν ἀλλά, εἴ ye δοκεῖ, 

1 τὰ Lehmann: notin MSS. 



No, all the several virtues of her soul shall be 
portrayed each by itself in a single picture that is 
a true copy of the model. 

It is a feast, Polystratus, a full banquet, that you 
promise! In fact, it appears that you really will 
give me back better measure. Anyhow, get on with 
your measuring ; there is nothing else that you can 
do which would please me more. 


Then inasmuch as culture must stand at the head 
of all that 1s fair, and particularly all that is acquired 
by study, let us now create its likeness, rich, how- 
ever, in colours and in modelling, that even in this 
point we may not fall short of your achievement in 
sculpture. So let her be pictured as possessing all 
the good gifts that come from Helicon. Unlike 
Clio, Polymnia, Calliope, and the others, each of 
whom has a single accomplishment, she shall have 
those of all the Muses, and in addition those of 
Hermes and Apollo. For all that poets have set 
forth with the embellishment of metre or orators 
with the might of eloquence, all that historians 
have related or philosophers recommended shall give 
beauty to our picture, not simply to the extent of 
tinting its surface, but staining it all deeply with 
indelible colours till it will take no more. And you 
must pardon me if I can show no ancient model for 
this picture ; for tradition tells us of nothing similar 
in point of culture among the men of olden times. 
But in spite of that, if you approve, it too may now 

® παρῃνέκασι vulg.: παρῃνέγκασι MSS. 




3 ef 3 M ΄ e 2 . 
ἀνακεισθω καὶ αὕτη" οὐ μεμπτὴ γάρ, ὡς ἐμοὶ 

Καλλίστη μὲν οὖν, ὦ Πολύστρατε, καὶ ma- 
cats ταῖς γραμμαῖς ἀπηκριβωμένη. 


Mera δὲ ταύτην ἡ τῆς σοφίας καὶ συνέσεως 
εἰκὼν γραπτέα. δεήσει δὲ ἡμῖν ἐνταῦθα πολλῶν 
τῶν παραδειγμάτων, ἀρχαίων τῶν πλείστων, 
ἐνὸς μὲν καὶ αὐτοῦ ᾿Ιωνικοῦ" γραφεῖς, δὲ καὶ δη- 
μιουργοὶ αὐτοῦ Αἰσχίνης Σωκράτους ἑταῖρος καὶ 
αὐτὸς Σωκράτης, μιμηλότατοι τεχνιτῶν ἁπάντων, 
ὅσῳ καὶ μετ᾽ ἔρωτος ἔγραφον. τὴν. δὲ ἐκ τῆς 
Μιλήτου ἐκείνην ᾿Ασπασίαν, ᾗ Ñ Kai ὁ Ὀλύμπιος 
θαυμασιώτατος αὐτὸς συνῆν, οὐ φαῦλον. συνέσεως 
παράδειγµα προθέμενοι, ὁ ὁπόσον ἐμπειρίας πραγ- 
μάτων καὶ ὀξύτητος eis τὰ πολιτικὰ καὶ ἄγχι- 
νοίας καὶ δριμύτητος ἐκείνῃ προσῆν, τοῦτο πᾶν 
ἐπὶ τὴν ἡμετέραν εἰκόνα μεταγάγωμεν ἀκριβεῖ 
τῇ στάθμῃ' πλὴν ὅσον ἐκείνη μὲν ἐν μικρῷ 
πινακίῳ -ἐγέγραπτο, αὕτη δὲ κολοσσιαία τὸ 
μέγεθος ἐστιν. 

Πῶς τοῦτο φής ; 

"Οτι, ὦ Λυκῖνε, οὐκ ἰσομεγέθεις εἶναί φημι τὰς 
εἰκόνας ὁμοίας οὔσας" οὐ γὰρ ἴσον οὐδὲ ἐγγὺς 
᾿Αθηναίων ἡ τότε πολιτεία καὶ ἡ παροῦσα τῶν 
“Ρωμαίων δύναμις. ὥστε εἰ καὶ τῇ ὁμοιότητι ἡ 
1 οὖν Fritzsche: not in MSS. 


be hung; for no fault can be found with it, from 
my point of view. 


It is very beautiful, to be sure, Polystratus, and 
every line of it correctly drawn. 


Next we must delineate her wisdom and under- 
standing. We shall require many models there, 
most of them ancient, and one, like herself, Ionic, 
painted and wrought by Aeschines, the friend of 
Socrates, and by Socrates himself,! of all craftsmen 
the truest copyists because they painted with love. 
It is that maid of Miletus, Aspasia, the consort 
of the Olympian,” himself a marvel beyond compare. 
Putting before us, in her, no mean pattern of 
understanding, let us take all that she had of 
experience in affairs, shrewdness in statescraft, 
quick-wittedness, and penetration, and transfer the 
whole of it to our own picture by accurate measure- 
ment; making allowance, however, for the fact 
that she was painted on a small canvas, but our 
figure is colossal in its scale. 

What do you mean by that? 

I mean, Lycinus, that the pictures are not of 
equal size, though they look alike; for the Athenian 
state of those days and the Roman empire of to-day 
are not equal, nor near it. Consequently, although 
! In the Aspasia, a Socratic dialogue by the philosopher 

Aeschines, not extant. 
? Pericles. 






αὐτή, ἀλλὰ τῷ μεγέθει ye ἀμείνων αὕτη ὡς av 
ἐπὶ πλατυτάτου πίνακος καταγεγραμμένη. 

Δεύτερον δὲ καὶ τρίτον παράδειγµα Θεανώ τε 
ἐκείνη καὶ ἡ Λεσβία μελοποιός, καὶ Διοτίμα ἐπὶ 
ταύταις, 7) μὲν τὸ μεγαλόνουν ἡ Θεανὼ 'συμβαλλο-, 
μένη εἰς τὴν γραφήν, ἡ Σαπφώ δὲ τὸ γλαφυρὸν 
τῆς προαιρέσεως" τῇ A dua δὲ οὐχ ἃ Σωκράτης 
ἐπῄνεσεν αὐτὴν ἐοικυῖα ἔσται μόνον, ᾿ἀλλὰ καὶ 
τὴν ἄλλην σύνεσίν τε καὶ συμβουλίαν. τοιαύτη 
σοι καὶ αὕτη, Λυκῖνε, ἀνακείσθω ἡ εἰκών. 

Νὴ A’, ὦ Πολύστρατε, θαυμάσιος οὖσα. σὺ 
δὲ ἄλλας γράφου. 


Tas} τῆς χρηστότητος, ὦ ἑταῖρε, καὶ φιλαν- 
θρωπίας, ἣ τὸ ἥμερον ἐμφανιεῖ τοῦ τρόπου καὶ 
πρὸς τοὺς δεομένους προσηνές ; εἰκάσθω οὖν καὶ 
αὐτὴ Θεανοῖ τε ἐκείνῃ τῇ ᾿Αντήνορος καὶ Αρήτη 
καὶ TH θυγατρὶ αὐτῆς τῇ Ναυσικάᾳ, καὶ εἴ τις 
ἄλλη ἐν μεγέθει πραγμάτων ἐσωφρόνησε πρὸς 
τὴν τύχην. 

"KES δὲ μετὰ ταύτην 7) τῆς σωφροσύνης αὐτῆς 
γεγράφθω καὶ τῆς πρὸς τὸν συνόντα εὐνοίας, ὡς 

κατὰ τὴν τοῦ ᾿Ικαρίου μάλιστα εἶναι τὴν cad- 

1 τὰς should probably be excised. 

1 Wife, or disciple, of Pythagoras, herself a philosophical 
writer of note. 

? Diotima, a priestess of Mantinea, probably fictitious, for 
we hear of her only through Plato in the Symposium (201 n). 
Socrates says there that she was wise in Love, and ascribes 



ours resembles the other exactly, yet in size at least 
it is superior, as being painted on a very broad canvas. 

The second model and the third shall be 
the famous Theano! and the Lesbian poetess, 
and Diotima? shall be still another.  Theano 
shall contribute her high-mindedness, Sappho the 
attractiveness of her way of living, and Diotima 
shall be copied not only in those qualities for which 
Socrates commended her, but in her general in- 
telligence and power to give counsel. There you 
have another picture, Lycinus, which may be hung 


Yes, Polystratus, for it is marvellous. But paint 

more of them. 


That of her goodness and loving-kindness, my 
friend, which will disclose the gentleness of her 
nature and its graciousness to all those who make 
demands upon her? Then let her be compared 
with that Theano who was wife of Antenor,’ 
and with Arete,4 and Arete’s daughter Nausicaa, 
and with any other who in high station behaved 
with propriety in the face of her good fortune. 

Next in order, let her modesty be portrayed, and 
her love for her consort, in such a way as to be 
most like the daughter of Icarius, described by 

to her the metaphysical rhapsody on Love in which the 
dialogue culminates. 

3 Theano, priestess of Athena in Troy (Iliad 6, 298), 
brought up Pedaeus, her husband’s illegitimate child, as 
if he were her own son (Ziad 5, 69). 

5 See Odyssey 7, 67 κα. 




φρονα καὶ τὴν περίφρονα ὑπὸ τοῦ Ὁμήρου 
Ὑγεγραμμένην---τοιαύτην γὰρ τὴν τῆς Πηνελόπης 
εὐκόνα ἐκεῖνος ἔγραψεν---ἡ καὶ νὴ Δία κατὰ τὴν 
ὁμώνυμον αὐτῆς τὴν τοῦ ᾿Αβραδάτα, ἧς μικρὸν 
ἔμπροσθεν ἐμνημονεύσαμεν. 

Παγκάλην καὶ ταύτην, ὦ Πολύστρατε, ἀπειρ- 
γάσω, καὶ σχεδὸν ἤδη τέλος σοι ἔχουσιν αἱ 
εἰκόνες" ἅπασαν γὰρ ἐπελήλυθας τὴν ψυχὴν 
κατὰ µέρη ἐπαινῶν. 


Ovx, ἅπασαν' ἔτι γὰρ τὰ μέγιστα τῶν ἐπαίνων 
περιλείπεται. «λέγω δὲ τὸ ἐν τηλικούτῳ ὄγκω 
γενομένην αὐτὴν μήτε τῦφον ἐπὶ τῇ εὐπραξίᾳ 
περιβαλέσθαι μήτε ὑπὲρ τὸ ἀνθρώπινον μέτρον 
ἐπαρθῆναι πιστεύσασαν τῇ τύχῃ, φυλάττειν δὲ 
ἐπὶ τοῦ ἰσοπέδου ἑαυτὴν μηδὲν ἀπειρόκαλον 7) 
φορτικὸν φρονοῦσαν καὶ τοῖς προσιοῦσιν δη- 
μοτικῶς τε καὶ ἐκ τοῦ ὁμοίου προσφέρεσθαι καὶ 
δεξιώσεις καὶ φιλοφροσύνας φιλοφρονεῖσθαι το- 
σούτῳ ἡδίους τοῖς προσομιλοῦσιν, ὅσῳ καὶ παρὰ 
μείζονος ὅμως γιγνόμεναι οὐδὲν τραγικὸν ἐμφαί- 
νουσιν. ὡς ὁπόσοι τῷ μέγα δύνασθαι μὴ πρὸς 
ὑπεροψίαν, ἀλλὰ καὶ πρὸς εὐποιίαν ἐχρήσαντο, 
οὗτοι καὶ ἄξιοι μάλιστα τῶν παρὰ τῆς τύχης 
δοθέντων ἀγαθῶν ὤφθησαν, καὶ μόνοι ἂν οὗτοι 
δικαίως τὸ ἐπίφθονον διαφύγοιεν" οὐδεὶς γὰρ ἂν 
φθονήσειε τῷ ὑπερέχοντι, ἣν μετριάξοντα ἐπὶ 
τοῖς εὐτυχήμασιν αὐτὸν ὁρᾷ καὶ μὴ κατὰ τὴν τοῦ 
Ὁμήρου "Ατην ἐκείνην ἐπ ' ἀνδρῶν κράατα βεβη- 




Homer as modest and prudent (for that is the way 
he drew the picture of Penelope); or like her 
own homonym, the wife of Abradatas, whom we 
mentioned a little while ago.! 

Once more you have created a very beautiful 
picture, Polystratus; and now, perhaps, your por- 
traits are finished, for you have traversed all of 
her soul in praising it part by part. 

Not all of it! The very greatest items in her 
praise are still unincluded. I mean that in so 
elevated a station she has not clothed herself in 
pride over her success, and has not been uplifted 
above the limit that beseems humanity through 
confidence in Fortune, but keeps herself upon the 
common plane, with no tasteless or vulgar aspirations, 
treats her visitors familiarly and as an equal, and 
gives her friends greetings and evidences of affection 
that are all the sweeter to them because, although 
they come from one who is above them, they make 
no display of circumstance. Truly, all those who 
employ great power not in superciliousness but in 
kindness, are regarded as especially worthy of the 
blessings that have been bestowed upon them by 
Fortune, and they alone deserve to escape envy. 
Nobody will envy the man above him if he sees him 
behaving with moderation amid his successes and 
not, like Homer’s Áte,? treading on the heads of 
1 See page 275. 

2 Iliad, 19, 91-94. 




κὀτα καὶ Τὸ ὑποδεέστερον πατοῦντα' ὅπερ οἱ 
ταπεινοὶ τὰς γνώμας πάσχουσιν ἀπειροκαλίᾳ τῆς 
ψυχῆς' 1 ἐπειδὰν γὰρ αὐτοὺς ἡ τύχη μηδὲν τοιοῦ- 
τον ἐλπίσαντας ἄφνω ἀναβιβάσῃ εἰς πτηνόν τι 
καὶ μετάρσιον ὄχημα, οὐ μένουσιν ἐπὶ τῶν 
ὑπαρχόντων οὐδ᾽ ἀφορῶσιν κάτω, ἀλλὰ ἀεὶ 
πρὸς τὸ ἄναντες βιάζονται. τοιγαροῦν ὥσπερ ὁ 
Ἴκαρος, τακέντος αὐτοῖς τάχιστα τοῦ κηροῦ καὶ 
τῶν πτερῶν περιρρυέντων, γέλωτα ὀφλισκάνουσιν 
ἐπὶ κεφαλὴν εἰς πελάγη καὶ κλύδωνα ἐμπίπτον- 
τες" ὅσοι δὲ κατὰ τὸν Δαίδαλον ἐχρήσαντο τοῖς 
πτεροῖς καὶ μη πάνυ ἐπήρθησαν, εἰδότες ὅ ὅτι ἐκ 
κηροῦ ἦν αὐτοῖς πεποιημένα, ἐταμιεύσαντο δὲ 
πρὸς τὸ ἀνθρώπινον τὴν φορὰν καὶ ἠγάπησαν 
ὑψ-ηλότεροι μόνον τῶν κυμάτων ἐνεχθέντες, ὦ ὥστε 
μέντοι νοτίξεσθαι αὐτοῖς ἀεὶ τὰ πτερὰ καὶ μὴ 
παρέχειν αὐτὰ μόνῳ τῷ ἡλίῳ, οὗτοι δὲ ἀσφαλῶς 
τε ἅμα καὶ σωφρόνως διέπτησαν: ὅπερ καὶ ταύ- 
την ἄν τις μάλιστα ἐπαινέσειε. τοιγαροῦν καὶ 
ἄξιον παρὰ πάντων ἀπολαμβάνει τὸν καρπόν, 
εὐχομένων ταῦτά τε αὐτῇ παραμεῖναι τὰ πτερὰ 
καὶ ἔτι πλείω ἐπιρρεῖν τἀγαθά. 

Καὶ οὕτως, ὦ Πολύστρατε, γιγνέσθω: ἀξία 
M > \ ^ A e € try / M 
yap ov TO σῶμα μόνον ὥσπερ ἡ Ἠλένη καλὴ 
οὖσα, καλλίω δὲ καὶ ἐρασμιωτέραν ὃ ὑπ αὐτῷ 
τὴν γγυχὴν σκέπουσα. ἔπρεπε δὲ καὶ βασιλεῖ 
τῷ μεγάλῳ χρηστῷ καὶ ἡμέρῳ ὄντι καὶ τοῦτο 
μετὰ τῶν ἄλλων ἀγαθῶν, ὁπόσα ἐστὶν αὐτῷ, 

1 ψυχῆς Seager: τύχης MSS. 
2 ἔτι Lehmann: ἐπὶ MSS. 



men and crushing whatever is feebler. That is the 
way in which the low-minded are affected because 
of their vulgarity of soul. When, without their 
expecting anything of the sort, Fortune suddenly 
sets them in a winged, aerial car, they do not bide 
contentedly where they are, and do not look beneath 
them, but force themselves ever upwards. There- 
fore, as in the case of Icarus, their wax quickly 
melts, their wings moult, and they bring ridicule 
upon themselves by falling head-first into deep waters 
and breaking seas. But those who pattern after 
Daedalus in the use of their wings and do not rise 
too high, knowing that their pinions were made of 
wax, but stint their flight as mere mortals should 
and are content to be carried above, but only just 
above, the waves, so that they keep their wings always 
wet and avoid exposing them to sheer sunshine— 
they wing their passage at once safely and discreetly. 
This is what might be most praised in her. Con- 
sequently she gets from all the return that she 
deserves; for all pray that these wings may abide 
with her and that blessings may accrue to her in 
still greater fulness. 

So be it, Polystratus. She deserves it, because it 
is not in body alone, like Helen, that she is fair, but 
the soul that she harbours therein is still more fair 
and lovely. It was in keeping, too, that our 
Emperor, kindly and gentle as he is, along with 
all the other blessings that he enjoys, should be so 

Ὁ καλλίων and ἐρασμιωτέρα MSS., corrected by du Soul. 
! αὐτῷ vulg.: αὐτῶν MSS. 



εὐδαιμονῆσαι, ὡς ἐπ᾽ αὐτοῦ καὶ φῦναι γυναῖκα 
τοιαύτην καὶ συνοῦσαν αὐτῷ ποθεῖν αὐτόν" ov 
γὰρ μικρὸν τοῦτο εὐδαιμόνημα, γυνὴ περὶ ἧς ἄν 
τις εὐλόγως τὸ Ὁμηρικὸν ἐκεῖνο εἴποι, χρυσείη 
μὲν αὐτὴν ᾿Αφροδίτῃ ἐρίξειν τὸ κάλλος, ἔργα δὲ 
αὐτῇ ᾿Αθηναίῃ ἰσοφαρίζειν. γυναικῶν γὰρ συνό- 
λως οὐκ ἄν τις παραβληθείη αὐτῆ “ov δέμας 
οὐδὲ φυήν,᾽ φησὶν “Όμηρος, “οὔτ᾽ ἂρ φρένας 
οὔτε τι ἔργα. 


23 ᾿Αληθῆ φής, ὦ Λυκῖνε: ὥστε εἰ δοκεῖ, ἀναμί- 
Eaves ἤδη τὰς εἰκόνας, ἣν τε σὺ ἀνέπλασας τὴν 
τοῦ σώματος καὶ ἃς ἐγὼ τῆς ψυχῆς ἐγραψάμην, 
μίαν ἐξ ἁπασῶν συνθέντες εἰς; βιβλίον κατα- 
θέμενοι παρέχωμεν ἅπασι θαυμάξειν τοῖς τε νῦν 
οὖσι καὶ τοῖς ἐν ὑστέρῳ ἐσομένοις. μονιμωτέρα 
γοῦν τῶν ᾿Απελλοῦ καὶ Παρρασίου καὶ Hov- 
γνώτου γένοιτ᾽ ἄν, καὶ αὐτῇ ἐκεινῇ παρὰ πολὺ 
τῶν τοιούτων κεχαρισμένη, ὅσῳ μὴ ξύλου καὶ 
κηροῦ καὶ χρωμάτων πεποίηται, ἀλλὰ ταῖς παρὰ 
Μουσῶν ἐπιπνοίαις * εἴκασται, ἧπερ ἀκριβεστάτη 
εἰκὼν γένοιτ᾽ ἂν σώματος κάλλος καὶ ψυχῆς 
ἀρετὴν ἅμα ἐμφανίξουσα. 

1 εἰς Halm: not in MSS. 
2 ἐπιπνοίαις Jacobs: ἐπινοίαις MSS, 



favoured by Fortune as to have such a woman born 
in his time and consort with him and love him. For 
that is no trivial favour of Fortune—a woman about 
whom one can quote with propriety the saying of 
Homer, that she vies with golden Aphrodite in 
beauty and equals Athena herself in accomplish- 
ments! Among mortal women there is none to 
compare with her, “neither in stature nor mould”’ 
(as Homer says), “nor in mind nor in aught that 
she doeth.” 3 


You are right, Lycinus. So, if you are willing, 
let us put our portraits together, the statue that 
you modelled of her body and the pictures that I 
painted of her soul; let us blend them all into one, 
put it down in a book, and give it to all mankind to 
admire, not only to those now alive, but to those 
that shall live hereafter. It would at least prove 
more enduring than the works of Apelles and 
Parrhasius and Polygnotus, and far more pleasing 
to the lady herself than anything of that kind, 
inasmuch as it is not made of wood and wax and 
colours but portrayed with inspirations from the 
Muses; and this will be found the most accurate 
kind of portrait, since it simultaneously discloses 
beauty of body and nobility of soul. 

1 Iliad 9, 389-90. 2 Iliad 1, 115. 



Panthea justifies Lucian’s commendation of her modesty 
by finding his praises too high for her and sending the piece 
back to be revised. Lucian could not comply if he would, 
for it is already in circulation; so he defends it, and incident- 
ally takes occasion to pay her still higher tribute. i 

That Panthea really did object may be taken as certain. 
If she had not done so, to say that she had, and to compli- 
ment her upon it, would have becn an unpardonable affront. 

Nothing could be neater than the casual way in which he 
alludes to the essential fact that the dialogue is already out 
(c. 14), and hints that the only alternative to a defence of it 
is a public recantation (c. 15). 





«Εγώ σοι, ὦ Λυκῖνε," φησὶν ἡ γυνή," τὰ μὲν 
ἄλλα πολλὴν ἐνεῖδον τὴν εὔνοιαν πρὸς ἐμὲ καὶ 
τιμὴν ἐκ τοῦ συγγράμματος: οὐ γὰρ ἂν οὕτως 
ὑπερεπῇνει τις, εἰ μὴ καὶ μετ᾽ εὐνοίας avvéypade.! 
τὸ δὲ ἐμὸν ὡς ἂν εἰδῇς, τοιόνδε ἐστίν. οὐδὲ. 
ἄλλως μὲν χαίρω τοῖς κολακικοῖς τὸν τρόπον, 
ἀλλά μοι δοκοῦσιν οἱ τοιοῦτοι γόητες εἶναι καὶ 
ἥκιστα ἐλεύθεροι τὴν φύσιν" ἐν δὲ τοῖς ἐπαίνοις 
μάλιστα, ὅταν τις ἐπαινῇ µε φορτικὰς καὶ ὑπερ- 
µέτρους ποιούμενος τὰς ὑπερβολάς, ἐρυθριῶ τε 
καὶ ὀλίγου δεῖν ἐπιφράττομαι | τὰ ὦτα καὶ τὸ 
πρᾶγμα χλεύῃ μᾶλλον Ù ἐπαίνῳ ἐοικέναι μοι 

2 δοκεῖ. μέχρι γὰρ τοῦδε οἱ ἔπαινοι ἀνεκτοί εἰσιν 

εἰς ὅσον ἂν ὁ ἐπαινούμενος γνωρίζῃ ἕκαστον τῶν 
λεγομένων προσὸν ἑαυτῷ' τὸ δὲ ὑπὲρ τοῦτο 
ἀλλότριον ἤδη καὶ κολακεία σαφής. 

i Kaitou πολλούς,” ἔφη, “οἶδα χαίροντας, εἴ 
τις αὐτοὺς ἐπαινῶν καὶ ἃ μὴ ἔχουσιν προσάπτοι 
τῷ λόγῳ, οἷον εἰ γέροντας ὄντας εὐδαιμονίξοι 
τῆς ἀκμῆς 7) ἀμόρφοις οὖσι τὸ Νιρέως κάλλος 
7 TÓ Φάωνος περιθείη' οἴονται yap. ὑπὸ τῶν 
ἐπαίνων ἀλλαγήσεσθαι σφίσι καὶ τὰς μορφὰς 

Available in photographs: T, N. 

1 συνέγραφε vulg. : συνεγράφετο MSS. 



Tuis is the lady's reply: “ Lycinus, I have dis- 
cerned, to be sure, from what you have written that 
your friendliness and esteem for me is great, for 
nobody would bestow such high praise if he were 
not writing in a friendly spirit. But my own atti- 
tude, please understand, is this. In general, I do 
not care for people whose disposition inclines to 
flattery, but consider such persons deceivers and not 
at all generous in their natures. Above all, in the 
matter of compliments, when anyone in praising me 
employs vulgar and immoderate extravagances I 
blush and almost stop my ears, and the thing seems 
to me more like abuse than praise. For praise is 
endurable only as long as the person who is being 
praised recognizes that everything which is said is 
appropriate to him. Whatever goes beyond that 
is alien, and outright flattery. 

* Yet," said she, *I know many who like it if, in 
praising them, one bestows upon them qualities 
which they do not possess; for example, if they are 
old, congratulates them upon their youthfulness, or 
if they are ugly, clothes them in the beauty of a 
Nireus or a Phaon. They think that their appear- 
ance will be transformed by these compliments, and 




καὶ αὐτοὶ ἀνηβήσειν αὖθις, ὥσπερ ὁ Πελίας 
gero. TÓ δὲ οὐχ οὕτως ἔχει" πολλοῦ γὰρ ἂν 
ὁ ἔπαινος ἣν τίμιος, εἴ τι καὶ ἔργον αὐτοῦ ἀπο- 
λαῦσαι δυνατὸν ἣν ἐκ τῆς τοιαύτης ὑπερβολῆς. 
νῦν δὲ ὅμοιόν μοι δοκοῦσιν,᾽ ἔφη, “πάσχειν, 
ὥσπερ ἂν εἴ τινι ἀμόρφῳ προσωπεῖον εὔμορφον 
ἐπιθείη τις φέρων, ὁ δὲ μέγα ἐπὶ τῷ κάλλει 
φρονοίη, καὶ ταῦτα περιαιρετῷ ὄντι καὶ ὑπὸ τοῦ 
τυχόντος συντριβῆναι δυναμένῳ, ὅτε καὶ Ὑελοιό- 
τερος ἂν γένοιτο αὐτοπρόσωπος φανείς, οἷος ὢν 
ὑφ olw κέκρυπτο: ἢ καὶ νὴ AC εἴ τις ὑπο- 
δησάμενος κοθόρνους μικρὸς αὐτὸς ὢν ἐρίξοι περὶ 
μεγέθους τοῖς ἀπὸ τοῦ ἰσοπέδου ὅλῳ πήχει 

"ὐμέμνητο γὰρ καὶ τοιούτου τινός. ἔφη γυναῖκά 
τινα τῶν ἐπιφανῶν τὰ μὲν ἄλλα καλὴν καὶ 
κόσμιον, μικρὰν δὲ καὶ πολὺ τοῦ συμμέτρου 
ἀποδέουσαν, ἐπαινεῖσθαι πρός τινος ποιητοῦ ἐν 
ἄσματι Td TE ἄλλα καὶ ὅτι καλή. τε καὶ μεγάλη 
ἦν: αἰγείρῳ δ᾽ αὐτῆς εἴκαξεν ἐκεῖνος τὸ εὔμηκές 
τε καὶ ὄρθιον. τὴν μὲν δὴ γάνυσθαι τῷ ἐπαίνῳ 
καθάπερ αὐξανομένην πρὸς τὸ μέλος καὶ τὴν 
χεῖρα ἐπισείειν, τὸν ποιητὴν δὲ πολλάκις τὸ αὐτὸ 
ἄδειν ὁρῶντα ὡς ἤδοιτο ἐπαινουμένη, ἄχρι δὴ 
τῶν παρόντων τινὰ προσκύψαντα πρὸς τὸ οὓς 
εἰπεῖν αὐτῷ, st Πέπαυσο, ὦ οὗτος, μὴ καὶ ava- 
στῆναι ποιήσῃς τὴν γυναῖκα." 

Παραπλήσιον δὲ καὶ μακρῷ τούτου γελοιότερον 

1 Lifting and slightly agitating the hand is mentioned in 
the Double Indictment 28 (iii, p. 139) as one of the milder 
forms of applause. Standing up (see below) was the most 
emphatic form. 



that they will regain their youth afresh, as Pelias 
thought to do. That, however, is not the case. 
Praise would be highly valuable if it were possible 
to derive any actual profit from it through such 
extravagant employment. But as it is, those people 
in my opinion are in the same case that an ugly 
man would be in if someone should officiously put a 
handsome mask upon him and he were to pride 
himself greatly npon his beauty, regardless of the 
faet that it was detachable and could be destroyed 
by the first comer, in which event he would look 
still more ridiculous when he stood revealed in 
his own proper features and showed what ugliness 
had been hidden behind that lovely mask. Or it 
would be as if someone who was small should put on 
the buskins of an actor and try to compete in height 
with those who, on an even footing, overtop him by 
a full cubit.” 

She mentioned an instance in point. She said 
that a woman of conspicuous position, who was 
pretty and attractive in every other way, but small, 
and far beneath the well-proportioned height, was 
being lauded in song by a certain poet, not only 
on all other grounds, but because she was fair 
and tall; he likened her to a black poplar for 
goodly stature and straightness! Well, she was 
delighted with the compliment, just as if she were 
going to grow to match the sony, and lifted her 
hand in approval! So the poet gave many encores, 
seeing that she liked to be praised, until at last one 
of the company leaned over to his ear and said: 
* Have done with it, man—you might make her 
stand up!" 

Something similar and much more comical was 



Στρατονίκην ποιῆσαι τὴν Σελεύκου γυναῖκα. 
τοῖς γὰρ ποιηταῖς ἀγῶνα προθεῖναι αὐτὴν περὶ 
ταλάντου, ὅστις ἂν ἄμεινον ἐπαινέσαι αὐτῆς τὴν 
κόμην, καύτοι φαλακρὰ ἐτύγχανεν οὖσα καὶ οὐδὲ 
ὅσας ὀλίγας τὰς ἑαυτῆς. τρίχας ἔχουσα. καὶ 
ὅμως οὕτω διακειμένη τὴν κεφαλήν, ἁπάντων 
εἰδότων ὅτι ἐκ νόσου μακρᾶς τὸ τοιοῦτον ἐπε- 
πόνθει, ἤκουε τῶν καταράτων ποιητῶν ὑακινθίνας 
τὰς τρίχας αὐτῆς λεγόντων καὶ οὔλους τινὰς 
πλοκάμους ἀναπλεκόντων καὶ σελίνοις τοὺς μηδὲ 
ὅλως ὄντας εἰκαξόντων. 

Απάντων οὖν τῶν τοιούτων κατεγέλα τῶν 
παρεχόντων αὑτοὺς τοῖς κόλαξιν, καὶ προσετίθει 
δὲ ὅ ὅτι μὴ ἐν ἐπαίνοις μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐν γραφαῖς 
τὰ ὅμοια πολλοὶ κολακεύεσθαι TE καὶ ἐξαπα- 
τᾶσθαι θέλουσι. “ Χαίρουσι γοῦν," ἔφη, “τῶν 
γραφέων € ἐκείνοις μάλιστα, οἳ ἂν πρὸς τὸ εὐμορφό- 
τερον αὐτοὺς εἰκάσωσιν. εἶναι δέ τινας, οἳ καὶ 
προστάττουσιν τοῖς τεχνίταις ὴ ἀφελεῖν TL τῆς 
ῥινὸς 7) μελάντερα γράψασθαι τὰ ὄμματα À 6 
τι ἂν ἄλλο ἐπιθυμήσωσιν αὑτοῖς προσεῖναι, 
εἶτα λανθάνειν αὑτοὺς ἀλλοτρίας εἰκόνας στε- 
φανοῦντας καὶ οὐδὲν αὐτοῖς ἐοικυίας. 

Ταῦτα δὲ καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα ἔλεγεν, τὰ μὲν ἄλλα 
ἐπαινοῦσα τοῦ συγγράμματος, ἓν δὲ τοῦτο οὐ 
φέρουσα, ὅτι θεαῖς αὐτήν, "Hpa καὶ ᾿Αϕροδίτη, 
εἴκασας' s Ὑπὲρ ἐμὲ γάρ, φησίν, ' “μᾶλλον δὲ 
ὑπὲρ ἅπασαν τὴν ἀνθρωπίνην φύσιν τὰ τοιαῦτα. 
ἐγὼ δέ σε οὐδ᾽ ἐκεῖνα ἠξίουν, ταῖς ἡρωΐναις 
παραθεωρεῖν με Πηνελόπῃ καὶ ᾿Αρήτη καὶ Θεανοῖ, 
οὐχ ὅπως θεῶν ταῖς ἀρίσταις. καὶ γὰρ αὖ 
καὶ τόδε, πάνυ, ἔφη, “τὰ πρὸς τοὺς θεοὺς 


done, she said, by Stratonice, the wife of Seleucus, 
who set a competition for the poets, with a talent as 
the prize, to see which of them could best praise 
her hair, in spite of the fact that she was bald and 
had not even a paltry few hairs of her own. Never- 
theless, with her head in that pitiful state, when 
everybody knew that a long illness had affected her 
in that way, she listened to those rascally poets while 
they called her hair hyacinthine, and platted soft 
braids of it, and compared to wild parsley what did 
not even exist at all! 

She made fun of all such people as these, who 
surrender themselves to flatterers, and she added, 
too, that many wish to be similarly flattered and 
cozened in portraits as well as in complimentary 
speeches. “In fact," said she, “they delight most 
of all in those painters who make the prettiest 
pictures of them. And there are some who even 
direct the artists to take away a little of the nose, 
or paint the eyes blacker, or give them any other 
characteristic that they covet; and then, in their 
blissful ignorance, they hang wreaths of flowers 
upon portraits of other people, not in the least like 
themselves ! " 

That is about what she had to say; she com- 
mended most of the piece, but could not put up 
with one feature of it, that you compared her to 
goddesses, to Hera and Aphrodite. “Such praise," 
she said, *is too high for me; indeed, too high for 
human kind. For my part I did not want you to 
compare me even to those great ladies, Penelope 
and Arete and Theano, let alone the noblest of the 
goddesses. Besides, I am very superstitious and 



δεισιδαιµόνως καὶ ψοφοδεῶς ἔχω. δέδια τοίνυν 
μὴ κατὰ τὴν Κασσιέπειαν εἶναι δόξω τὸν τοιοῦτον 
ἔπαινον προσιεµένη" καίτοι Νηρηΐσιν ἐκείνη 
ἀντεξητάξετο,᾽ 'Hpav δὲ καὶ ᾿Αϕροδίτην ἔσεβεν.” 
"OSTE, ὦ Λυκῖνε, μεταγράψαι σε τὰ τοιαῦτα 
ἐκέλευσεν, η αὐτὴ μὲν μαρτύρεσθαι τὰς θεὰς ὡς 
ἀκούσης αὐτῆς γέγραφας, σὲ δὲ εἰδέναι ὅ ὅτι ἀνιάσει 
αὐτὴν τὸ βιβλίον οὕτω περινοστοῦν ὥσπερ νῦν 
σοι διάκειται, ov para εὐσεβῶς οὐδὲ ὁσίως τὰ 
πρὸς τοὺς θεούς. ἐδόκει τε ἀσέβημα ἑαυτῆς καὶ 
πλημμέλημα τοῦτο δόξειν, εἰ ὑπομένοι Tf) ἐν 
Κνίδῳ καὶ τῇ ἐν κήποις ὁμοία λέγεσθαι; καί σε 
ὑπεμίμνησκε, τών τελευταίων ἐν τῷ βιβλίῳ περὶ 
αὐτῆς εἰρημένων, ὅτι μετρίαν καὶ ἄτυφον ἔφης 
αὐτὴν οὐκ ἀνατεινομένην ὑπὲρ τὸ ἀνθρώπινον 
μέτρον, ἀλλὰ πρόσγειον τὴν πτῆσιν ποιουμένην, 
ὁ δὲ ταῦτα εἰπὼν ὑπὲρ αὐτὸν τὸν οὐρανὸν ava- 
βιβάζεις τὴν γυναῖκα, ὡς καὶ θεαῖς ἀπεικάζειν. 
᾿Ἠξίου δέ σε μηδὲ ἀξυνετωτέραν αὐτὴν Nyet- 
σθαι τοῦ ᾿Αλεξάνδρου, ὃς τοῦ ἀρχιτέκτονος 
ὑπισχνουμένου τὸν "Άθω ὅλον .μετασχηματίσειν 
καὶ μορφώσειν πρὸς αὐτόν, ὡς τὸ ὄρος ἅπαν 
εἰκόνα γενέσθαι τοῦ βασιλέως, ἔχοντα δύο πόλεις 
ἐν ταῖν χεροῖν, οὐ προσήκατο τὴν. τερατείαν τῆς 
ὑποσχέσεως, ἀλλ. ὑπὲρ αὐτὸν ἡγησάμενος τὸ 
τόλμημα ἔπαυσεν τὸν ἄνθρωπον οὐ πιθανῶς 
κολοσσοὺς ἀναπλάττοντα καὶ τὸν "Αθω κατὰ 
χώραν ἐᾶν ἐκέλευσεν μηδὲ κατασμικρύνειν ὄρος 

1 The boastful mother of Andromeda, who would have had 
to surrender her daughter to the sea-monster except fur the 
timely intervention of Perseus. 



timorous in all that concerns the gods. Conse- 
quently, I am afraid I may be thought to: resemble 
Cassiopeia! if I accept such praise as yours; and yet 
she, as a matter of fact, compared herself only to 
the Nereids and was duly reverential toward Hera 
and Aphrodite." 

In view of this, Lycinus, she said that you must 
rewrite everything of that sort, or else for her part 
she calls the goddesses to witness that you wrote it 
without her consent, and says you know that the 
book will annoy her if it circulates in the form in 
which you have now couched it, which is not at all 
reverential or pious in its allusions to the gods. 
She thought, too, that it would be considered a 
sacrilege and a sin on her own part if she should 
allow herself to be said to resemble Cnidian Aphro- 
dite, and Our Lady in the Gardens. Moreover, she 
wanted to remind you of the remark that you made 
about her at the end of the book. You said that 
she was modest and free from vanity; and that she 
did not try to soar higher than a human being should, 
but made her flight close to the earth. Yet the man 
who said that sets the woman above the very stars, 
even to the point of likening her to goddesses! 

She did not want you to think her less intelligent 
than Alexander. In his case, when the master- 
builder undertook to remodel the whole of Athos 
and shape it into his likeness, so that the entire 
mountain would become the image of the king, 
holding a city in either hand, Alexander would not 
agree to the monstrous proposal Thinking the 
project over-bold for him, he stopped the man from 
modelling colossi on a scale that transcended con- 
vincingness, bidding him to let Athos alone and not 






A ’ - ’ 
οὕτω μέγα πρὸς μικροῦ σώματος ὁμοιότητα. 
2 4 N . - ΄ 
ἐπήνει δὲ τὸν ᾿Αλέξανδρον τῆς μεγαλοψυχίας 
καὶ ἀνδριάντα μείζω τοῦτον τοῦ "Αθω ἔλεγεν 

> ^ 5 e^ "^ 
αὐτοῦ ἀνεστάναι ἐν ταῖς τῶν ἀεὶ μεμνησομένων 

/ . ^ ; ^ 
διανοίαις: οὐ γὰρ μικρᾶς εἶναι γνώμης ὑπεριδεῖν 
ti , ^ 
οὕτω παραδόξου τιμῆς. 

Καὶ ἑαυτὴν οὖν τὸ μὲν πλάσμα σου ἐπαινεῖν 

\ N A ` 
καὶ τὴν ἐπίνοιαν τῶν εἰκόνων, μὴ γνωρίζειν δὲ 

x e , \ ^ 
την ὁμοιότητα: μὴ γὰρ εἶναι τῶν τηλικούτων 
3 7 \ > 7 e . y / ^ ’ 
ἀξίαν, μηδὲ ἐγγύς, ὅτι μηδὲ ἄλλην τινά, γυναῖκά 
ο / 

γε οὖσαν: ὥστε ἀφίησί σοι ταύτην τὴν τιμὴν 
καὶ προσκυνεῖ σου τὰ ἀρχέτυπα καὶ παραδείγ- 
ματα. ov δὲ τὰ ἀνθρώπινα ταῦτα ἐπαίνει 

> / . e N ` / y M e / 
αὐτήν, μηδὲ ὑπὲρ τὸν πόδα ἔστω τὸ ὑπόδημα, 

> ^ 

‘un καὶ ἐπιστομίσῃ µε, φησίν, “ἐμπεριπατοῦσαν 

Kaxetvo δὲ εἰπεῖν σοι ἐνετείλατο. “Ακούω, 
ἔφη, 'ToXXQv λεγόντων-- εἰ δὲ ἀληθές, ὑμεῖς 

€ Y 3 3 9 ΄ 2 - "^ 
οἱ ἄνδρες ἴστε---μηδ᾽ Ὀλυμπίασιν ἐξεῖναι τοῖς 
νικῶσι μείξους τῶν σωμάτων ἀνεστάναι τοὺς 
, "^ ε 
ἀνδριάντας, ἀλλὰ ἐπιμελεῖσθαι τοὺς 'EXXavo- 
7 ο M € ΄ M 3 / 
δίκας ὅπως μηδὲ εἷς ὑπερβάληται τὴν ἀλήθειαν, 
^ / 

καὶ τὴν ἐξέτασιν τῶν ἀνδριάντων ἀκριβεστέραν 
^ ^ "^ ο 

γίγνεσθαι τῆς τῶν ἀθλητῶν ἐγκρίσεως. ὥστε 

e 35 My &€ . > ’ rA SÒ 6 3 
opa, ἔφη, “μὴ αἰτίαν λάβωμεν ψεύδεσθαι ἐν 

- / > e ^ 2 [4 e € 
τῷ μέτρῳ, κἆτα ἡμῶν ἀνατρέψωσιν οἱ EXXa- 
Lodixat τὴν εἰκόνα. 

- b 

Ταῦτα μὲν ἔλεγεν ἐκείνη. σὺ δὲ σκοπει, ὦ 

Λυκῖνε, ὅπως μετακοσμήσεις τὸ βιβλίον καὶ 

! The same story is in How to Write History, c. 19, where 
also the name of the architect is not mentioned. Plutarch 
says it was Stasicrates (Alex. 72; Moral. 335 ο). In Strabo 



to diminish so great a mountain to similarity with a 
tiny body. She praised Alexander for his greatness 
of soul, and observed that thereby he had erected a 
monument greater than Athos itself in the minds of 
those who should think of him ever and anon in 
time to come: for it took no little determination 
to contemn so marvellous an honour.! 

So it was with her, said she; while she com- 
mended your skill in modelling and the idea of the 
portraits, she did not recognize the likeness. She 
was not worthy of such compliments, not by a great 
deal, nor was any other mere woman. Therefore she 
absolves you fiom honouring her thus, and pays her 
homage to your patterns and models. You may 
praise her in the ordinary, human way, but do not 
let the sandal be too large for her foot; “it might 
hamper me,” she said, “ when I walk about in it." 

Furthermore, she enjoined it upon me to tell you 
this. “1 hear many say (whether it is true or not, 
you men know)? that even at the Olympic games 
the victors are not allowed to set up statues greater 
than life-size, but the Hellanodicae take care that 
not one of them shall exceed the truth, and the 
scrutiny of the statues is more strict than the exam- 
ination of the athletes. So be on your guard for 
fear we incur the imputation of falsifying in the 
matter of height, and then the Hellanodicae over- 
turn our statue." 

That is what she said; and now it is for you, 
Lycinus, to see how you can refurbish the book 

14, p. 641, Cheirocrates seems to underlie the various read- 
ings. Vitruvius (ii, praef.) tells the tale quite differently 
^nd makes Dinocrates the hero of it. 

* Women did not attend the Olympic games. 



ἀφαιρήσεις τὰ τοιαῦτα, μηδὲ σφαλῆς πρὸς τὸ 
θεῖον'. ὡς ἐκείνη πάνυ γε αὐτὰ ἐδυσχέραινεν 
καὶ ὑπέφριττεν μεταξὺ ἀναγιγνωσκομένων καὶ 
παρῃτεῖτο τὰς θεὰς ἵλεως εἶναι αὐτῇ. καὶ 
συγγνώμη, εὐ γυναικεῖόν TL ἔπαθεν. καύτοι εἰ χρὴ 
τἀληθὲς εἰπεῖν, καὶ αὐτῷ ἐμοὶ τοιοῦτόν τι ἔδοξε." 
τὸ μὲν γὰρ πρῶτον ἀκούων οὐδὲν πλημμέλημα 
ἐνεώρων " τοῖς γεγραμμένοις, ἐπεὶ δὲ ἐκείνη ἐπε- 
σημήνατο, καὶ αὐτὸς ἄρχομαι. τὰ ὅμοια γιγνώσκειν 
περὶ αὐτῶν, καὶ παραπλήσιόν τι ἔπαθον οἷς ἐπὶ 
τῶν ὁρωμένων πάσχομεν: ἦν μὲν πάνυ ἐγγύθεν 
σκοπῶμέν τι καὶ ὑπὸ τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν αὐτῶν, 
οὐδὲν ἀκριβὲς διαγιγνώσκομεν, ἦν δὲ ἀποστάντες 
ἐκ τοῦ συμμέτρου διαστήματος ἴδωμεν, ἅπαντα 
σαφῶς καταφαίνεται, τὰ ev καὶ τὰ μὴ οὕτως 

18 Τὸ δὴ ἄνθρωπον | οὖσαν. ᾿Αφροδίτῃ καὶ "Ηρᾳ 
εἰκάσαι τί ἄλλο ἢ ἄντικρύς ἐστιν εὐτελίξειν τὰς 
θεάς ; ἐν γὰρ τοῖς τοιούτοις οὐχ οὕτω τὸ μικρὸν 
μεῖζον γίγνεται τῇ παραθέσει, ὡς τὸ μεῖξον ἀπο- 
μικρύνεται πρὸς τὸ ταπεινότερον κατασπώμενον: 
οἷον εἶ τινες ἅμα βαδίζοιεν, ὁ μὲν μέγιστος, ὁ 
δὲ πάνυ τῇ ἡλικίᾳ χαμαίξηλος, εἶτα δεήσειεν 
ἀπισῶσαι αὐτοὺς ὡς μὴ ὑπερέχειν θατέρου τὸν 
ἕτερον, οὐ τοῦ, βραχυτέρου ὑπερανατεινομένου 
τοῦτο γένοιτ᾽ ἄν, κἂν ὅτι μάλιστα ἀκροποδητὶ 
ἐπεγείρη ἑαυτόν: ἀλλ᾽ εἰ μέλλουσιν ὁμήλικες 
φανεῖσθαι, ὁ μείξων ἐκεῖνος ἐπικύψει καὶ ταπει- 
νότερον ἀποφανεῖ ἑαυτόν. ὡσαύτως δὲ καὶ ἐν 
ταῖς τοιαύταις εἰκόσιν οὐχ οὕτως ἄνθρωπος 

1 ἔδοξε Seager: εἰπεῖν ἔδοξε MSS. 


and do away with everything of that sort; do not 
offend against Heaven! Really, she took it very 
ill, shuddered as it was read, and besought the 
goddesses to be merciful to her. It is excusable, 
too, that she should feel as a woman naturally 
would. Indeed, if the truth must out, I myself 
had somewhat the same opinion. To be sure, when 
I heard it first I did not see a single fault in what 
you had written, but now that she has pointed them 
out, I myself begin to think as she does about it. 
My experience in this matter has been just about 
like that of us all when we look at things. If we 
see them too close, under our very eyes, we can 
distinguish nothing accurately, but if we stand off 
and look at them from the right distance, all the 
points come out clearly, those that are good and 
also those that are not. 

Truly, to liken a female human being to Aphro- 
dite and to Hera, what else is it but outright 
cheapening of the goddesses? In such matters the 
less is not made greater by the comparison, but 
rather the greater is lessened by being dragged 
down to the lower level. If two people were walk- 
ing together, one of whom was very tall and the 
other quite humble in stature, and it should be 
needful to equalize them so that the one would not 
tower above the other, this could not be accomplished 
by the shorter through stretching himself, however 
much he were to raise himself on tiptoe. No, if 
they are to look alike in size, the latter will stoop 
and make himself appear shorter. Just so in such 
comparisons; it is not so true that a man becomes 

— — — 

? Text Guyet: ἐπλημμέλησα ἐνορῶν MSS. 


μείξων γίγνεται, ἤν τις αὐτὸν Θεῷ ἀπεικάζῃ, ὡς 
τὸ θεῖον ἀνάγκη. ἐλαττοῦσθαι πρὸς τὸ ἐνδέον 
ἐπικλώμενον. καὶ γὰρ εἰ μὲν ὑπὸ ἀπορίας τῶν 
ἐπιγείων ἐπὶ τὰ οὐράνια ἐκτείνοι τις τὸν λόγον, 
ἧττον ἂν ὁ τοιοῦτος αἰτίαν ἔχοι ὑπὸ ἀσεβείας 
αὐτὸ δρᾶν: σὺ δὲ τοσαῦτα ἔχων κάλλη γυναικῶν 
᾿Αφροδίτῃ καὶ "Hpa εἰκάσαι αὐτὴν ἐτόλμησας 
οὐδὲν δέον. 

14 “Qore τὸ ἄγαν τοῦτο καὶ ἐπίφθονον ἀφαίρει, 
@ Λυκῖνε. οὐ γὰρ πρὸς τοῦ σοῦ τρόπου τὸ 
τοιοῦτον, ὃς οὐδὲ ἄλλως ῥᾷδιος πρὸς τοὺς ἐπαί- 
νους καὶ πρόχειρος ὢν ἐτύγχανες' ἀλλὰ νῦν οὐκ 
oió ὅπως ἀθρόαν πεποίησαι τὴν μεταβολὴν 
ἐπιδαψιλευόμενος καὶ ἐκ τοῦ τέως φειδομένου 
ἄσωτος ἐν τοῖς ἐπαίνοις ἀναπέφηνας. ἀλλὰ μηδὲ 
ἐκεῖνο αἰσχυνθῇς, εἰ μεταρρυθμιεῖς τὸν λόγον 
ἤδη διαδεδομένον' ἐπεὶ καὶ Φειδίαν φασὶν οὕτω 
ποιῆσαι, ὁπότε ἐξειργάσατο τοῖς ᾿Ηλείοις τὸν 
Δία. στάντα γὰρ αὐτὸν κατόπιν τῶν θυρῶν, 
ὁπότε τὸ πρῶτον ἀναπετάσας ἐπεδείκνυεν τὸ 
ἔργον, ἐπακούειν τῶν αἰτιωμένων τι ἢ ἐπαι- 
νούντων" ἡτιᾶτο δὲ ὁ μὲν τὴν ῥῖνα ὡς παχεῖαν, 
ὁ δὲ ὡς ἐπιμηκέστερον τὸ πρόσωπον, ὁ 0 δὲ ἄλλος 
ἄλλο τι. εἶτ ἐπειδὴ ἀπηλλάγησαν οἱ θεαταί, 
αὖθις τὸν Φειδίαν ἐγκλεισάμενον ἑαυτὸν ἐπα- 
νορθοῦν καὶ ῥυθμίξειν τὸ ἄγαλμα πρὸς τὸ τοῖς 
πλείστοις δοκοῦν: οὐ γὰρ ἡγεῖτο μικρὰν εἶναι 
συμβουλὴν δήμου τοσούτου, ἀλλ. ἀεὶ ἀναγκαῖον 
ὑπάρχειν 1 τοὺς πολλοὺς περιττότερον ὁρᾶν τοῦ 
ἑνός, κἂν Φειδίας 7.” 

1 ὑπάρχειν vulg.: ὑπάρχει MSS. 
24 Jacobs: ἦν MSS. 




greater if he is likened to a god, as that the divine 
is inevitably minimized by being forced down to 
match what is defective. If it were for lack of 
earthly objects of comparison that one let one’s 
speech range to those in Heaven, one would be less 
open to the charge of acting impiously therein. 
But in your case, though you had so many examples 
of fair women at command, you made bold to liken 
her to Aphrodite and Hera without any need. 

Do away, then, with all this that is excessive and 
invidious, Lycinus—that sort of thing is not in 
keeping with your character, for you have not as a 
rule been ready and quick to praise. Now, how- 
ever, you have somehow changed all at once and 
are lavish with it; you who were so niggardly before 
have become a spendthrift in compliments! Do not 
be ashamed, either, to reshape the essay after it has 
been put into circulation. Even Phidias, they say, 
did that when he made the Zeus for the people of 
Elis!! He stood behind the door when he first 
unveiled and exhibited his work, and listened to 
those who criticized or commended any part. One 
would criticize the nose as too thick, another the 
face as too long, and so it went. Then, when the 
spectators had left, Phidias locked himself up once 
more, and corrected and reshaped the statue to suit 
the opinion of the majority; for he did not think 
that the advice of so many folk was trivial, but that 
always of necessity the many could see better than 
the one, even if that one were Phidias.? 

1 The chryselephantine statue at Olympia. 

3 The story, which is patently apocryphal, occurs nowhere 
else. Lucian may have heard it from a guide at Olympia. 
For a similar story regarding Apelles, see Pliny, Nat. Hist. 
35, 84-85. 




^ / 3 / / 
Ταῦτά σοι παρ ἐκείνης κομίξω καὶ αὐτὸς 
^ ^ ^; M 
παραινῶ ἑταῖρός τε καὶ εὔνους ov. 


᾿Ἠολύστρατε, οἷος ὢν ῥήτωρ ἐλελήθεις με. 
ῥῆσιν Jour οὕτω μακρὰν. καὶ κατηγορίαν το- 
σαύτην ἳ ἐξενήνοχας κατὰ τοῦ συγγράμματος, 
ὥστε μηδὲ ἐλπίδα μοι ἀπολογίας ἔτι κατα- 
λείπεσθαι. πλὴν ἀλλὰ ἐκεῖνό ye οὐ δικαστικὲν 
ἐποιήσατε, καὶ μάλιστα σύ, ἐρήμην καταδιαιτήσας 
τοῦ βιβλίου μὴ παρόντος αὐτῷ τοῦ συνηγόρου. 
ῥᾷστον δέ, οἶμαι, τοῦτό ἐστιν κατὰ τὴν παροι- 
μίαν, μόνον θέοντα κρατεῖν. ὥστε οὐδὲν Üav- 
μαστόν, εἰ καὶ ἡμεῖς ἑάλωμεν οὔτε ὕδατος ἡμῖν 
ἐκχυθέντος οὔτε ἀπολογίας ἀποδοθείσης. μᾶλλον 
δὲ τοῦτο πάντων ἀτοπώτατον, οἱ αὐτοὶ κατήγοροι 
καὶ δικασταὶ ἦτε. 

Πότερα ὃ οὖν ἐθέλεις; ἀγαπήσας τοῖς ἐγνω- 
σμένοις ἡσυχίαν ἄγω, ἢ κατὰ τὸν Ἱμεραῖον 
ποιητὴν παλινῳδίαν τινὰ συγγράφω, ἢ δώσετέ 
μοι ἐφέσιμον ἀγωνίσασθαι τὴν δίκην ; 

Νὴ AC, ἤνπερ ἔχῃς TL δίκαιον εἰπεῖν οὐ γὰρ 
ἐν ἀντιδίκοις, ὡς σὺ φής, ἀλλ) ἐν φίλοις ποιήσῃ 
τὴν ἀπολογίαν. ἐγὼ δὲ καὶ συνεξετάξεσθαί σοι 
ἕτοιμος ἐπὶ τῆς δίκης. 

1 τοσαύτην vulg.: ταύτην MSS. 

1 Stesichorus, who after having maligned Helen, recanted 
in a palinode (the first), saying that Helen never went to 



That is what she told me to tell you, and what I 
myself recommend as your friend and well-wisher. 


Polystratus, what an orator you have been all 
along without my knowing it! You have delivered 
such a long speech and such a weighty indictment 
of my essay that you have not left me even a hope 
of defence now. But see here! you have not dealt 
fairly, the two of you, and especially you, in that 
you have condemned the book without a hearing, 
since its counsel was not in court. It is easy, I 
take it, to win if you run alone, as the saying goes. 
So it is no wonder that 1 was defeated when no 
water was measured out for me and no chance to 
defend myself offered. Indeed—and this is the 
most extraordinary part of it all—you were judges 
as well as plaintiffs ! 

Well, what is your. wish? Shall I rest content 
with the decision and hold my peace? Or, like the 
poet of Himera,! shall I compose a palinode? Or 
will you give me an opportunity to plead my case on 

Yes, indeed, if you have any just plea to offer ; 
for it is not among opponents in court, as you say, 
but among friends that you will make your defence. 
For my part, I am even ready to associate myself 
with you as joint defendant in the case. 

Troy: it was but & wraith! Fable said that he recanted 
because Helen had struck him blind, and that afterwards he 
recovered his eyesight. 





᾿Αλλὰ ἐκεῖνο ἀνιαρόν, ὦ Πολύστρατε, 6 OTL μὴ 
ἐκείνης παρούσης ποιήσομαι τοὺς λόγους: μακρῷ 
γὰρ ἂν οὕτως ἄμεινον ἦν. νῦν δὲ ἀνάγκη ἀπ᾽ 
ἐντολῆς ἀπολογήσασθαι. ἀλλ᾽ εἴ μοι τοιοῦτος 
ἀγγελιαφόρος γένοιο πρὸς αὐτὴν οἷος παρ᾽ ἐκείνης 
πρὸς μὲ γεγένησαι, τολμήσω ἀναρρῖψαι τὸν 


Θάρρει, ὦ Λυκῖνε, τούτου γε ἕνεκα, ὡς Ov 
φαῦλόν pe ὑποκριτὴν ἕξων τῆς ἀπολογίας, πει- 
ρώμενος διὰ βραχέων εἰπεῖν, ὡς ἂν μᾶλλον 

Καὶ μὴν πάνυ μὲν ἔδει μοι μακρῶν τῶν λόγων 
πρὸς οὕτω σφοδρὰν τὴν κατηγορίαν. ὅμως δὲ 
σοῦ ἕνεκα ἐπιτεμοῦμαι τὴν ἀπολογίαν. καὶ παρ᾽ 
ἐμοῦ τοίνυν τάδε αὐτῇ ἀπάγγελλε. 


Μηδαμῶς, ἆ ὧ Λυκῖνε, ἀλλ. ὥσπερ αὐτῆς ἐκείνης 
παρούσης λέγε τὸν λόγον, εἶτ᾽ ἐγὼ μιμήσομαί σε 
πρὸς αὐτήν. 


Οὐκοῦν ἐπειδήπερ οὕτω σοι δοκεῖ, ὦ Πολύ- 
στρατε, 7 μὲν πάρεστι καὶ προείρηκε δηλαδὴ 
ἐκεῖνα ὁπόσα σὺ παρ᾽ αὐτῆς ἀπήγγειλας, ἡμᾶς δὲ 
χρὴ τῶν δευτέρων λόγων ἐνάρχεσθαι. καίτοι--- 
οὐ γὰρ ὀκνήσω πρὸς σὲ εἰπεῖν ὃ πέπονθα-- οὐκ 

The phrase ax’ ἐντολῆς means “by direction." Strictly 
speaking, it is appropriate only to the action of an agent, 




But it is annoying, Polystratus, that she will not 
be present when I make my speech. It would be 
far better if she were. As it stands, I must plead 
by proxy.! But if you are going to be as faithful in 
carrying my message to her as you have been in 
carrying hers to me, I shall make bold to cast 
the die. 


Never fear, Lycinus, as far as that goes! I shan't 
be at all bad, you will find, at delivering your plea, 
if only you try to speak briefly, so that I may be 
better able to fix it all in memory. 


But I really needed to speak at length in answer- 
ing so forcible an accusation. Nevertheless, for 
your sake I shall cut my plea short. Take, then, 
this message from me to her— 


No, no, Lycinus! Make your speech just as if 
she herself were present, and then I will do her an 
imitation of you. 


Well then, since that is the way you want it, 
Polystratus, she is here and as the first speaker, 
of course, has said all that you reported as her 
messenger; and now it is for me to begin my 
answer. However—for I shall not hesitate to tell 
you the state of my feelings—somehow or other 
but bere it is trausferred to that of the principal. Compare 

Aristides, vol. ii, p. 224-5 Dindorf, τὰ δὲ πλεῖστα ἐξ ἐντολῆς 
τῷ βασιλεῖ κατειργά(ετο. 




οἶδ᾽ ὅπως φοβερώτερόν μοι τὸ πρᾶγμα πεποίηκας, 
καὶ ὡς ὁρᾷς ἱδρῶ τε ἤδη καὶ δέδοικα καὶ μονονουχὶ 
καὶ ὁρᾶν αὐτὴν οἴομαι, καὶ τὸ πρᾶγμα πολλήν 
μοι τὴν ταραχὴν ἐμπεποίηκεν. ἄρξομαι Ò ὅμως: 
οὐ γὰρ οἷόν τε ἀναδῦναι ἤδη παρούσης. 


Καὶ νὴ Aia πολλὴν τὴν εὐμένειαν ἐπιφαίνει 
τῷ προσώπῳ: φαιδρὰ γὰρ ὡς ὁρᾷς καὶ προσηνής. 
ὥστε θαρρῶν λέγε τὸν λόγον. 


᾿Εγώ σε, ὦ γυναικῶν ἀρίστη, μεγάλα, ὡς φής, 
καὶ πέρα τοῦ μέτρου ἐπαινέσας οὐχ ὁρῶ ὅ τι 
τηλικοῦτον ἐπῄνεσα, ἡλίκον αὐτὴ σὺ τοῦτο 
ἐγκώμιον ὑπὲρ σεαυτῆς ἐξενήνοχας τὴν πρὸς τὸ 
θεῖον τιμὴν ἐν μεγάλῳ. τιθεμένη. σχεδὸν γὰρ 
ἁπάντων τοῦτο μεῖξον ὧν εἴρηκα περὶ σοῦ, καὶ 
συγγνώμη, εἰ μη καὶ ταύτην σοι προσέγραψα 
τὴν εἰκόνα ὑπ᾽ ἀγνοίας µε διαλαθοῦσαν" ov γὰρ 
ἂν ἄλλην πρὸ αὐτῆς ἐγραψάμην. ὥστε ταύτῃ γε 
οὐχ ὅπως ὑπερβάλλεσθαι τοὺς ἐπαίνους, ἀλλὰ 
πολὺ καταδεέστερὀν μοι δοκῶ τῆς ἀξίας εἰρη- 
κέναι. σκόπει γοῦν ἡλίκον τοῦτο παρέλιπον, 
ὡς παμμέγεθες eis ἐπίδειξιν τρόπου χρηστοῦ καὶ 
γνώμης ὀρθῆς ὡς ὅσοι τὸ θεῖον μὴ ἐν παρέργῳ 
σέβουσιν, οὗτοι καὶ τὰ πρὸς ἀνθρώπους ἄριστοι 
ἂν εἶεν. ὥστε εἰ πάντως μετακοσμῆσαι δέοι τὸν 
λόγον καὶ τὸ ἄγαλμα ἐπανορθώσασθαι, ἀφελεῖν 
μὲν οὐκ ἄν τι τολμήσαιμι αὐτοῦ, προσθήσω δὲ 
καὶ τοῦτο ὥς τινα κεφαλὴν τοῦ παντὸς ἔργου καὶ 



you have made the thing more terrifying to me. 
As you see, I am even now in a sweat and a tremble 
and almost think I really see her, and the affair has 
begotten great turmoil within me. But I will begin, 
anyhow, for it isn’t possible to withdraw, with her 
already here. 

Yes, and she shows great friendliness in her ex- 
pression, for she is radiant, as you see, and gracious. 
So get on with your speech boldly. 

Noblest of women, it is true I praised you, as you 
say, highly and immoderately; but I do not see 
what commendation I bestowed as great as the 
encomium which you have pronounced upon your- 
self in extolling your reverence for the gods. 
Really, this is more than all that I said about you, 
and you must forgive me that I did not add this trait 
to your likeness; it escaped me because I did not 
know about it, for there is no other which I should 
have preferred to represent. So in that particular 
at least I not only did not go beyond bounds, it 
seems to me, with my praises, but actually said far 
less than I should. Think what an important point 
I omitted there—how very significant as evidence of 
sterling character and sound judgement! For those 
who assiduously reverence what pertains to the gods 
will surely be above reproach in their relations with 
mankind. So if the speech absolutely must be 
revised and the portrait corrected, I should not 
venture to take a single thing away from it, but 
will add this detail to cap, as it were, and crown 
the complete work. 




"Ev ἐκείνῳ] μέντοι καὶ πάνυ πολλήν σοι εἰδέναι 
τὴν χάριν. ὁμολογῶ: ἐμοῦ γὰρ ἐπαινέσαντος τὸ 
μέτριον τοῦ σοῦ τρόπου καὶ ὅτι μηδὲν ὑπερπετὲς 

μηδὲ τύφου μεστὸν ἐνεποίησέ σοι ὁ παρὼν ὄγκος 
τῶν πραγμάτων, σὺ τὰ τοιαῦτα αἰτιασαμένη τοῦ 
λόγου ἐπιστώσω τοῦ ἐπαίνου τὴν ἀλήθειαν". τὸ 
γὰρ μὴ προαρπάξειν τὰ τοιαῦτα τῶν ἐγκωμίων, 
ἀλλ) αἰδεῖσθαι ἐπ᾽ αὐτοῖς καὶ μείζω ἢ κατὰ σὲ 
εἶναι λέγειν, μετρίας καὶ δημοτικῆς τινος διανοίας 
δεῖγμά ἐστιν. πλὴν ἀλλὰ ὅσῳπερ ἂν πρὸς τὸ 
ἐπαινεῖσθαι αὐτὸ οὕτω διακειμένη τυγχάνῃς, ΤΟ- 
σούτῳ ἀξιωτέραν ὑπερεπαινεῖσθαι ἀποφαίνεις 
σεαυτήν, καὶ σχεδὸν. εἰς τὸν τοῦ Διογένους λόγον 
περιελήλυθέν σοι τὸ πρᾶγμα, ὃς ἐρομένου τινὸς 
ὅπως ἄν τις ἔν δοξος γένοιτο, «i [οὐ δόξης, ἔφη, 
" karadpovija ete," φαίην γὰρ ἂν καὶ αὐτός, 
εἴ τις ἔροιτό pe, “' Τίνες εἰσὶν μάλιστα ἐπαίνου 
ἄξιοι ; S" “Ὁπόσοι ἐπαινεῖσθαι μὴ θέλουσιν." 
᾿Αλλὰ ταῦτα μὲν ἴσως ἐξαγώνια καὶ πόρρω 
τοῦ πράγματος. ὑπὲρ δὲ οὗ χρὴ ἀπολογήσασθαι, 
τοῦτό ἐστιν, ὅτι τῇ ἐν Κνίδῳ καὶ τῇ ἐν κήποις 
καὶ "Hpa καὶ ᾿Αθηνᾷ τὴν μορφὴν ἀναπλάττων 
εἴκασα. ταῦτά σοι ἔκμετρα ἔδοξεν καὶ ὑπὲρ τὸν 
πόδα. περὶ αὐτῶν δὴ τούτων ἐρῶ. 

Καίτοι παλαιὸς οὗτος ὁ λόγος, ἀνευθύνους εἶναι 
ποιητὰς καὶ γραφέας, τοὺς δὲ ἐπαινοῦντας καὶ 
μᾶλλον, οἶμαι, εὖ κα χαμαὶ καὶ βάδην, ὥσπερ 
ἡμεῖς, ἀλλὰ μὴ ἐπὶ μέτρων φέροιντο. ἐλεύθερον 
γάρ τι ὁ ἔπαινος, οὐδ᾽ ἔστιν αὐτοῦ μέτρον εἰς 

1 ἐκείνῳ Fritzsche: ἐκείνων MSS. 



There is one thing, however, for which I admit 
that I am very grateful to you. After I had praised 
the reasonableness of your character and the fact 
that the present exalted state of your fortunes has 
not engendered in you any arrogance or pride, you 
confirmed the truth of my praise by censuring what 
you did censure in my speech, Not to catch 
greedily at such praise, but to blush for it and say 
that it is too high for you betokens a reasonable and 
unassuming disposition. But the more you manifest 
that attitude toward praise itself, the more worthy 
of extravagant praise you prove yourself! Really 
the thing, despite you, has come to a pass where 
the remark of Diogenes applies. When he was 
asked how one could become famous, he answered : 
“If he were to scorn fame!” If I myself should 
be asked: * Who are most worthy of praise?" I 
should answer: “Those who are unwilling to be 
praised ! " 

But all this, no doubt, is apart from the issue and 
has nothing to do with the case ; and the charge to 
which I must answer is that in making my sketch of 
you I likened you in beauty to Cnidian Aphrodite 
and Our Lady in the Gardens and Hera and Athena. 
That seemed to you extravagant and presumptuous. 
I shall address myself precisely to that point. 

It is an ancient saying, however, that poets and 
painters are not to be held accountable ;! still less, 
I think, eulogists, even if they fare humbly afoot 
like me, instead of being borne on the wings of 
song. For praise is an unshackled thing, and has 

i Pictoribus atque poetis 
Quidlibet audendi semper fuit aequa potestas. 

HoRACE, Ars Poet. 9 sq. 


μέγεθος ἢ βραχύτητα νενομοθετημένον, ἀλλὰ 
τοῦτο μόνον ἐξ ἅπαντος ὁρᾷ ὅπως ὑπερθαυμά- 
σεται καὶ ξηλωτὸν ἀποφανεῖ τὸν ἐπαινούμενον. 
ov un ταύτην ἐγὼ βαδιοῦμαι, μὴ καὶ σοὶ δόξω 
ὑπ᾽ ἀπορίας αὐτὸ δρᾶν. 

19 ᾿Εκεῖνο δέ ye: φημι, τοιαύτας ἡμῖν τὰς ἀφορμὰς 
τῶν ἐπαινετικῶν τούτων λόγων εἶναι,” à ὡς χρὴ τὸν 
ἐπαινοῦντα καὶ εἰκόσι καὶ ὁμοιώσεσι προσχρῆ- 
σθαι, καὶ σχεδὸν ἐ ἐν τούτῳ τὸ μέγιστόν ἐστιν εὖ 
εἰκάσαι" τὸ δὲ εὖ ὧδε μάλιστ᾽ ἂν κρίνοιτο, οὐκ 
ἤν τις τοῖς ὁμοίοις παραβάλλῃ οὐδ᾽ ἣν πρὸς τὸ 
ὑποδεέστερον ποιῆται τὴν παράθεσιν, ἀλλ. ἣν 
πρὸς τὸ ὑπερέχον ws οἷόν τε προσβιβάξη τὸ 

Οἷον εἴ τις κύνα ἐπαινῶν εἴποι ἀλώπεκος εἶναι 
μείξω αὐτὸν ἢ αἰλούρου, apa σοι δοκεῖ ὁ τοιοῦτος 
ἐπαινεῖν εἰδέναι ; ; οὐκ ἂν εἴποις. ἀλλὰ μὴν. οὐδ᾽ 
εἰ λύκῳ φαίη ἴσον αὐτὸν ὑπάρχειν, οὐδὲ οὕτως 
μεγαλωστὶ ἐπήνεσεν. ἀλλὰ ποῦ τὸ ἴδιον τοῦ 
ἐπαίνου ἀποτελεῖται; ἦν ὁ κύων τῷ λέοντι ἐοι- 
κέναι λέγηται καὶ μέγεθος καὶ ἀλκήν. ὡς ὁ τὸν 
Ὠρίωνος κύνα ἐπαινῶν ἔφη ποιητὴς λεοντοδάμαν 
αὐτόν' οὗτος γὰρ δὴ κυνὸς ἐντελὴς ἔ ἔπαινος. 

Καὶ πάλιν εἴ τις Μίλωνα τὸν ἐκ Κρότωνος 7) 
Γλαῦκον τὸν ἐκ Καρύστου ἡ Πολυδάμαντα ἐπαι- 
νέσαι θέλων ἔπειτα λέγοι ἰσχυρότερον ἕκαστον 
αὐτῶν γυναικὸς γενέσθαι, οὐκ ἂν οἴει γελασθῆναι 
αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τῇ ἀνοίᾳ τοῦ ἐπαίνου ; ὅπου γε καὶ εἰ 

1 γέ Gesner: σέ MSS., σοί vulg. 
* εἶναι ç, edd.: not in MSS. 
3 μάλιστ᾽ ἂν Jacobs: μάλιστα MSS. 



no limit, whether upper or lower, prescribed for it. 
The only object that it ever has in view is to excite 
high admiration and to make its subject enviable. 
Nevertheless, I shall not take this course, for fear 
you may think that I do so for want of a better. 

This, however, I do say; the conditions that 
govern us in these laudatory writings are such that 
the eulogist must employ comparisons and similes, 
and really the most important part of it is to make 
successful comparisons. And success would be most 
likely to be held attained, not if a man compares 
like to like, or if he makes his comparison with 
something that is inferior, but if he approximates, in 
so far as he may, what he is praising to something 
that surpasses it. 

For example, if in praising a dog someone were 
to say that it was larger than a fox or a cat, does 
it seem to you that he knows how to praise? You 
will not say so! But even if he should say it was as 
large as a wolf, he has not praised it generously. 
Well, at what point will the special end of praise 
be achieved? When the dog is said to resemble 
a lion in size and in strength. So the poet who 
praised Orion's dog! called him “lion-daunting.”’ 
That, of course, in the case of a dog is perfect 

Again, if someone who wished to praise Milo of 
Croton or Glaucus of Carystus or Polydamas ? should 
say of any one of them that he was stronger than 
a woman, do not you suppose that he would be 
laughed at for the senselessness of his praise? 

1 Pindar, frag. 74 a (Schroeder). 
? Famous boxers ; see the Index. 



ἑνὸς ἀνδρὸς ἔλεγεν ἀμείνω εἶναι αὐτόν, οὐδὲ τοῦτο 
ἀπέχρησεν ἂν εἰς ἔπαινον, ἀλλὰ πῶς ἐπήνεσε 
ποιητὴς εὐδόκιμος τὸν Γ λαῦκον, ' οὐδὲ Πολυδεύ- 
κεος Biav’ φήσας ἀνατείνασθαι ἂν αὐτῷ ἐναντίας 
τὰς χεῖρας ' οὐδὲ σιδάρεον ᾿Αλκμάνας τέκος᾽ ; 
ὁρᾷς ὁποίοις αὐτὸν θεοῖς εἴκασε" μάλλον δὲ καὶ 
αὐτῶν ἐκείνων ἀμείνω ἀπέφαινεν. καὶ οὔτε αὐτὸς 
ὁ Γλαῦκος ἠγανάκτησεν τοῖς ἐφόροις τῶν ἀθλητῶν 
θεοῖς ἀντεπαινούμενος, οὔτε ἐκεῖνοι ἠμύναντο Ù 
τὸν Ολαῦκον ἢ τὸν ποιητὴν ὡς ἀσεβοῦντα περὶ 
τὸν ἔπαινον, ἀλλὰ εὐδοκίμουν ἄμφω καὶ ἐτιμῶντο 
ὑπὸ τῶν Ἑλλήνων, ὁ μὲν ἐπὶ τῇ ἀλκῇ, ὁ Γλαῦκος, 
ὁ δὲ ποιητὴς ἐπί Τε τοῖς ἄλλοις καὶ ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ 
τούτῳ μάλιστα τῷ ἄσματι. 

Μὴ δὴ θαυμάσῃς εἰ καὶ αὐτὸς εἰκάσαι a. 
Xópevos, ὅπερ ov τῷ ἐπαινοῦντι ἀναγκαῖον, 
ὑψηλοτέρῳ ἐχρησάμην τῷ παραδείγματι, τοῦτο 
ὑποβαλόντος τοῦ λόγου. 

20 ᾿Επεὶ δὲ καὶ κολακείας ἐπεμνήσθης, ὅτι μὲν 
καὶ σὺ μισεῖς τοὺς κολακικούς, ἐπαινῶ μέν σε, 
καὶ οὐκ ἐχρῆν ἄλλως. ἐθέλω δέ σοι διακρῖναι 
καὶ διορίσαι τό τε τοῦ ἐπαινοῦντος ἔργον καὶ τὴν 
τοῦ κόλακος ὑπερβολήν. 

Ὁ μὲν οὖν κόλαξ ἅτε τῆς χρείας ἕνεκα τῆς ἑαυ- 
τοῦ ἐπαινῶν, ἀληθείας δὲ ὀλίγην ποιούμενος τὴν 
πρόνοιαν, ἅπαντα ὑπερεπαινεῖν οἴεται δεῖν, ἐπι- 
Ψευδόµενος καὶ προστιθεὶς παρ αὑτοῦ τὰ πλείω, 
ὡς μὴ ἂν ὀκνῆσαι καὶ τὸν Θερσίτην εὐμορφότερον 
ἀποφῆναι τοῦ Αχιλλέως καὶ τὸν Νέστορα φάναι 
τῶν ἐπὶ Ἴλιον στρατευσάντων τὸν νεώτατον εἶναι. 

1 Simonides: Bergk, frag. 8. 


Indeed, if it had been said that he was better than 
any single man, that would not have sufficed for 
praise. Come, how did a famous poet? praise Glaucus 
when he said : * Not even mighty Polydeuces " could 
have held up his hands against that man, “nor yet 
the iron-hard son of Alemenc !" You see what gods 
he likened him to—nay, actually avouched him 
better than those gods themselves! And it cannot 
be said either that Glaucus became indignant when 
he was praised in opposition to the gods who are 
the overseers of athletes, or that they punished 
either Glaucus or the poet as guilty of sacrilege 
in the matter of that praise. On the contrary, both 
enjoyed good fame and were honoured by the 
Greeks, Glaucus for his strength and the poet 
especially for this very song! 

Do not wonder then, that I myself, desiring to 
make comparisons, as one who sought to praise 
was bound to do, used an exalted counterfoil, since 
my theme demanded it. 

Since you mentioned flattery, let me say that | 
praise you for hating flatterers; I would not have 
it otherwise. But I wish to make a distinction and 
a difference for you between the achievement of 
one who praises, and its exaggeration on the part of 
one who flatters. 

The flatterer, since he praises for a selfish reason 
and has little regard for truth, thinks that he must 
praise everything to excess, telling falsehoods and 
contributing a great deal on his own account, so 
that he would not hesitate to declare Thersites had 
a better figure than Achilles, and that of all who 
took part in the expedition against Troy, Nestor 
was the youngest; he would take his oath upon 



διομόσαιτο δ᾽ ἂν καὶ τὸν Κροίσου υἱὸν ὀξυηκο- 
ώτερον εἶναι τοῦ Μελάμποδος καὶ τὸν Φινέα 
ὀξύτερον δεδορκέναι τοῦ Λυγκέως, ἤνπερ, τος 
κερδᾶναί. τι ἐλπίσῃ ἐπὶ τῷ ψεύσματι. ὁ δέ y 
αὐτὸ τοῦτο ἐπαινῶν οὐχ ὅπως οὐδ᾽ ἂν ψεύσαιτό 
τι À προσθείη. τῶν ox ὅλως προσόντων, τὰ ὃ 
ὑπάρχοντα αὐτῷ φύσει ἀγαθά, κἂν μὴ πάνυ 
μεγάλα 7 παραλαβὼν. ἐπηύξησε καὶ μείξω ἆ ἀπέ- 
φηνε' καὶ τολμήσειεν ἂν εἰπεῖν, ἵππον ἐ ἐπαινέσαι 
θέλων, φύσει κοῦφον ὧν ἴσμεν ζῴων καὶ δρομικόν, 

"Ακρον ἐπ’ ἀνθερίκων καρπὸν θέεν οὐδὲ κατέκλα. 

καὶ πάλιν οὐκ ἂν ὀκνήσειεν φάναι “ ἀελλοπόδων 

δρόμον ἵππων.᾽ καὶ ἦν οἰκίαν ἐπαινῇ καλὴν 

καὶ ἄριστα κατεσκευασμένην, εἴποι ἄν 

Ζηνός που τοιήδε γ᾽ Ὀλυμπίου ἔνδοθεν αὐλή. 

ὁ δὲ κόλαξ τοῦτο τὸ ἔπος κἂν περὶ τῆς συβώτου 
καλύβης εἴποι, εἰ μόνον τι παρὰ τοῦ συβώτου 
λαβεῖν ἐλπίσειεν' ὅπου Κύναιθος ὁ Δημητρίου 
τοῦ Πολιορκητοῦ κόλαξ ἁπάντων αὐτῷ τῶν 
πρὸς τὴν κολακείαν καταναλωμένων ἐπῇνει ὑπὸ 
βηχὸς ἐνοχλούμενον τὸν Δημήτριον, ὅτι ἐμμελῶς 

1 The son of Croesus was a deaf-mute (Herod. 1, 34 and 
85); Melampus the seer could hear worms in the roof talking 
to each other (Apollodorus 1, 9, 12). 

? Phineus was blind ; Lynceus could see what was under- 
ground (Apoll. 3, 10, 3). 

3 Iliad 20, 297, of the horses of Erichthonius, sired by 



it that the son of Croesus had sharper ears than 
Melampus,! and Phineus sharper sight than Lyn- 
ceus,” if only he hoped to gain something by the lie. 
But the other, in praising the selfsame object, 
instead of telling any lie or adding any quality 
that did not belong to it, would take the good 
points that it had by nature, even if they were 
not very great, and would amplify them and make 
them greater. He would venture to say, when he 
wished to praise a horse, which is the lightest of 
foot and the best runner of all the animals that 
we know. 

* Over the top of the flowers he ran without 
bending them downward." 3 

And again he would not hesitate to speak of “the 
swiftness of wind-footed horses."* And if he were 
to praise a house that was beautiful and handsomely 
furnished, he would say: . 

“Surely like this, inside, is the palace of Zeus on 
Olympus.” 5 

The flatterer, however, would express himself in 
that way even about the swineherd’s hut, if only 
he hoped to get something from the swineherd! 
Take Cynaethus, the toady of Demetrius Poliorcetes ; 
when he had used up all his means of flattery, he 
praised Demetrius, who was troubled with a cough, 
because he cleared his throat melodiously ! 

* Source unknown, if δρόμον is part of the quotation. But 
for ‘‘ wind-footed horses," see Hymn to Venus 217, Pindar, 
frag. 221. 

5 Odyssey 4, 74, said by Telemachus to his friend, admiring 
the palace of Menelaus. 






Ov μόνον. δὲ τοῦτο ἑκατέρου αὐτῶν γνώρισμά 
ἐστιν, τὸ τοὺς μὲν κόλακας οὐκ ὀκνεῖν καὶ ψεύδε- 
σθαι τοῦ χαρίσασθαι ἕνεκα τοῖς ἐπαινουμένοις, 
ἐξαίρειν δὲ τοὺς ἐπαινοῦντας τὰ ὑπάρχοντα πει- 
pao Bau: ἀλλὰ κἀκείνῳ οὐ μικρῷ διαλλάττουσιν, 
ὅτι οἱ μὲν κόλακες, ἐφ᾽ ὅσον οἷόν τε αὐτοῖς, 
χρῶνται. ταῖς ὑπερβολαῖς, οἱ ἐπαινοῦντες δὲ καὶ 
ἐν αὐταῖς ταύταις σωφρονοῦσιν καὶ ἐντὸς τῶν 
ὅρων μένουσιν. 

Ταῦτά σοι ἀπὸ πολλῶν ὀλίγα κολακείας καὶ 
ἐπαίνου ἀληθοῦς δείγματα, ὡς μὴ πάντας ὑπο- 
πτεύσῃς τοὺς ἐπαινοῦντας, ἀλλὰ διακρίνῃς καὶ 
παραμετρῇς τῷ οἰκείῳ μέτρῳ ἑκάτερον. 

Dep’ οὖν, εἶ δοκεῖ, πρόσαγε τοῖς ὑπ᾽ ἐμοῦ 
εἰρημένοις τοὺς κανόνας. ἀμφοτέρους, ὡς μάθῃς 
εἴτε τούτῳ εἴτ᾽ ἐκείνῳ ἐοίκασιν. ἐγὼ γὰρ εἰ μέν 
τινα ἄμορφον. οὖσαν ἔφην τῷ ἐν Κνίδῳ ἀγάλματι 
ὁμοίαν, γόης ἂν καὶ τοῦ Κυναίθου κολακικώτερος 
ὄντως νομιξοίμην" εἰ δὲ τοιαύτην ὑπάρχουσαν 
οἷαν πάντες ἴσασιν, οὐ πάνυ ἐκ πολλοῦ διαστή- 
ματος ἣν. τὸ τόλμημα. 

Tax’ av οὖν" pains, μάλλον δὲ ἤδη εἴρηκαν, 

(ἐπαινεῖν μέν σοι εἰς τὸ κάλλος ἐφείσθω" ἀνεπί- 
FY μέντοι ποιήσασθαι τὸν ἔπαινον ἐχρῆν, 
ἀλλὰ μὴ θεαῖς ἀπεικάζειν ἄνθρωπον οὖσαν. 
ἐγὼ δὲ---ἤδη γάρ με προάξεται τἀληθὲς εἰπεῖν---- 
οὐ θεαῖς σε, ὦ βελτίστη, εἴκασα, τεχνιτῶν δὲ 
ἀγαθῶν δημιουργήμασιν λίθου καὶ χαλκοῦ ἢ 
ἐλέφαντος πεποιηµένοις" τὰ δὲ ὑπ᾽ ἀνθρώπων 
γεγενημένα οὐκ ἀσεβές, οἶμαι, ἀνθρώποις εἰκά- 

1 Text Fritzsche: τάχα ὃ νῦν MSS. 


That flatterers do not hesitate to lie for the sake 
of pleasing the objects of their praise, whereas 
those who really praise try to magnify what actually 
exists, is not the only distinguishing mark of each. 
They differ in a further point, and not a trivial one, 
that flatterers use hyperbole to the full extent of 
their powers, while those who really praise are 
discreet in precisely that particular and remain 
within their bounds. 

These are a few out of many earmarks of flattery 
and of genuine praise which I give you so that you 
may not suspect all who praise you, but may dis- 
tinguish between them and gauge each by his 
proper standard. 

Come then, apply, if you will, both canons to my 
words, that you may discover whether they conform 
to this one or the other. If it had been some ugly 
woman whom I likened to the statue in Cnidos, I 
might indeed be accounted a liar, and a worse 
flatterer than Cynaethus. But since it was one 
whose beauty is known to all, the venture was not 
a salto mortale. 

Perhaps, then, you may say—indeed, you have 
already said—that you concede my right to praise 
you for your beauty, but that I should have made 
my praise unexceptionable and should not have 
compared a mortal woman with goddesses. As a 
matter of fact (now she is going to make me speak 
the truth!) it was not with goddesses I compared 
you, my dear woman, but with masterpieces of good 
craftsmen, made of stone or bronze or ivory ; and 
what man has made, it is not impious, I take it, 

2 ge Jensius: ye MSS. 


ζειν. ἐκτὸς εἰ μὴ σὺ τοῦτο εἶναι τὴν ᾿Αθηνᾶν 
ὑπείληφας τὸ ὑπὸ «Φειδίου πεπλασμένον 7 τοῦτο 
τὴν οὐρανίαν ᾿Αϕροδίτην ὃ ὃ ἐποίησεν Πραξιτέλης 
ἐν Κνίδῳ οὐ πάνυ πολλῶν ἐτῶν. ἀλλ. ὅρα μὴ 
ἄσεμνον 7) τὰ τοιαῦτα περὶ τῶν θεῶν δοξάζειν, 
ὧν τάς yel ἀληθεῖς εἰκόνας ἀνεφίκτους εἶναι 
ἀνθρωπίνῃ μιμήσει ἔγωγε ὑπολαμβάνω. 

24 Ei E; δὲ καὶ ὅτι μάλιστά σε αὐταῖς ἐκείναις εἴκασα, 
οὐκ ἐμὸν τοῦτο, οὐδὲ ἐγὼ πρῶτος ταύτην ἐτεμόμην 
τὴν ὁδόν, ἀλλὰ πολλοὶ καὶ ἀγαθοὶ ποιηταί, καὶ 
μάλιστα ὁ πολίτης ὁ σὸς "Όμηρος, ὃν καὶ νῦν 
ἀναβιβάσομαι «συναγορεύσοντά μοι, ἢ οὐδεμία 
μηχανὴ μὴ οὐχὶ. καὶ αὐτὸν σὺν ἐμοὶ ἁλῶναι. 

᾿Βρήσομαι τοίνυν αὐτόν, μᾶλλον δὲ σὲ ὑπὲρ 
αὐτοῦ- -καὶ γὰρ διαμνημονεύεις εὖ ποιοῦσα τὰ 
χαριέστατα τῶν .ἐρραψῳδημένων αὐτῷ---τί σοι 
ἐκεῖνος δοκεῖ, ὁπόταν περὶ τῆς αἰχμαλώτου 
λέγη τῆς Βρισηΐδος ὅ ὅτι χρυσῇ ᾿Αφροδίτῃ ἰκέλη 
ἐπένθει τὸν Πάτροκλον ; εἶτα μετὰ μικρόν, ὡς 
οὐχ ἱκανὸν εἰ μόνῃ τῇ ᾿Αφροδίτῃ ἐοικυῖα ἔσται, 

/ M A 
Εἶπε 6 ἄρα--φησίν---κλαίουσα γυνὴ εἰκυῖα 

e , " ^ , ^ > ^ 
Οπόταν οὖν τὰ τοιαῦτα λέγῃ, μισεῖς κἀκεῖνον 

\ > νο ~ / A / > ^ 3 
καὶ ἀπορρίπτεις τὸ βιβλίον, ἢ δίδως αὐτῷ ἐλευ- 
/ 3 A 9 / bd N ^ \ A ^ e 
θεριάζειν ἐν τῷ ἐπαίνω; ἀλλὰ κἂν σὺ μὴ δῷῶς, 0 
γε τοσοῦτος αἰὼν δέδωκεν, OVO ἔστιν ὅστις αὐτὸν 

» N /, 3 ΄ 3 * t / ΄ 
ἐπὶ τούτῳ Πτιάσατο, οὐδὲ ὁ μαστίξαι τολμήσας 

1 ye Fritzsche: τε MSS. 
2 ἐκεῖνος Fritzsche: ἐκεῖνο MSS. 

1 Iliad 19, 282. 


to compare with man. But perhaps you have 
assumed that what Phidias fashioned is Athena, 
and that what Praxiteles made in Cnidus not many 
years ago is Heavenly Aphrodite? Come now, would 
it not be unworthy to hold such beliefs about the 
gods, whose real images I for my part assume to 
be unattainable by human mimicry? 

But if I had actually compared you, as much as 
you will, with the very goddesses themselves, I 
should not have been doing it on my own respon- 
sibility and should not have been the first to open 
this road. No, there have been many good poets 
ahead of me, and above all your fellow-citizen 
Homer, whom I shall now call up to plead for me, 
or else there is nothing for it but that he himself 
will be convicted along with me! 

I shall therefore ask him, or, better, ask you in 
his stead, since you know by heart—and it is greatly 
to your credit—all the prettiest of the verses that 
he composed, what you think of him when he says 
of Briseis, the captive, that as she mourned for 
Patroclus she resembled golden Aphrodite?! Then 
after a bit, as if it were not enough that she should 
be like Aphrodite only, he says : 

«Then made answer, in tears, the maid as fair as 
a goddess." ? 

When he saysthat sort ofthing, do you loathe him 
and fling away the book, or do you permit him to 
enjoy full freedom in his praise? Well, even if you 
refuse permission, at all events Time in his long 
flight has given it, and nobody has found fault with 
Homer on that score, neither the man who made 

? Iliad 19, 286. 




3 ^ . 3 , xq € \ , > / 
αὐτοῦ τὴν εἰκόνα οὐδ ὁ τὰ νόθα ἐπισημηνάμενος 
τῶν ἐπῶν ἐν τῇ παραγραφῇ τῶν ὀβελῶν. 

Kita ἐκείνῳ μὲν ἐφεθήσεται βάρβαρον γυναῖκα, 

^ / ^ ^ 
καὶ ταῦτα κλαίουσαν, τῇ χρυσῇ ᾿Αφροδίτη ei- 
κάσαι, ἐγὼ δ᾽, ἵνα μὴ τὸ κάλλος εἴπω, διότι μὴ 
ἀνέχη ἀκούουσα, οὐκ ἂν παραβάλλοιμι θεῶν 
εἰκόσι γυναῖκα φαιδρὰν καὶ μειδιῶσαν τὰ πολλά, 
ὅπερ θεοῖς ὅμοιον ἄνθρωποι ἔχουσιν ; 
a 3 ` 

Επὺ μέν γε τοῦ ᾿Αγαμέμνονος ὅρα ὅσην αὐτὸς 
φειδὼ ἐποιήσατο τῶν θεῶν καὶ ὡς ἐταμιεύσατο 
τὰς εἰκόνας εἰς τὸ σύμμετρον' ὡς ὄμματα μέν 

M x z 3N 9 a / 
now καὶ κεφαλὴν ἴκελον αὐτὸν εἶναι τῷ Διί, 
^a y .. λ M / / \ ^ ^ 

τῷ "Αρεῖ δὲ τὴν ζώνην, στέρνον δὲ τῷ Ποσειδῶνι, 
- by A 
διαιρῶν τὸν ἄνθρωπον κατὰ µέλη πρὸς τοσούτων 
θεῶν εἰκόνας' καὶ aù πάλιν βροτολοιγῷ "Ape 
/ η ο > i z » 0 Ôn 
φησίν τιν ^ ὅμοιον εἶναι καὶ ἄλλον ἄλλῳ, θεοειδῆ 
^ / 
τὸν Φρύγα τὸν τοῦ Πριάμου, καὶ θεοείκελον 
να N / 
πολλάκις τον Π]ηλέως. 
3 \ , , 3 ILAN M ^ ^ 
Αλλὰ ἐπάνειμι αὖθις ἐπὶ τὰ γυναικεῖα τῶν 
\ ^ 
παραδειγμάτων: ἀκούεις yap δή που αὐτοῦ 

᾿Αρτέμιδι ἰκέλη ἠὲ χρυσέη ᾿ Αφροδίτη. 
καὶ | 
oin Ò "Αρτεμις εἶσι κατ᾽ οὔρεος. 

Ov μόνον δὲ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους αὐτοὺς θεοῖς 
ἀπεικάζει, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὴν; EvdopBouv κόμην ταῖς 

1 τιν᾽ inserted by A.M.H., following du Soul's hint that 
the name Hector had fallen out. 

2 θεοῖς- τὴν N: not in ΕΓΩ. Probably a conjecture; 
ἀπεικάζει is certainly false (Mras). | 

! Respectively Zoilus the Homeromastix and Aristarchus 
of Alexandria, the grammarian. 



bold to flog his statue nor the man who marked the 
spurious lines by setting daggers beside them.} 

Then if he is to be permitted to compare a foreign 
woman, and in tears at that, with golden Aphrodite, 
for my part, not to speak of your beauty because 
you wil] not listen, may not I compare with images 
of the gods a radiant woman, usually smiling, a 
trait which men have in common with the gods ? 

In the case of Agameninon, moreover, see how 
parsimonious Homer was with the gods, and with 
what propriety he doled out his comparisons! He 
says that in eyes and head he was like to Zeus, in 
waist to Ares, and in chest to Poseidon,? dis- 
membering the man for the sake of comparing 
him with all those gods. Again, he Bays that 
someone is a match for devastating Ares; % and just 
so with the rest of them—the Phrygian, the son 
of Priam, is beautiful as a god,* and the son of 
Peleus is often godlike. 

But I will return to the parallels that concern 
women. You know, naturally, that he says: 

* Artemis she resembleth, or else Aphrodite the 
golden," $ 


“Just so Artemis runneth adown the slope of a 
mountain." ? 

Moreover, he not only compares human beings 
with gods, but likens the long hair of Euphorbus to 

2 Iliad 2, 478—479. 

3 Notably Hector, /liad 11, 295; 13, 802. 

4 Paris, Jiad 3, 16. 5 Achilles, 7/iad 1, 131. 
$ Odyssey 17, 37 (19, 54), of Penelope. 

7 Odyssey 6, 102, of Nausicaa, 





Χάρισιν à ἀπείκασε, καὶ ταῦτα αἵματι δεδευμένην. 
καὶ ὅλως τοσαῦτά ἐστιν τὰ τοιαῦτα ὡς μηδὲν 
εἶναι μέρος τῆς ποιήσεως ὃ μὴ ταῖς θείαις εἰκόσιν 
ιακεκόσµηται. ὥστε 7) κἀκεῖνα ἐξαληλίφθω, ἡ 
καὶ ἡμῖν τὰ ὅμοια τολμᾶν ἐφείσθω. οὕτω δὲ τὸ 
κατὰ τὰς εἰκόνας καὶ τὰς ὁμοιώσεις ἀνεύθυνόν 
ἐστιν ὥστε "Όμηρος καὶ τὰς θεὰς αὐτὰς οὐκ 
ὤκνησεν ἀπὸ τῶν ἐλαττόνων ἐπαινέσαι: τοὺς 
γοῦν τῆς "Hpas ὀφθαλμοὺς τοῖς τῶν βοῶν ei- 
κασεν' ἕτερος δέ τις ἰοβλέφαρον τὴν ᾿Αϕροδίτην 
ἔφη. τὴν μὲν γὰρ ῥοδοδάκτυλον τίς «ἀγνοεῖ τῶν 
κἂν ἐπ᾿ ἐλάχιστον τῇ Ὁμήρου ποιήσει ὠμιλη- 
κότων ; 

Καίτοι τὰ μὲν τῆς μορφῆς ἔτι .μετριώτερα, εἰ 
τις θεῷ ἐοικέναι λέγεται" ἀλλὰ τὰς προσηγορίας 
αὐτὰς πόσοι ἐμιμήσαντο τὰς τῶν θεῶν, Διονύσιοι 

i 'Ἡφαιστίωνες καὶ Ζήνωνες καὶ Ποσειδώνιοι 
e Ἑρμαῖ προσαγορευόµενοι; Λητὼ δὲ γυνή τις 
ἐγένετο [ὑὐαγόρου τοῦ Κυπρίων βασιλέως, καὶ 
ὅμως οὐκ ἠγανάκτησεν ἡ θεὸς δυναμένη λίθον 
αὐτὴν ὥσπερ τὴν Νιόβην ἀπεργάσασθαι. ἐῶ 
γὰρ τοὺς Αἰγυπτίους, -οἵπερ καὶ δεισιδαιµονέ- 
στατοί εἰσιν πάντων, ὅμως τοῖς θείοις ὀνόμασιν 
eis κόρον ἐπιχρωμένους" σχεδὸν γοῦν τὰ πλεῖστα 
αὐτοῖς ἐξ οὐρανοῦ ἐστιν. 

"Ώστε οὐ πρός γε σοῦ τὸ τοιοῦτον, ψ οφοδεῶς 
διακεῖσθαι πρὸς τὸν ἔπαινον' ei yáp τι ἐν τῷ 
συγγράμματι πεπλημμέληται eis τὸ θεῖον, σὺ 
μὲν ἀνεύθυνος αὐτοῦ, ἐκτὸς εἰ μή τινα νομίζεις 
ἀκροάσεως εὔθυναν εἶναι, ἐμὲ δὲ ἀμυνοῦνται οἱ 



the Graces, and that too when it was soaked with 
blood! In short, this sort of thing is so frequent 
that there is no part of his poetry which is not well 
adorned with comparisons of gods. Therefore you 
must either expunge all that, or permit us to be 
equally venturesome. So exempt from all account- 
ability is the use of comparisons and similes that 
Homer actually did not hesitate to derive praise for 
the goddesses from things of lower degree. For 
instance, he likened Hera’s eyes to those of kine. 
And someone else called Aphrodite violet-browed.! 
As for “rosy-fingered,’ who that has even the 
slightest acquaintance with Homer’s poetry does 
not know it? 

As far as personal appearance is concerned, it 
signifies comparatively little if one is said to be 
like a god. But how many there are who have 
copied the very names of the gods, calling them- 
selves Dionysius, Hephaestion, Zeno, Poseidonius, 
Hermes! And there was a Leto, the wife of 
Evagoras, king of Cyprus; yet the goddess did not 
take on about it, though she might have turned her 
into stone as she did Niobe. The Egyptians I for- 
bear to mention, who, though the most superstitious 
people in the world, yet use the names of the gods 
to their hearts' content ; in fact, most of their names 
are derived from Heaven. 

It is not incumbent upon you, then, to be thus 
timorous in respect of praise. If any offence at all 
has been perpetrated against divinity in that essay, 
you are not accountable for it—unless you think 
that to listen makes one accountable ; it is I whom 

The ** Theban poet” of the preceding piece (p.271); te. 




θεοί, ἐπειδὰν πρὸ ἐμοῦ τὸν "Όμηρον καὶ τοὺς 
ἄλλους ποιητὰς ἀμύνωνται. ἀλλ) οὐδέπω οὐδὲ 
τὸν ἄριστον τῶν φιλοσόφων ἡ ἠμύναντο εἰκόνα θεοῦ 
τὸν ἄνθρωπον εἰπόντα εἶναι. 

Πολλὰ ἔτι ἔχων πρὸς σὲ εὐπεῖν Ἡολυστράτου 

΄ , 

ἕνεκα τούτου παύσομαι, iva καὶ ἀπομνημονεῦσαι 
δυνηθῇ τὰ εἰρημένα. 


Οὐκ οἶδα εἶ μοι, τοῦτο δυνατὸν ἔτι, à Λυκῖνε 

μακρὰ γὰρ εἴρηταί σοι καὶ ταῦτα, καὶ ὑπὲρ τὸ 
ὕδωρ τὸ ἐκκεχυμένον. πειράσομαι ὃ ὅμως ἐπι- 
μνησθῆναι αὐτῶν. καὶ ὡς ὁρᾷς, ἤδη ἀποσοβῶ 
παρ᾽ αὐτὴν ἐπιβυσάμενος τὰ ὦτα, ὡς μή τι 
παρεμπεσὸν ἄλλο συγχέῃ τὴν τάξιν αὐτῶν, εἶτά 
μοι συρίττεσθαι συμβῇ πρὸς τῶν θεατῶν. 

Αὐτῷ σοι μελήσει, ὦ Ἠολύστρατε, 6 ὅπως ἄριστα 
ὑποκρίνῃ. ἐγὼ δὲ ἐπείπερ ἅπαξ σοι τὸ δρᾶμα 
παραδέδωκα, νῦν μὲν ἐκποδὼν ἀποστήσομαι: 
ὁπόταν δὲ τὰς ψήφους ἀνακηρύττωσι τῶν κριτῶν, 
τότε ἤδη καὶ αὐτὸς παρέσοµαι ὀψόμενος ὁποῖόν 
τι τὸ τέλος τοῦ ἀγῶνος ἔσται. 

! Hardly Plato, though he has something similar in the 
Republic, 501. But to him the universe is God's image ; see 



the gods will punish, after first punishing Homer 
and the other poets! But to this day they have 
not punished the best of the philosophers for saying 
that man was God's image !! 

Although I might say much more to you, I shall 
stop for the sake of Polystratus here, so that he may 
be able to repeat from memory what has been said. 

I don't know if that is any longer possible for me, 
Lycinus. Even as it is, you have made a long 
speech, far beyond your allowance of water. But 
I shall try to remember it all the same ; and, as you 
see, I am already making off to her with my ears 
stopped for fear that something else may pop in 
to confuse its outline, and then I may have the bad 

luck to be hissed by my hearers! 


That is your concern, Polystratus, to act your part 
to the best advantage. As for me, now that I have 
once for all put the play into your hands, I shall 
withdraw for the present; but when they announce 
the votes of the judges, I shall be there in person to 
see what will be the outcome of the contest. 

the end of the Timaeus. Perhaps Lucian means Diogenes, 
who said that good men were images of gods (Diog. Laert. 6, 



An account of the worship of ‘‘Juno” (Atargatis) at 
Hieropolis in Syria, done, not in Lucian’s customary Attic 
Greek, but in the Ionic dialect, after the manner of Herodo- 
tus, which Lucian counterfeits so cleverly and parodies so 
slyly that many have been unwilling to recognize him as the 

It would be most unfair to Lucian to turn this tale into 
contemporary English. In order to have the same effect 
that it had in his own day, and to be really intelligible, it 
must seem to come from the lips of an ancient traveller. 
The version here offered seeks to secure that effect through 
mimicry of Sir John Mandeville. It is true that Herodotus 
was better known in Lucian's time than Mandeville is 
known now, and his language seemed less remote. In every 
other respect, however—in his limited vocabulary, in his 
simple style, and in his point of view—Mandeville provides 
a mask uniquely adapted to the part—if only its wearer 
does not fall down in 1t and break it. 

In the notes, which are more extensive than usual because 
Lucian's topic here is outside the ordinary classical range, 
several books which have been of particular service are cited 
by abbreviated titles; E.Schrader, Diz Keilinschriften und 
das Alte Testament, pt. ii, Religion und Sprache, 3rd ed., 
1903, by H. Zimmern (Schrader-Zimmern) ; Stanley A. Cook, 
Religion of Ancient Palestine, etc., London, 1908 (Cook) ; W. W. 
Graf Baudissin, Adonis und Esmun, Leipzig, 1911 (Baudissin), 
and his Studien zur Semitischen Religionsgeschichte, 1878 
(Studien); Sir J. G. Frazer, Adonis, Attis, Osiris, in Golden 
Bough*, pt iv, London, 1919 (Frazer), and his Folklore in the 
Old Testament, London, 1919 (Folklore); Albert T. Clay, 
A Hebrew Deluge Story, etc, New Haven 1921 (Clay). 

Those who wish to see the piece in modern English may be 
referred to the version by H. A. Strong (London, 1913). 
This is supplied with an introduction and notes by J. E, 
Garstang, whose commentary will be found to supplement 
this in many points, especially in the matter of Hittite 



1 “Ἔστιν ἐν Lupin πόλις οὐ πολλὸν ἀπὸ τοῦ 
[ὐφρήτεω ποταμοῦ, καλέεται δὲ Ἱρή, καὶ ἔστιν 
ἱρὴ τῆς " Hpns τῆς ᾿Ασσυρίης. δοκέει δέ μοι, τόδε 
τὸ οὔνομα οὐκ ἅμα τῇ πόλει οἰκεομένῃ ἐγένετο, 
ἀλλὰ τὸ μὲν ἀρχαῖον ἄλλο ἦν, μετὰ δὲ σφίσι τῶν 
ἱρῶν μεγάλων γιγνομένων ἐς τόδε ἡ ἐπωνυμίη 
ἀπίκετο. περὶ ταύτης ὧν τῆς πόλιος ἔρχομαι 
ἐρέων ὁκόσα ἐν αὐτῇ ἐστιν' ἐρέω δὲ καὶ νόμους 
τοῖσιν ἐς τὰ ipa χρέωνται, καὶ πανηγύριας τὰς 
ἄγουσιν καὶ θυσίας τὰς ἐπιτελέουσιν. ἐρέω δὲ 
καὶ ὁκόσα καὶ περὶ τῶν τὸ ἱρὸν εἰσαμένων μυθολο- 
γέουσι, καὶ τὸν νηὸν ὅκως ἐγένετο. γράφω δὲ 
᾿Ασσύριος ἐών, καὶ τῶν ἀπηγέομαι τὰ μὲν αὐτο- 
γίῃ μαθών, τὰ δὲ παρὰ τῶν ἱρέων ἐδάην, ὁκόσα 
ἐόντα ἐμεῦ πρεσβύτερα € ἐγὼ ἱστορέω. 

2 Πρῶτοι μὲν ὧν ἀνθρώπων τῶν ἡμεῖς ἴδμεν 
Αἰγύπτιοι λέγονται θεῶν τε ἐννοίην λαβεῖν καὶ 

Available in photographs, ΓΝ. 

1 Hierapolis, or better, in accordance with the coins, 
Hieropolis. It is N.W. of Aleppo, on the main road into 
Mesopotamia, 15 Roman miles from the crossing of the 
Euphrates, and by road about 116 Roman miles from Lucian’s 
birthplace, Samosata. Its Syrian name was Mabog, (properly 
Manbog, i.c. **spring," according to Baudissin, Studien, ii, 
159), in Greek, Bambyce. It was dubbed Hieropolis in the 
time of Seleucus Nicator (Ael. N.H. 12, 2), but the old name 
persisted (Manbij; le Strange, Palestine under the Moslems, 



In Surrye, not fer fro the Ryvere Eufrate, is a 
Cytee that Holy highte and holy is in sothe, for it 
is of Iuno Assurien.! Yit I wene that the cyteene 
hadde not this name atte firste, whan that it was 
founded, but of olden tyme it was other, and after, 
whau here servys of the Goddesse wex gret, it was their 
chaunged to this. Touching this cytee I purpos 
me to seyn alle that is in it, and I schalle speke of 
the customes that thei folwen in here rytes, and the 
feste dayes that thei kepen, and the sacrifises that 
thei perfourmen. And I schalle reherce alle the 
tales that men tellen of hem that establisschede the 
holy place, and how that the temple was bylded. 
And I that write am Assurien,? and of that that | 
devyse you, some partie saughe I with mine owne 
eyen, and some partie I lerned be informacioun fro 
the prestes, that is to seyn, tho thynges that I 
descryve that weren beforn min owne tyme. 

Of alle peples whereof wee knowen, Egyptyens 
weren firste, as men seyn, for to taken conceyte of 

p. 900) and still attaches to the ruins, on which see Hogarth, 
Annual of the British School at Athens, 1907-8, p. 186 sqq ; 
Cumont, Études Syriennes, p. 22 sqq., p.35 sqq. Lucian does 
not identify the city with ‘‘ancient Ninus," as do Philo- 
stratus and Ammianus. 

2 Confusion between Assyrian and Syrian is not peculiar 
to this piece nor to Lucian. It goes back to Herodotus, 
who says that ‘‘Syrian” is the Greek equivalent of the 
barbarian ‘‘ Assyrian” (7, 63 ; see Macan's note, and cf. 140). 



ἱρὰ εἴσασθαι καὶ τεµένεα καὶ πανηγύριας ano- 
δεῖξαι. πρῶτοι δὲ καὶ οὐνόματα ἱρὰ ἔγνωσαν καὶ 
» ^ m~ 
λόγους ἱροὺς ἔλεξαν. μετὰ δὲ οὐ πολλοστῷ 
, , ’ ’ » ? 9 X 
χρόνῳ παρ᾽ Αἰγυπτίων λόγον ᾿Ασσύριοι ἐς θεοὺς 
» N ^ 
ἤκουσαν, καὶ ipa καὶ νηοὺς ἤγειραν, ἐν τοῖς καὶ 
3 ΄ »y . , , X . 
3 ἀγάλματα ἔθεντο καὶ ξόανα ἐστήσαντο. τὸ δὲ 
παλαιὸν καὶ παρ Αἰγυπτίοισιν ἀξόανοι νηοὶ 
y y EAN N ? ΄ , N M 
ἔσαν. καὶ ἔστιν ἱρὰ καὶ ἐν Lupin ov παρὰ πολὺ 
τοῖς Αἰγυπτίοισιν ἰσοχρονέοντα, τῶν ἐγὼ πλείστα 
sF , ^ € ’ N 3 ’ 3 
ὄπωπα, τὸ ye τοῦ Ἡρακλέος τὸ ἐν Τύρῳ, ov 
^ ? 
τούτου τοῦ Ἡρακλέος τὸν "Ελληνες ἀείδουσιν, 
ἀλλὰ τὸν ἐγὼ λέγω πολλὸν ἀρχαιότερος καὶ 
Τύριος ἥρως ἐστίν. 
X , 

4 Ἔνι δὲ καὶ ἄλλο ἱρὸν ἐν Φοινίκῃ μέγα, τὸ 
’ 2 e . > . 4 9 la 
Σιδόνιοι ἔχουσιν. ὡς μὲν αὐτοὶ λέγουσιν, Αστάρ- 

3 ’ 3 /, » 4 X ’ ΄ 
της ἐστίν: ᾿Αστάρτην δ ἐγὼ δοκέω Σεληναίην 
ἔμμεναι. ὡς δέ μοί τις τῶν ἱρέων ἀπηγέετο, 
Εὐρώπης ἐστὶν τῆς Κάδμου ἀδελφεῆς' ταύτην δὲ 
9 ^ 3 ld ~ , ’ 9 4 
ἐοῦσαν ᾿ Αγήνορος τοῦ βασιλέως θυγατέρα, ἐπειδή 
τε ἀφανὴς ἐγεγόνεεν, οἱ Φοίνικες τῷ νηῷ ἐτιμήσαντο 

. , 6 N > 9 > ^ Y ej ? ^ A 
καὶ λόγον ἱρὸν êr αὐτῇ ἔλεξαν, ὅτι ἐοῦσαν καλὴν 

\ 9 / M M 3 ^ 3 ΄ 
Ζεὺς ἐπόθεεν καὶ τὸ εἶδος εἰς ταῦρον ἀμειψάμενος 
ἥρπασεν καί μιν ἐς Κρήτην φέρων ἀπίκετο. 

΄ . . ^ Xz ’ Xy . 
τάδε μεν καὶ TOV ἄλλων Φοινίκων ἤκουον, καὶ 

1 In Astrology, Lucian similarly credits the Egyptians with 
priority over the Chaldaeans in the study of the stars. In 
both cases his view, surprising in a Syrian, was the common 
one of his time, to be found, for instance, in Diodorus 
(1, 9, 6). 

2 The god was Melkart. Herodotus was told by the 
priests there that the cult was established when the city 



Goddes, and to stablisschen holy places and closes, 
and to apoynten feste dayes. And thei firste knewen 
holy names and maden holy tales. But no long 
tyme after, Assuryens herden rumour and speche 
of Egyptyens as touching to goddes, and rereden 
seyntuaryes and temples, in the whiche thei lette 
putten ymages and setten symulacres.! But aun- 
cientlye amonges Egyptyens weren temples without- 
en symulacres. And in Surrye ben temples almost 
als olde as tho in Egypte, of the whiche I have seen 
the moste, and namely the temple of Hercules in 
Tyre, not that Hercules that Grekes preysen in here 
songes, but that oon wherof I speke is moche elder, 
and is Tyres patroun.? 

In Phenicye is another grete temple that men of 
Sidon kepen. Thei seyn, it is of Astarte, and 
Astarte, I trowe, is Luna the Mone.? But oon of 
the prestes tolde me, it belongeth to Europe, Cadmus 
suster. Sche was Agenor the Kinges daughter ; 
and after that sche vanisched, Phenicyens yafen 
hir that temple for worschipe and maden a storie 
of hir, that sithe sche was fair, love coveytede hir, 
and transformed his lyknesse in to a bole, and than 
ravissched hir awey and bar hir on his bac to Crete. 
That same storie I herde of othere Phenicyens also ; 

was founded, and was then (ca. 430 B.c.) 2,300 years old 
(Herod. 2, 44). 

3 The Emperor Elagabalus, being the Sun, brought 
Astarte the Moon from Phoenicia and wedded her (Herodian 
5, 6, 3-5) But she was not originally or at any time 
primarily the moon ; and in Babylonia, as Ishtar, she had 
for her emblem a star, the planet Venus (Baudissin, 19). 
Clay (p. 47) believes that the name Ashera, Ashirta, Ishtar, 
is that of a mortal woman, an early queen of Hallab 



τὸ νόμισμα τῷ Σιδόνιοι χρέωνται τὴν Εὐρώπην 
ἐφεζομένην ἔχει τῷ ταύρῳ τῷ Διί: τὸν δὲ νηὸν οὐκ 
ὁμολογέουσιν Εὐρώπης ἔμμεναι. 

5 "Ἔχουσι δὲ καὶ ἄλλο Φοίνικες ἱρόν, οὐκ 
᾿Ασσύριον ἀλλ᾽ Αἰγύπτιον, τὸ ἐξ Ἡλίου πόλιος 
ἐς τὴν Φοινίκην ἀπίκετο. ἐγὼ μέν μιν οὐκ ὄπωπα, 
μέγα δὲ καὶ τόδε καὶ ἀρχαῖόν ἐστιν. 

6 — Εἶδον δὲ καὶ ἐν Βύβλῳ μέγα ἱρὸν Αφροδίτης 
Βυβλίης, ἐν τῷ καὶ τὰ ὄργια ἐς "Ἄδωνιν ἐπιτελέ- 
ουσιν' ἐδάην δὲ καὶ τὰ ὄργια. λέγουσι γὰρ δὴ 
ὧν τὸ ἔργον τὸ ἐς "Αδωνιν ὑπὸ τοῦ συὸς ἐν τῇ 
χώρῃ τῇ σφετέρῃ γενέσθαι, καὶ μνήμην τοῦ 
πάθεος τύπτονταί τε ἑκάστου ἔτεος καὶ θρηνέουσι 
καὶ τὰ ὄργια ἐπιτελέουσι καὶ σφίσι μεγάλα 
πένθεα ἀνὰ τὴν χώρην ἵσταται. ἐπεὰν δὲ ἀπο- 
τύψωνταί τε καὶ ἀποκλαύσωνται, πρῶτα μὲν 
καταγίξουσι τῷ ᾿Αδώνιδι ὅκως ἐόντι νέκυι, μετὰ 
δὲ τῇ ἑτέρη ἡμέρῃ ζώειν τέ μιν μυθολογέουσι καὶ 
ἐς τὸν ἠέρα πέμπουσι καὶ τὰς κεφαλὰς ξύρονται 

! The coins are described in Head, Historia Nummorum, 
2nd ed., pp. 797 sq. The temple itself contained, in later 
days at least, a painting of the Europa episode (Achilles 
latius 1, 1). The story was also localized at Tyre, where 
the house of Agenor and the bower of Europa were shown 
(Arrian, Anab. 2, 24, 2; Nonnus, Dionys. 40, 353 sqq.) and 
where in the eighth century (Malalas, p. 31) the people still 
mourned the abduction in a feast called the κακὴ ὀψινή. The 
name Europa is considered Greek ; whether this particular 
myth is Cretan or Phoenician in origin the evidence does not 
secin sufficient to determine. 

* This cult was at Heliopolis (Baalbek). The god, who 
appears to have been originally Hadad but to have undergone 
syncrisis with the sun-god and with the Syrian '' Apollo,” 
was worshipped far and wide as Jupiter Heliopolitanus. 



and the moneye that Sidonyes usen hath Europe 
sittynge on the bole that is Iove.! Natheles wille 
thei not avowen that the temple is of Europe. 

And Phenicyens han an other maner servys, not 
Assuryen but Egyptyen, that cam from Elyople into 
Phenicye. I have not seen it, but it also is gret and 

But I saughe in Byblos a gret temple of Venus of 
Byblos, wherin thei perfourmen cerimonyes in mynde 
. ot Adoon ; and I lernede tho cerimonyes? Thei 

seyn that the dede that was don to Adoon be the 
bore befell in here londe, and for memorie of that 
myschaunce everyche yeer thei beten here brestes 
and sorwen and perfourmen tho cerimonyes, ma- 
kynge gret doel thorgh that contree. And whan 
the betynge and the wepynge is atte ende, first thei 
maken offringes to Adoon, as though he were ded; 
and than, on the morwe, thei fablen that he is quick, 
and fecchen him forth in to the eyr, and lette 

The cult image, says Macrobius (Saturn. 1, 23, 10) came from 
Heliopolis in Egypt by way of Assyria. The ambiguity of 
Lucian’s Greek (for ἱερὸν suggests '* holy place ") seems meant 
to convey the jocose implication that the magnificent new 
temple, built by Antoninus Pius, had been transported 
thither without human hands. 

3 To natives of Byblos their goddess was just Baalat 
(Mistress), and to other Semites Baalat Gebal (Mistress 
of Byblos) ; in Syriac and Greek Baltis or Beltisis used as if it 
were her name. So too Adonis to them was simply Adon 
(Lord); an early name, or perhaps epithet, was Kliun 
(Philo of Byblos; cf. Baudissin, p. 76, Meyer, Gesch., p. 395). 
It was only late, if at all, that he was there identified with 
Tammuz, upon whom, as fourth king of Erech, see Clay, 
pp. 44 sqq. The temple, which contained a haetylic stone, 
is represented on coins (Babelon, Perses Achéménides, p. 200, 
and pl xxvii, 11 and 12). 





ej > ’ > f » ^ 
ὅκως Αἰγύπτιοι ἀποθανόντος "Απιος. γυναικῶν 
ιν € 4 * b 7 ’ / / 
δὲ ὁκόσαι οὐκ ἐθέλουσι ξύρεσθαι, τοιήνδε ζημίην 
- - e 
ἐκτελέουσιν' ἐν μιῇ ἡμέρῃ ἐπὶ πρησει τῆς ὥρης 
ἵστανται' ἡ δὲ ἀγορὴ μούνοισι ξείνοισι mapa- 
’ ~ e M 2 ~ > SY: x 
κέαται, καὶ o μισθὸς ἐς τὴν ᾿Αφροδίτην θυσίη 
t hy 
[ὑσὶ δὲ ἔνιοι Βυβλίων of λέγουσι παρὰ σφίσι 
z . v ~ 3 ld b M 
τεθάφθαι τὸν Ὄσιριν τὸν Αἰγύπτιον, καὶ τὰ 
/ Ν N »y , 3 . M `~ 9 * 9 
πένθεα καὶ τὰ ὄργια οὐκ ἐς τὸν "Αδωνιν ἀλλ᾽ ἐς 
τὸν Ὄσιριν πάντα πρήσσεσθαι. ἐρέω δὲ καὶ 
ει ^ / M [4 M e , 
ὁκόθεν καὶ τάδε πιστὰ δοκέουσι. κεφαλὴ ἑκά- 
» 3 2 ΄ , . ΄ > / 
στου ἔτεος ἐξ Αιγύπτου ἐς τὴν Βύβλον ἀπικνέεται 
πλώουσα τὸν μεταξὺ πλόον ἑπτὰ ἡμερέων, καί 
΄ / 
μιν οἱ ἄνεμοι φέρουσι θείῃ ναυτιλίῃ' τρέπεται δὲ 
> ’ > 2 3 / \ , 5 / 
οὐδαμά, ἀλλ ἐς μούνην την BvfXov ἀπικνέεται. 
καὶ ἔστι τὸ σύμπαν θωῦμα. καὶ τοῦτο ἑκάστου 
. ^ [4 
ἔτεος γίγνεται, τὸ καὶ 1 ἐμεῦ παρεόντος ἐν Βύβλῳ 
3 ’ ~ \ . 3 / / 
ἐγένετο" καὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν ἐθεησάμην Βυβλίνην. 
1 καὶ τοῦτο------τὺ καὶ N: not in TE. In both old MSS. the 

first hand left a space in which these words were entered 
long afterward. 

* Lucian abridges his account of the rites because they 
were familiar. l 560 no reason to suppose that they differed 
essentially from the Alexandrian rites as described b 
Theocritus (15 end) From him we learn that Adonis 
comes to life for but a day, during which he is couched with 
the goddess in the temple. Next morning the women carry 
him to the sea-shore, and (cf. scholion) commit him to the 
waves. Lucian's phrase és τὸν ἠέρα πέμπουσι, which has 
been curiously interpreted, is to my mind equivalent to 
ἔξω οἰσεῦμες in Theocritus, and the usual ἐκκομίζουσι. 

2 See Frazer i, 36 sqq., and the comment of How and 
Wells on Herodotus 1, 199. Note also the apocryphal 
upistle of Jeremiah, 42; and on the ‘‘hire,” Deuteronomy 
23, 18. 



schaven here hedes as don Egyptyens whan that 
Apis is ded.! And alle wommen that wole not lette 
schaven hem, thei payen this penance, that upon 
o day thei profren hem for achat of here beautee ; 
but the merkat is open to straungers alle only, and 
the huyr becometh an offring to Venus. 

Natheles, ther ben somme men of Byblos that 
seyn Osiris of Egypte lyeth enterred amonges hem, 
and the doel and the cerimonyes ben alle made in 
mynde of Osiris in stede of Adoon.? And I schalle 
seye you the cause whi this semeth hem trewe. 
Eech yeer an heed cometh from Egypte to Byblos, read 
that passeth the see betwene in 7 iorneyes, and the 
windes dryven it, be governaunce of the Goddes, 
and it torneth not asyde in no wyse but cometh all 
only to Byblos. And this is hoolyche merveylle. whotty 
It befalleth everyche yere, and befel that tyme that 
I was in Byblos, and I saughe the heed, that is of 

3 Byblos was known to the Egyptians from the time of the 
Old Kingdom, and her goddess impressed them deeply. She 
was identified with Hathor at least as early as the Middle 
Kingdom. and her story contributed to the shaping of the 
Isis-Osiris myth. When the coffin of Osiris was thrown into 
the Nile by Typhon, it drifted out to sea, and so to Byblos, 
where Isis sought and fonnd it (Plutarch, Jsis and Osiris, 
ο. 13 sqq.; cf. Frazer, ii. 9 sqq., 12, 127; Baudissin, pp. 
193 sqq.). 

4 The pun signifies that the head was of papyrus, made, no 
doubt, of a sort of papier máché, as in a mummy-case. In 
the commentary of Cyril on Isaiah 18 (Migne 70, 441) we 
learn, instead, of an earthen pot that contained a letter from 
the women of Alexandria to those of Byblos, saying that 
Aphrodite had found Adonis. There may be something in 
the tale of its drift, for the Nile current sets over to the 
Phoenician shore, and it is Nile mud that silts up Phoenician 
harbours (cf. H. Guthe, Paldstina, p. 27). 




Ἔνι δὲ καὶ ἄλλο θωῦμα ἐν τῇ χώρῃ τῇ Βυβλίῃ. 
ποταμὸς ἐκ τοῦ Λιβάνου τοῦ οὔρεος ἐς τὴν ἅλα 
ἐκδιδοῖ" οὔνομα τῷ ποταμῷ "Άδωνις ἐπικέαται. 
ὁ δὲ ποταμὸς ἑκάστου ἐ ἔτεος αἱμάσσεται καὶ τὴν 
χροιὴν ὀλέσας ἐσπίπτει ἐς τὴν θάλασσαν καὶ 
φοινίσσει τὸ πολλὸν τοῦ πελάγεος καὶ σημαίνει 
τοῖς Βυβλίοις τὰ πένθεα. μυθέονται δὲ ὅτι 
ταύτῃσι τῆσι ἡμέρῃσιν ὁ "Άδωνις à ἀνὰ τὸν Λίβανον 
τιτρώσκεται, καὶ τὸ αἷμα ἐς τὸ ὕδωρ ἐρχόμενον 
ἀλλάσσει τὸν ποταμὸν καὶ τῷ ῥόῳ τὴν ἐπωνυμίην 
διδοῖ. ταῦτα μὲν οἱ πολλοὶ λέγουσιν, ἐμοὶ δέ 
τις ἀνὴρ Ῥύβλιος ἀληθέα δοκέων λέγειν ἑτέρην 
ἀπηγέετο τοῦ πάθεος αἰτίην. ἔλεγεν δὲ ὧδε: “o 
"Άδωνις ὁ ποταμός, ὦ ξεῖνε, διὰ τοῦ Λιβάνου 
ἔρχεται' ὁ δὲ Λίβανος κάρτα ξανθόγεώς ἐστιν. 
ἄνεμοι ὧν τρηχέες ἐκείνῃσι τῆσι ἡμέρῃσι ἱστά- 
μενοι τὴν γῆν τῷ ποταμῷ ἐπιφέρουσιν ἐοῦσαν ἐς 
τὰ μάλιστα μιλτώδεα, ἡ δὲ γῆ μιν αἱμώδεα 
τίθησιν" καὶ τοῦδε. τοῦ πάθεος οὐ τὸ αἷμα, τὸ 
λέγουσιν, ἀλλ) n χώρη αὐτίη. ὁ μέν μοι Βύβλιος 
τοσάδε -ἀπηγέετο' εἰ δὲ ἀτρεκέως ταῦτα ἔλεγεν, 
ἐμοὶ μὲν δοκέει κάρτα θείη καὶ τοῦ ἀνέμου ἡ 

᾿Ανέβην δὲ καὶ ἐς τὸν Λίβανον. ἐκ Ἠύβλου, 
ὁδὸν ἡμέρης, πυθόμενος αὐτόθι ἀρχαῖον ἱρὸν 

! The Adonis is the present Nahr Ibrahim, a short distance 
S. of Byblos. ''I have crossed it on Easter day when it was 
turbid and ruddy with the rich red sandstone soil from 
Lebanon” (C. R. Conder, Palestine, p. 206; cf. Frazer i, 
225). A similar discoloration of certain unnamed rivers and 
springs is implied in the tale of Philo of Byblos that Uranus 



And in the londe of Byblos is an other merveylle, 
a Ryvere goynge out of the Mount Libanon in to the 
See, the which is cleped Adoon. Everyche yeer it 
is bebledde and leseth his kyndely hewe, and whan natural 
it falleth in to the See, it maketh mochel therof 
rede; and so it betokneth the doel to hem of 
Byblos. For they seyn that in tho dayes Adoon 
is ywounded up Libanon, and his blod that cometh 
into the water chaungeth the ryvere and yeveth the 
streme his name. Thus seyn lewed folk. But I 
trowe that a man of Byblos spak sothe that devysed 
me an other cause of the chaunge, seyinge: “The 
Flom Adoon, o straunger, renneth thorgh Libanon, 
and erthe of Libanon is right broun. Therfore whan 
roughe windes that arysen in tho dayes beren the 
erthe to the ryvere, the erthe, that is ful rody, 
maketh him blody. So of this chaunge nys not the 
blod, as they seyn, the resoun, but the lond." He 
of Byblos devysed me thus; but and al it so be that 
he spak trewely, yit to me it semeth passing 
merveyllous that the wind aryseth at the righte 

Also, I went up on Libanon fro Byblos, oon 
iorneye, be cause I lernede that ther was an old 

was mutilated by Cronus at a certain place in the interior 
near springs and rivers, that his blood flowed into them, and 
that the place was still pointed out (Müller, Fr. Hist. Graec., 
iii, p. 568). Epiphanius (adv. Haeres. 51, 30) bears personal 
witness that at the exact day and hour of the miracle of Cana 
the water of a spring at Cibyra in Caria used to turn into 
wine, and on the word of his brothers that the same was true 
of the river of Gerasa in Arabia. He does not tell us who is 
his warrant in the case of the Nile, but observes that that is 
why the natives bottle and set away Nile-water on a certain 
date. See also Pausanias 4, 35, 9, and Frazer's note. 



᾿Αϕροδίτης € ἔμμεναι, τὸ Κινύρης εἴσατο, καὶ εἶδον 
τὸ ipo», καὶ ἀρχαῖον ἦν. 
Τάδε μέν ἐστι τὰ ἐν τῇ Συρίῃ ἀρχαῖα καὶ 

10 μεγάλα ἱρά, τοσούτων δὲ ἐόντων ἐμοὶ δοκέει 


οὐδὲν τῶν ἐν τῇ ἱρῇ πόλει μέξον ἔμμεναι οὐδὲ 
νηὸς ἄλλος ἁγιώτερος οὐδὲ χώρη ἄλλη ἱροτέρη. 
ἔνι δὲ ἐν αὐτῷ καὶ ἔργα πολυτελέα καὶ ἀρχαῖα 
ἀναθήματα καὶ πολλὰ θωύματα καὶ ξόανα θεο- 
πρεπέα. καὶ θεοὶ δὲ κάρτα αὐτοῖσιν ἐμφανέες" 
ἱδρώει γὰρ. δὴ ὧν παρὰ σφίσι τὰ ξόανα καὶ 
κινέεται καὶ Χρησμηγορέει, καὶ βοὴ δὲ πολλάκις 
ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ νηῷ κλεισθέντος τοῦ ἱροῦ, καὶ 
πολλοὶ ἤκουσαν. ναὶ μὴν καὶ ὄλβου πέρι ἐν 
τοῖσιν ἐγὼ οἶδα πρῶτον ἐστιν" πολλὰ γὰρ 
αὐτοῖσιν ἀπικνέεται χρήματα ἔκ τε Δραβίης καὶ 
Φοινίκων καὶ Βαβυλωνίων καὶ ἄλλα ἐκ Kanra- 
δοκίης, τὰ δὲ καὶ Κίλικες φέρουσι, τὰ δὲ καὶ 
᾿Ασσύριοι. εἶδον δὲ ἐγὼ καὶ τὰ ἐν τῷ νηῷ λάθρῃ 
ἀποκέαται, ἐσθῆτα πολλὴν καὶ ἄλλα ὁκόσα ἐς 
ἄργυρον ἢ ἐς «χρυσὸν ἀποκέκρυται. ὁρταὶ μὲν 
γὰρ καὶ πανηγύριες οὐδαμοῖσιν ἄλλοισιν ἀνθρώπων 
τοσαίδε ἀποδεδέχαται. 

Ἱστορέοντι δέ pot ἐτέων πέρι, ὁκόσα τῷ ἱρῷ 
ἐστιν, καὶ τὴν θεὸν αὐτοὶ ἥντινα δοκέουσιν, 
πολλοὶ λόγοι ἐλέγοντο, τῶν οἱ μὲν ἱροί, οἱ δὲ 

1 At Aphaca, between Byblos and Baalbek, at the head 
of the Adonis, where Adon was buried and Baalat died of 
grief. Down to the fifth eentury a bright light appearing in 
the sky near the temple summoned the worshippers at set 
times, and an artificial pond gave omens; offerings were 
thrown into it, which sank if the goddess was favourable or 
floated if she was adverse (Zosimus i, 58; cf. Socrates 1, 18). 
The site is eloquently described by Frazer, i 1, 28, and pictured 



seyntuarye of Venus that Cinyras founded; and I 
saughe the temple, and it was old.! 

Thise ben the olde and grete seyntuaryes in 
Surrye. But of hem alle, as I wene, is non gretter 
than tho in the Holy Cytee, ne non other temple 
mo blessed, ne non other lond holier. Costevouse 
werkes ben therinne, and aunciene offringes, and 
manye merveylles, and symulacres in lyknesse of 
goddes. Also, the goddes ben apertely reveled unto 
hem; for here symulacres sweten and meven and 
prophecyen, and ofte tymes hath ben schowtynge 
in the temple whan the holy place was under lokke, 
and many han herde. Certes, in richesse it is first 
amonges alle that I knowe; for thider cometh moche 
tresor from Arabye and Phenicye and Babiloyne, 
and moche fro Cappadocye, and som Cilicyens 
bryngen, and som Assuryeus. And [| saughe what 
hath ben prively put up in the temple, many robes 
and other thinges that have ben chosen out as 
silver outher gold. And of festes and solempnytees 
noon other folk in the world hath apoynted so 

Whan I asked how many yeres the seyntuarye 
hadde dured, and who thei wenden that here 
Goddesse were, manye stories weren tolde, both 

in Perrot-Chipiez, Hist. de PArt iii, fig. 18, opposite p. ὅθ; 
for the rock-sculptures in the neighbourhood, to one of which 
the description of the goddess in Macrobius (Saturn. 1, 91, 5) 
refers, see Baudissin, p. 78 and pls. i-iii, and for the ruins of 
the temple, destroyed under Constantine but possibly rebuilt 
under Julian, Rouvier, Bulletin Archéologique, 1900, 169 sqq. 
Lucian's amusing reticence is by way of parody on Herodotus, 
and derives its point from the fact that his reader, knowing 
the reputation of the place (Euseb. Vit. Constant. 3, 55), is 
all agog to hear about it. 






ἐμφανέες, οἱ δὲ κάρτα μυθώδεες, καὶ ἄλλοι 
βάρβαροι, οἱ μὲν τοῖσιν" ζλλησιν ὁμολογέοντες' 
τοὺς ἐγὼ πάντας μὲν ἐρέω, δέκομαι δὲ οὐδαμά. 

Οἱ μὲν ὧν πολλοὶ Δευκαλίωνα τὸν Σκύθεα 1 τὸ 
ἱρὸν εἴσασθαι λέγουσιν, τοῦτον Δευκαλίωνα ἐπὶ 
τοῦ τὸ πολλὸν ὕδωρ ἐγένετο. Δευκαλίωνος δὲ 
πέρι λόγον ἐν "Ελλησιν ἤκουσα, τὸν "Ελληνες èm 
αὐτῷ λέγουσιν. ὁ δὲ μῦθος ὦδε ἔχει. 

"H8e ἡ γενεή, οἱ νῦν -ἄνθρωποι, οὐ πρῶτοι 
ἐγένοντο, ἀλλ᾽ ἐκείνη μὲν ἡ γενεὴ πάντες ὤλοντο, 
οὗτοι δὲ γένεος τοῦ ME εἰσί, τὸ αὖτις ἐκ 
Δευκαλίωνος ἐς πληθὺν ἀπίκετο. ἐκείνων δὲ 
πέρι τῶν ἀνθρώπων τάδε μυθέονται" ὑβρισταὶ 
κάρτα ἐόντες ἀθέμιστα ἔ ἔργα ἔπρησσον, οὔτε γὰρ 
ὅρκια ἐφύλασσον οὔτε ξείνους ἐδέκοντο οὔτε ixe- 
τέων ἠνείχοντο, av?’ ὧν σφίσιν ἡ ἡ μεγάλη συμφορὴ 
ἀπίκετο. αὐτίκα ἡ γῆ πολλὸν ὕδωρ ἐκδιδοῖ καὶ 
ὄμβροι μεγάλοι ἐγένοντο καὶ οἱ ποταμοὶ κατέ- 
βησαν µέζονες καὶ ἡ θάλασσα ἐπὶ πολλὸν ἀνέβη, 
ἐς ὃ πάντα ὕδωρ ἐγένοντο καὶ πάντες ὤλοντο, 
Δευκαλίων δὲ μοῦνος ἀνθρώπων ἐλίπετο ἐς 
γενεὴν δευτέρην. εὐβουλίης τε καὶ τοῦ εὐσεβέος 
εἵνεκα. ἡ δέ οἱ σωτηρίη ἧδε ἐγένετο' λάρνακα 
μεγάλην, τὴν αὐτὸς εἶχεν, ἐς ταύτην ἐσβιβάσας 
παῖδάς T€ καὶ γυναῖκας ἑωυτοῦ ἐσέβη" ἐσβαίνοντι 
δέ οἱ ἀπίκοντο σύες καὶ ἵπποι καὶ λεόντων γένεα 
καὶ ὄφιες καὶ ἄλλα ὁκόσα ἐν γῆ νέμονται, πάντα 

1 Σισύθεα Buttmann. 

1 Deucalion in the rôle of a Scythian is odd. Hence 
Buttmann, rightly recognising that the tale is close akin to 



prestes lore and lewede folkes, and verraye fables; 
and some weren outlandissche, but othere somme 
acordeden to hem of Grece. Alle thise seyinges I 
schalle reherce, but I beleve hem not in no kynde. 

The more partie seyn, Deucalioun, the Scythe,! 
founded the seyntuarye—that Deucalioun in the 
tyme thereof the grete Flode befel. Of Deucalioun 
I have herd a tale amonges Grekes, that thei tellen 
in mynde of him ; and the storie is of this maner 

This generacioun, the men of now a dayes, nas not 
the firste, but that firste generacioun al perissched, 
and thise ben of the seconde generacioun ihat cam 
of Deucalioun and multiplyed eftsones. Of tho 
firste men, thei seyn that thei were right fclonouse 
and didde wikkede dedis, for thei ne kepten not non 
othes, ne herberweden no straungers, ne receyveden 
no fugityves; and for that skylle the grete tribu- 
lacioun cam upon hem. Anon the erthe sent forthe 
moche water and grete reynes were made and the 
ryveres flowede gretli and the see wex wondur high, 
in to tyme that alle thinges weren chaunged to water 
and alle men weren dede, outtaken Deucalioun that 
was laft unto the seconde generacioun for his gode 
conseil and his gode werkes. And his deliveraunce 
cam in this wyse. In to a gret arke that he hadde he 
putte his children and his wyves, and thanne entrede, 
and at entrynge ther camen to him swyn and hors 
and lyouns kynd and serpentes and alle bestes that 

the Babylonian flood.story, proposed the reading Σισύθεα, 
considering Sisythes a possible variant of the name that in 
Berossus is Xisouthros. ‘This is tempting, and has been 
widely accepted ; but the mistake, if there be one, is quite as 
likely to be due to Lucian or to his informant as to a scribe. 





és .ξεύγεα. ὁ δὲ πάντα ἐδέκετο, καί μιν οὐκ 
ἐσίνοντο, ἆλλά σφι μεγάλη διόθεν φιλίη ἐγένετο. 
καὶ ἐν μιῇ λάρνακι πάντες ἔπλευσαν ἔστε τὸ 
ὕδωρ ἐπεκράτεεν. τὰ μὲν Δευκαλίωνος πέρι 
I£AXqves ἱστορέουσι. 

Τὸ δὲ ἀπὸ τούτου λέγεται λόγος ὑπὸ τῶν ἐν 
τῇ ἱρὴ πόλει μεγάλως ἄξιος. θωυμάσαι, ὅτι ἐν 
τῇ σφετέρῃ χώρη X HR μέγα ἐγένετο καὶ τὸ 
σύμπαν ὕδωρ κατεδέξατο' Δευκαλίων δέ, ἐπεὶ 
τάδε ἐγένετο, βωμούς τε ἔθετο καὶ νηὸν ἐπὶ τῷ 
χάσματι Ἡρης ἅγιον ἐστήσατο. ἐγὼ δὲ καὶ τὸ 
χάσμα εἶδον, καὶ ἔ ἔστιν ὑπὸ τῷ νηῷ κάρτα μικρόν. 
εἰ μὲν ὧν πάλαι καὶ μέγα ἐὸν νῦν τοιόνδε ἐγένετο, 
οὐκ οἶδα" τὸ δὲ ἐγὼ εἶδον, μικρόν ἐστιν. 

Lipa δὲ τῆς ἱστορίης τόδε πρήσσουσιν. δὶς 
ἑκάστου ἔτεος ἐκ θαλάσσης ὕδωρ ἐς τὸν νηὸν 
ἀπικνέεται. φέρουσι δὲ οὐκ ἱρέες μοῦνον, ἀλλὰ 
πᾶσα Σδυρίη καὶ ᾿Αραβίη, καὶ πέρηθεν τοῦ 
Βὐφρήτεω ; πολλοὶ ἄνθρωποι ἐς θάλασσαν ë ἔρχον- 
ται καὶ πάντες ὕδωρ φέρουσιν, τὸ πρῶτα μεν ἐν 
τῷ νηῷ ἐκχέουσι, μετὰ δὲ ἐς τὸ χάσμα κατέρ- 
χεται, καὶ δέκεται τὸ χάσμα μικρὸν ἐὸν ὕδατος. 
χρῆμα πολλόν. τὰ δὲ ποιέοντες Δευκαλίωνα ἐν 
TO ἱρῷ τόνδε νόμον θέσθαι λέγουσι συμφορῆς τε 
καὶ εὐεργεσίης μνῆμα ἔμμεναι. 

1 In spite of Lucian’s repeated assurance, the story is more 
Semitic than Greek. On the West Semitic origin of the 
flood-story, see Clay, where also a translation of the Baby- 
lonian tale according to Berossus may be found (p. 82 sq.). 

* At Gezer, not far from Jerusalem, ‘‘there is a living 
tradition that the waters of the flood burst forth in the 
neighbourhood " (Cook, p. 107). Likewise at Athens, within 
the enclosure of Olympian Zeus, in the precinct of Olympian 



lyven on erthe, two and two. And he resceyvede 
hem alle, and thei diden him non harm, but betwene 
hem was great charitee fro the goddes, and in oon 
arke thei alle seyleden why] the water prevayled. 
So seyn Grekes of Deucalioun.! 

But of that that sewede, men of the Holy Cytee followed 
tellen a tale that is worthy of gret merveylle, how 
that in here londe opnede a huge hole and resceyvede 
alle the water; and whan this happed, Deucalioun 
leet maken awteres and leet bylden over the hole a αἰίατε 
temple halowed to Iuno.? Isaughe the hole, that is 
benethe the temple, a right lityl oon. If whilom it 
was gret and now is become suche as it is, I wot 
neer, but that I saughe is smal. 

In tokene of that storie thei don thus. Twyes 

eech yeer water cometh fro the See in to the temple. 
And not prestes only bryngen it, but al Surrye and 
Arabye ; and fro beyonden Eufrate gon manye men 
to the See and bryngen alle watre, that anon thei 
scheden out in the temple, and thanne it goth 
adoun in to that hole; and al be it that the hole is 
smal, natheles it taketh inne gret plentee of water. 
And in doynge thus thei seyn that Deucalioun made 
suche ordeynaunce for the seyntuarye in memorie of 
that tribulacioun and that benefice.? 
Earth: “here the ground is cloven to a cubit’s width; and 
they say that after the deluge which happened in Deucalion's 
time the water ran away down this cleft. Every year they 
throw into it wheaten meal kneaded with honey " (Pausanias 
1, 18, 7, Frazer's translation). 

3 Further details of this rite are given in c. 48.  Frazer's 
note on Pausanias l.c. compares an Athenian Hydrophoria 
connected with the memory of the flood ; also the annual 
water-pouring in the Temple at Jerusalem on the Feast of 

Tabernacles, The performance was not simply commemor- 
ative; the offering at Athens of meal and honey was 



€ . ? , ^ , e^ / » . ” 
O μὲν ὧν ἀρχαῖος αὐτοῖσι λόγος ἀμφὶ τοῦ 

e ^ / , / » )! / 5 al 
14 ipod τοιόσδε ἐστίν. ἄλλοι δὲ Σεμίραμιν τὴν 
Βαβυλωνίην, τῆς δὴ πολλὰ ἔργα ἐν τῇ ᾿Ασίγ! 
ἐστίν, ταύτην καὶ τόδε τὸ ἕδος εἴσασθαι vopi- 

3 ej «9 » . € ^ 
ζουσιν, οὐκ “Hpn δὲ εἴσασθαι ἀλλὰ μητρὶ ἑωυτῆς, 
τῆς Δερκετὼ οὔνομα. Δερκετοῦς δὲ εἶδος ἐν 
Φοινίκῃ ἐθεησάμην, θέημα ξένον: ἡμισέη μὲν 
ε A 

γυνή, τὸ δὲ ὁκόσον ἐκ μηρῶν ἐς ἄκρους πόδας 
ἰχθύος οὐρὴ ἀποτείνεται. ἡ δὲ ἐν τῇ ip πόλει 
πᾶσα γυνή ἐστιν, πίστιες δὲ τοῦ λόγου αὐτοῖσιν 
οὐ κάρτα ἐμφανέες. ἰχθύας χρῆμα ἱρὸν νομί- 
ζουσιν καὶ οὔκοτε ἰχθύων ψαύουσι' καὶ ὄρνιθας 

chthonic, and so was the water-pouring there (Cleidemus in 
Athenaeus 5, p. 410A). At Hieropolis the object was to quell 
evil spirits, according to Melito. ‘But touching Nebo. 
which is in Mabug, why should I write to you; for lo ! all 
the priests which are iu Mabug know that it is the image of 
Orpheus, a Thracian Magus. And Hadran (?.e. Hadaranes, 
a double of Hadad) is the image of Zaradusht, a Persian 
Magus, because both of these Magi practised Magism to a 
well which is in à wood in Mabug, in which was an unclean 
spirit, and it committed violence and attacked the passage 
of every one who was passing by in all that place in which 
now the fortress of Mabug is located ; and these same Magi 
charged Simi, the daughter of Hadad (cf. c. 33), that she 
should draw water froin the sea, and cast it into the well, in 
order that the spirits should not come up," etc. (Cureton, 
Spicil. Syr. 44 sq.) Early modern travellers have seen sea- 
water poured into a brook (Baudissin, Studien, ii, p. 181), and 
it is perhaps significant that nowadays the Jàns are angry if 
water is spilled on the hearth (Baldensperger, Immovable 
East, p. 85). Cf. Baudissin, p. 437, 3. 

1 A legend of Ascalon made Semiramis the daughter of 
Derccto by a Syrian youth with whom Aphrodite (ie. 
Astarte) made Derceto fallin love. In her grief and shame, 



Now that is the olde aunciene storie amonges 
hem touching to the temple. But othere men 
trowen that Semiramys of Babyloyne, of the which 
sothely ben manye werkes in Asye, sche made this 
foundacioun, and not for Iuno but for hir owne 
Moder, that hadde to name Derketoun.| And I 
beheld the schap of Derketoun in Phenicye, a 
straunge merveylle, halfundel womman, but the 
tothere half, wel fro thighes to feet, streccheth out 
in a fissches tayl.2 But the ymage in the Holy 
Cytee is hoolyche woman, and the tokenes of here 
seyinge ben not right certeyn. Thei leven fissches 
holy thynge, and thei ne touchen fissche never; and 

Derceto destroyed the youth, exposed the daughter, and her- 
self leaped into a pool and was turned into a fish. Semiramis 
was miraculously attended by doves until she was discovered 
and handed over to Simmas, a royal overseer ; eventually 
she married Ninus (Ctesias, quoted by Diodorus Siculus 2, 4). 
She was intimately connected with temple traditions at 
Hieropolis: two statues of her stood near the temple, with 
one of which the story was connected that she had once 
tried to usurp the place of the goddess (cc. 39, 40), and some 
thought that the ** token " of c. 33 represented her. 

? Cook, p. 30 sg. speaks of ''various rude and almost 
shapeless objects of bronze which have been interpreted, 
thanks to a more realistic specimen from the Judaean Tell 
Zakariya, as models of an amphibious creature with human 
head and the tail of a fish ;" and he adds: ‘ʻa splendid 
Carthaginian sarcophagus of a priestess (M. Moore, Carthage 
of the Phoenicians, frontispiece) represents a woman of strange 
beauty with the lower part of the body so draped as to give 
it a close resemblance to a fish's tail." But in Hellenistic 
times the goddess was almost always represented in human 
form. For other stories of her transformation, see W. 
Robertson Smith, Eng. Hist. Rev., ii (1887), 303 sq. ; Gruppe, 
Gr. Mythol. p. 1345; for the survival of the belief into 
modern times, Nóldeke, Zeitschr. der Deutsch. Morgenlánd. 
Gesellsch. 35, 220. 




TOUS μεν ἄλλους σιτέονται, περιστερὴν δὲ μούνην 
οὐ σιτέονται, ἀλλὰ σφίσιν ἥδε iph. τὰ δὲ yt 
γνόμενα δοκέει αὐτοῖς ποιέεσθαι Δερκετοῦς καὶ 
Σεμιράμιος εἵνεκα, τὸ μὲν ὅτι Δερκετὼ μορφὴν 
ἰχθύος ἔχει, τὸ δὲ ὅτι τὸ Σεμιράµιος τέλος ἐς 
περιστερὴν ἀπίκετο. ἀλλ) ἐγὼ τὸν μὲν νηὸν ὅτι 
εμιράμιος ἔργον ἐστὶν τάχα κου δέξομαι' Δερ- 
κετοῦς δὲ τὸ ἱρὸν ἔ ἔμμεναι οὐδαμὰ πείθομαι, ἐπεὶ 
καὶ παρ᾽ Αἰγυπτίων ἐνίοισιν ἰχθύας οὐ σιτέονται, 
καὶ τάδε οὐ Δερκετοῖ χαρίζονται. 
"E δὲ M 37 / e / ` 3 ` ^ 
στιν ÒE καὶ ἄλλος λόγος tpos, τον ἐγὼ σοφοῦ 
3 ` »y e ς ` AG TE / H / N λ 
ἀνδρὸς ἤκουσα, ὅτι ἡ μὲν Gen Pén ἐστίν, τὸ δὲ 
ε ον vy / » N f Ν ` 
ἱρὸν "Αττεω ποίημα. “Attys δὲ γένος μὲν Λυδὸς 
5 ^ \ \ » NEUE / 28 ὃ A ` 
ἦν, πρῶτος δὲ τὰ ὄργια τὰ ἐς Ῥέην ἐδι ἀξατο. καὶ 
τὰ Φρύγες καὶ Λυδοὶ καὶ Σαμόθρᾳκες ἐπιτε- 
λέουσιν, Αττεω πάντα ἔμαθον. ὡς γάρ μιν ἡ 
‘Pén ἔτεμεν, Βίου μὲν ἀνδρηίου ἀπεπαύσατο, pop- 
φὴν δὲ θηλέην ἡμείψατο καὶ ἐσθῆτα γυναικηΐην 
ἐνεδύσατο καὶ ἐς πᾶσαν γῆν φοιτέων ὄργιά τε 
ἐπετέλεεν καὶ τὰ ἔπαθεν ἀπήγέετο καὶ ΡῬέην 
ἤειδεν. ἐν τοῖσιν καὶ ἐς Συρίην ἀπίκετο. ὡς δὲ 

e ’ , / 5 » , `~ 5 
οἱ πέρην Εὐφρήτεω ἄνθρωποι οὔτε αὐτὸν οὔτε 

1 See cc. 45, 54, with the notes thereon. 

2 On the transformation of Semiramis into a dove, see 
Athenagoras, Legat. pro Christ. 76 (Ctesiae Fragmenta ed. 
Müller, p. 17) ; Diodorus 2, 20, 2. Diodorus (2, 4, 6; cf. 
Hesychius) says that the name Semiramis is derived from 
the word for dove in the Syrian dialect. At all events the 
similarity of the Assyrian word suminatu (dove) helps to 
account for her introduction into these stories (Lehmann- 
Haupt, Roscher's Lexikon, 8. v. Semiramis, p. 694). 

3 Lucian’s scepticism is unjustified. Pliny (5, 81) and 
Strabo (16, p. 785) were better informed. Atargatis is the 
Greek version of ‘Atar-‘ata; Derceto is the Greek version 



though of othere foules thei eten alle, the dowve 
thei ne eten not, but sche is holy, as thei wenen.! 
And thise thinges ben don, thei trowen, be cause of 
Derketoun and Semiramys, the oon for that Der- 
ketoun hath schap of a fissche, and the tother 
because that atte laste Semiramys tornede to a 
dowve.? But to me, that the temple was bylded of 
Semiramys peraventure may I graunte; but that it 
longeth to Derketoun I ne leve not in no kynde.? 
For amonges somme peples of Egypte thei ne eten 
not fissche, and that is not don for no favour to 

Ther is also an other holy storie that I herde from a 
wys man, how that the goddesse is Cibella and the 
servys founded of Attis. Attis was a Lydien of 
kynde, that first leet teche the ceremonyes that 
longen to Cibella. And alle rytes that Phrygiens and 
Lydiens and Samothracyens perfourmen, tho rytes 
lerneden thei of Attis. For whan Cibella gelt him, 
he cessed to lede the lyf of a man, but chaunged 
to femele schappe, and did on wommenes clothynge, 
and goynge to every londe perfourmed ceremonyes 
and reherced what betyd him and preysed Cibella 
in songes. Ther with alle cam he to Surrye, and for 
als moche as the peple beyonden Eufrate resceyvede 

of the abbreviated form Tar-‘ata. See Cumont in Pauly- 
Wissowa, Fealencycl., under Atargatis and Dea Syria. 

t In Astrology, c. 7, Lucian tells why these Egyptians do 
it; it is because they were especially devoted to the sign 
Pisces. This may be more than a mere jest ; Cumont says: 
** Old totems of Semitic tribes or of Egyptian nomes survived 
in the form of constellations” (Astrology and Religioun, p. 
116; cf. p. 81). But for the abstaining in Egypt other 
reasons were given, from Herodotus on (2, 37 ; cf. Plutarch, 
Isis and Osiris, cc. 7, 32, 72, and for other references, Frazer, 
Pausanias iv, p. 154). See also page 398, note 1. 



» b J > e^ ^ [4 bi CaN 3 
ὄργια ἐδέκοντο, ἐν τῷδε τῷ χώρῳ TO ἱρὸν ἐποι- 
ήσατο. σημήια δέ: ἡ θεὸς τὰ πολλὰ ἐς 'Ῥέην 


7 / / , / . / 
ἐπικνέεται.: λέοντες yap μιν φέρουσι καὶ Tüp- 

y \ > N a a / 
πανον ἔχει καὶ ἐπὶ τῇ κεφαλῇ πυργοφορέει, 
e / € 
ὁκοίην Ῥέην Λυδοὶ ποιέουσιν. ἔλεγεν δὲ καὶ 
Γάλλων πέρι, οἵ εἰσιν ἐν τῷ ἱρῷ, ὅτι Γάλλοι 
"Hpn μὲν οὐδαμά, ‘Pén δὲ τέμνονται καὶ " Arrea 

Ta δέ μοι εὐπρεπέα μὲν δοκέει ἔμμεναι, ἀληθέα 
δὲ y > . \ ^ ^ » > / y 
€ οὐ' ETEL καὶ TNS τομῆς ἄλλην αἰτίην γκουσα 
16 πολλὸν πιστοτέρην. ἀνδάνει δέ μοι ἃ λέγουσιν 
^t A , ^ A € 
τοῦ ἱροῦ πέρι τοῖς "Ελλησι τὰ πολλὰ ὁμολογέον- 
` . ΔΝ ey / N ;* y 
τες, τὴν μὲν θεὸν "Hpmv δοκέοντες, τὸ Ò ἔργον 
Διονύσου τοῦ Σεμέλης ποίημα: καὶ γὰρ δὴ Διό- 
} / » / { τον ` = 
νυσος ἐς Συρίην ἀπίκετο κείνην ὁδὸν τὴν ἦλθεν 
ἐς Αἰθιοπίην. καὶ ἔστι πολλὰ ἐν τῷ ἱρῷ Διο- 
νύσου ποιητέω σήματα, ἐν τοῖσι καὶ ἐσθῆτες 
βάρβαροι καὶ λίθοι ᾿Ινδοὶ καὶ ἐλεφάντων κέρεα, 
τὰ Διόνυσος ἐξ Αἰθιόπων ἤνεικεν, καὶ φαλλοὶ 
M e A > e^ / ? 2 ͵ 
δὲ ἑστᾶσι ἐν τοῖσι προπνλαίοισι δύο κάρτα με- 
/ 2 * ^ , / , > / z 
γάλοι, ἐπὶ τῶν ἐπίγραμμα τοιόνδε ἐπιγέγραπται, 

“τούσδε φαλλοὺς Διόνυσος "Hon μητρυιῇ avé- 

1 ἐπικνέεται Lehmann: ἐπικέεται TE: ἀπικέεται N. 



him not, ne his cerimonyes nouther, he founded the 
seyntuarye in this place. And for a signe thereof, 
the goddesse for the most partie ressembleth Cibella, 
for lyouns drawen hir and sche holt a timbre and 
bereth tours on hir hede, right as Lydiens formen 
Cibella. Also he spak of Galles that ben in the 
temple, seyinge that Galles gelden hem and counter- 
feten Attis not at alle for no worschipe of Iuno but 
for worschipe of Cibella.! 

But after myn avis, al be it that this is wel 
semynge, it is not trewe, for I have herde an other 
cause whi thei gelden hem that is a gret dele mo to 
beleven. Me liketh what men seyn of the seyntuarye 
that acorden fulle wel to hem of Grece,that demen the 
goddesse Iuno and the seyntuarye mad of Bachus, 
Semeles sone. For withouten doubte Bachus cam 
to Surrye in that passage in the whiche he wente to 
Ethiope. And in the temple ben manye tokenes of 
Bachus foundour, as namely foreyne garnements and 
precious stones of Ynde and olifauntes hornes, that 
Bachus broght from Ethiope. And two yerdes, or 
pileres, stont in the entree, passynge highe, on the 
whiche is writen this scripture : ** I Bachus presentede 

1 This identification of the Dea Syria with Rhea has been 
spoken of as a temple-legend. Is it not rather a simple 
deduction of Lucian’s ‘‘wise man," based upon general 
resemblance and upon the presence of Galli in both cults? 
The resemblance, however, was real, and the identification 
was not unusual ; a striking instance is in Bardesanes, where 
the Syriac version (Cureton, 31) has Tharatha, the Greek, as 
quoted by Eusebius, Rhea. It has been revived by modern 
scholars, notably Meyer, and with good reason ; but whether 
the ‘‘ Mother-goddess ” is Semitic in origin, as he formerly 
held, or non-Semitic (Hittite), as he now argues, is still, it 
seems to me, an open question. See note below on Combabus. 



θηκα." τὸ ἐμοὶ μέν νυν καὶ τόδε] ἀρκέει, ἐρέω 
δὲ καὶ ἄλλ. ὅ τι ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ νηῷ Διονύσου ὅ ' ὄργιον. 
Φαλλοὺς "Ελληνες Διονύσῳ ἐγείρουσιν, ἐπὶ τῶν 
καὶ τοιόνδε TL φέρουσιν, ἄνδρας μικροὺς ἐκ ξύλου 
πεποιημένους, μεγάλα αἰδοῖα ἔχοντας" καλέεται 
δὲ τάδε νευρόσπαστα. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τόδε ἐν τῷ 
ἱρῷ’ ἐν δεξιῇ τοῦ νηοῦ. κάθηται μικρὸς ἀνὴρ 
χάλκεος ἔχων αἰδοῖον μέγα. 

17  Tocáóe μὲν” ἀμφὶ τῶν οἰκιστέων τοῦ ipod 
μυθολογέουσιν. ἤδη δὲ ἐρέω καὶ τοῦ νηοῦ πέρι 
θέσιος τε ὅκως ἐγένετο καὶ ὅστις μιν ἐποιήσατο. 
λέγουσι τὸν νηὸν τὸν Ὃν. ἐόντα μὴ ἔμμεναι τὸν 
τὴν ἀρχὴν γεγενημένον,» ἀλλ᾽ ἐκεῖνον .μὲν KATEVE- 
χθῆναι χρόνῳ ὕ ὕστερον, τὸν δὲ νῦν ἐόντα Ἄτρα- 
τονίκης ἔμμεναι ποίημα, γυναικὸς τοῦ ᾿Ασσυρίων 

Δοκέει δέ μοι 7) Στρατονίκη ἐ ἐκείνη ἔμμεναι, τῆς 
ὁ πρόγονος ἠρήσατο, τὸν ἤλεγξεν τοῦ ἰητροῦ 
ἐπινοίη' ὡς γάρ μιν ἡ συμφορὴ κατέλαβεν, àun- 

1 τόδε A.M.H.: τάδε MSS. 

3 μὲν Fritzsche: μιν MSS. 

3 μὴ--γεγενημένον: first Aldine; not in MSS. TE show 
lacunae ; the space in T' is about 31 letters. 

1 Phallic pillars, further described below, cc. 28-29. The 
inscription is much too pointed to be genuine ; it is a hoax 
like that in the True Story 1, 7 (vol. i, p. 255). Pillars were 
an ordinary feature of Semitic ‘‘high places," both of wood 
(asherim) and of stone (masseboth) ; see Frazer, Folklore, iii, 
62 sqq. In the case of the asherim I know of no direct 
evidence that they were phallie, but the masseboth, many of 
which still survive, are sometimes clearly of that nature 
(Cook, 14, 28 ; sce also le Strange, Palestine under the Moslems, 
p. 294, for a curious survival of this significance). The 
pilars at Hieropolis were made of wood, since cleats were 



thise yerdes to Iuno my step moder."! Now to 
me this sufficeth, natheles I schalle seye you another 
thing that is in the temple, that longeth to cere- 
monyes of Bachus. Men of Grece formen yerdes 
for worschipe of Bachus that beren on hem litylle 
men made of wode that han grete membres, the 
whiche men thei nempnen Popets.? And in the 
temple ther is this same thing; on the righte syde 
sitt a lity] man of brasse that hath a gret membre. 

So seyn thei of the foundours of the holy place. 
And now I schalle speke of the temple, wher that it 
was sett and who that leet bylden it. Men seyn, 
the temple that stont now is not that oon the 
whiche was bylded atte firste, but that was beten 
doun sithen som tyme, and the temple that stont 
now is the werk of Stratonice, wyf to the Kyng 
of Assurye.? 

I trowe, this is thilke Stratonice that hir step 
sone lovede, that was betraysed by the phisicyens 4 
invencioun, For whan the infortune oppressed him, 

nailed to them; they were therefore asherim, and form a 
further bond between Ashera (Astarte) and  Atargatis. 
Whether originally phallic or not, they were in Lucian's day 
themselves used as ‘‘ high places " ; see below. 

2 See Herodotus 2, 48, on Egyptian puppets (ἀγάλματα 

3 Stratonice was daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes and 
wife of Seleucus Nicator ; she was subsequently surrendered 
by him to his son Antiochus I, Soter, by a former wife, 
Apama. The famous tale which follows (in Lucian a pure 
digression, but quite in the Herodotean manner) is rehearsed 
at length by Plutarch also (Demetrius 38). Rohde has made 
it pretty clear that, though possible enough (Galen claimed 
to have detected hidden love in the same way), as far as 
Antiochus is concerned it is fiction (Gréech. Roman, p. 52.) 

* Erasistratus (Plutarch, /.c.). 



χανέων τῷ κακῷ αἰσχρῷ δοκέοντι κατ᾽ ἡσυχίην 
ἐνόσεεν, ἔκειτο δὲ ἀλγέων οὐδέν, καί οἱ 5 τε χροιὴ 
πάμπαν ἐτρέπετο καὶ τὸ σῶμα be ἡμέρης épa- 
ραίνετο. ὁ δὲ ἰ ἰητρὸς ὡς εἶδέ μιν ἐς οὐδὲν ἐμφανὲς 
ἀρρωστέοντα, ἔγνω τὴν νοῦσον ἔρωτα ἔμμεναι. 
ἔρωτος δὲ ἀφανέος πολλὰ σημήια, ὀφθαλμοί τε 
ἀσθενέες καὶ φωνὴ καὶ χροιὴ καὶ δάκρυα. μαθὼν 
δὲ ταῦτα ἐποίεε' χειρὶ μὲν τῇ δεξιῇ εἶχε τοῦ 
νεηνίσκου. τὴν καρδίην, ἐκάλεε δὲ τοὺς ἀνὰ την 
οἰκίην πάντας" ὁ δὲ τῶν μὲν ἄλλων ἐσιόντων 
πάντων ἐν ἠρεμίῃ μεγάλῃ ἦν, ὡς δὲ ἡ μητρυιὴ 
ἀπίκετο, τήν τε χροιὴν ἠλλάξατο καὶ ἱδρώειν 
ἄρξατο καὶ τρόμῳ εἴχετο καὶ ἡ καρδίη ἀνεπάλ- 
λετο. τὰ δὲ γιγνόμενα ἐμφανέα τῷ ἰητρῷ τὸν 
18 é ἔρωτα ἐποίεεν, καί μιν ὧδε i ἰήσατο. καλέσας τοῦ 
νεηνίσκου τὸν πατέρα κάρτα ὀρρωδέοντα, “' “Ηδε 
7) νοῦσος, "έφη, “ ἣν ὁ παῖς 00€ ἀρρωστέει, οὐ 
νοῦσός ἐστιν, ἀλλὰ ἀδικίη" ὅδε γάρ τοι ἀλγέει 
μὲν οὐδέν, ἔρως δέ μιν καὶ φρενοβλαβείη ἔχει. 
ἐπιθυμέει δὲ τῶν οὐδαμὰ τεύξεται, φιλέων γυ- 
ναῖκα ἐμήν, τὴν ἐγὼ οὔτι .μετήσομαι,᾽ ὁ μὲν 
ὧν τοιάδε σοφίῃ ἐψ εύδετο. ὁ δὲ αὐτίκα ἑλίσσετο, 
'"Ἠρός TE σοφίης καὶ ἰητρικῆς, μή μοι παῖδα 
ὀλέσῃς' ov yàp ἐθέλων ταύτῃ συμφορῇ ἔσχετο, 
ἀλλὰ οἱ ἡ νοῦσος ἀεκουσίη. τῷ σὺ μηδαμὰ 
ζηλοτυπέων πένθος ἐγεῖραι πάσῃ βασιληίῃ μηδὲ 
ἰητρὸς ἐὼν φόνον προξενέειν ! ἰητρικῇ. ὁ μὲν 
ὧδε ἀγνὼς ἐὼν ἐδέετο. ὁ δέ μιν αὖτις ἀμείβετο, 
“᾿Ανόσια σπεύδεις γάμον ἐμὸν ἀπαιρεόμενος ἠδὲ 
ἰητρὸν ἄνδρα βιώμενος. σὺ δὲ κῶς ἂν αὐτὸς 
ἔπρηξαν, εἴ τοι σὴν γυναῖκα ἐπόθεεν, ἐμεῦ τάδε 
1 προξενέειν Koene, Schaefer: προξενέεις N: lacuna in ΓΕ. 



he mighte not susteyne the mysese that semede 
him schamful, and so he stille felle into syknesse, quietly 
and lay withouten ony peyne; and his hewe 
chaunged outerly, and his bodye feblede eech 
day. But whan the phisicyen saughe that he 
was wayk withouten pleyne cause, he iugged that 
the syknesse was love. For of derne love ther sere 
ben manye signes, as waike eyen, voyce, hewe, 
teeres. And whan that he perceyved it, he did 
thus. With his righte honde he kepte the yonge 
mannes herte, and thanne he sent after all tho that 
weren in the house. And whan everyche of the 
othere entrede, this was in gret ese, but whan his 
step moder cam, he chaunged his hewe and swatte 
and schoke and his herte stirte. Thise thinges leaped 
scheweden his love to the phisicyen, that helede 
him thus. After that he hadde clepede the yonge 
mannes fader, that was sor adrad, * This syknesse," 
quod he, * wherof thy child is wayk nis not syknesse 
but synne, for verrayly he soffreth of no peyn, but 
of love and wodenesse. And he coveyteth that frenzy 
he may not have in no wyse, lovynge my wyf 
that I wil not forgon." So that oon lyde in gyle. 
And anon that other besoghte him: “ Be thy 
conynge and thy phisik, destroie me not my sone; 
for he is not in this cas of his owne wille but hath 
the syknesse mawgree himself. Therfore do thou not 
thorghe despyt make sorwe in alle the rewme, ne 
thou that art phisicyen brynge manslaughtre in to 
phisik.” Thus preyde he, al unwar. And that 
oon answerde: “Thou forthrest wykked dedis, 
revynge me from my mariage and destreyninge a 
pore leche. What woldestow thiself have don and 
he coveytede thy wyf, thou that axest suche bones boons 




δεόμενος ; 0 δὲ πρὸς τάδε ἔλεγεν ὡς OVS αὐτὸς 
ἄν κοτε γυναικὸς ἐφείσατο. οὐδὲ παιδὶ σωτηρίης 
ἐφθόνεεν, εἰ καί τι μητρυιῆς ἐπεθύμεεν' οὐ γὰρ 
ὁμοίην συμφορὴν ἔ ἔμμεναι γαμετὴν ὴ ἢ παῖδα ὀλέσαι. 
ὡς δὲ τάδε ὁ ἰητρὸς ἤκουσεν, “Te τοι, ' ἔφη, i. ἐμὲ 
λίσσεαι ; καὶ γάρ τοι σὴν γυναῖκα ποθέει' τὰ δὲ 
ἐγὼ ἔλεγον πάντα ἔην ψεύδεα.᾽ πείθεται μὲν 
τουτέοισι, καὶ τῷ μὲν παιδὶ λείπει καὶ γυναῖκα καὶ 
βασιληίην, αὐτὸς δὲ ἐς τὴν Ιλαβυλωνίην χώρην 
ἀπίκετο καὶ πόλιν ἐπὶ τῷ Εὐφρήτη ἐπώνυμον 
ἑωυτοῦ ἐποιήσατο, ἔνθα οἱ καὶ ἡ τελευτὴ ἐγένετο. 
ὧδε μὲν ὁ ἰητρὸς ἔρωτα ἔγνω τε καὶ ἰήσατο. 

"Ηδε δὴ ὧν ἡ Στρατονίκη ἔτι TO προτέρῳ 
ἀνδρὶ συνοικέουσα ὄναρ τοιόνδε ἐθεήσατο, ὥς 
μιν ἢ "Ἤρη ἐκέλευεν ἐγεῖραί οἱ τὸν ἐν τῇ ἱρῇ 
πόλει νηόν, εἰ δὲ ἀπειθέοι, πολλά οἱ καὶ κακὰ 
ἀπείλεεν. ἡ δὲ τὰ μὲν πρῶτα οὐδεμίαν ὤρην 
ἐποιέετο᾽ μετὰ δέ, ὥς μιν μεγάλη νοῦσος. ἔλαβεν, 
τῷ τε ἀνδρὶ τὴν ὄψιν ἀπηγήσατο καὶ τὴν “Hony 
ἱλάσκετο καὶ στήσειν τὸν νηὸν ume δέξατο. καὶ 
αὐτίκα ὑγιέα γενομένην ὁ ἀνὴρ ἐς τὴν ἱρὴν πόλιν 
ἔπεμπε, σὺν δὲ οἱ καὶ χρήματα καὶ στρατιὴν πολ. 
λήν, τοὺς μεν οἰκοδομέειν, τοὺς δὲ καὶ τοῦ ἀσφαλέος 
εἵνεκα. καλέσας δέτινα τῶν ἑωυτοῦ φίλων, νεηνίην 

1 Compare the famous story in Herodotus (3, 119) of the 
wife of Intaphrenes, who preferred brother to husband and 

2 The known facts are that Seleucus made Antiochus 
joint-ruler in 293 B.C. ; that the marriage of Stratonice to 
Antiochus may have tien place at that time, but the date 
is not known ; and that in 281, on beeoming master of the 
whole realm of Alexander through the defeat of Lysimachus, 
he planned to entrust, and perhaps actually did entrust, all 



of me?” Therwith he replyede that he him self 
wolde never have ben ialous over his wyf ne grueehed 
his sone deliveraunce, if so be he hadde coveyted his 
step moder; for it was not the lyke infortune to 
lese a wyfasasone.! And whan the phisicien herde 
that, “ Wherfore than," quod he, * dostow beseche 
me?  Parfey, he loveth thy wyf, and alle that I 
seyde was fausse!" Than was the fader over- 
comen, and yold bothe wyf and rewme to his sone, 
and goyinge himself to the contree of Babyloyne leet 
make a eytee nyghe Eufrate that was eleped after 
his owne name, ther as his dethe befel.2 Thus did 
the phisieien bothe knowe and hele love. 

Now, I seye you, whyl yit that Stratonice duellede 
with her formere housbond, hir mette a dreme how 
that Iuno bade hir to bylde the temple for hir in the 
Holy Cytee, and if sche sholde not obeye, sche 
manaced hir with manye harmes. Atte first, sehe 
ne took no fors of it; but after, whan a grete sykness 
hent hir, sche told the dreme to hir housbond and 
enforced hir to apayen Iuno, and behight to bylde 
the temple. Anon sche becam hool, and thanne hir 
housbond wolde sende hir to the Holy Cytee, and 
with hir a gret tresor and a gret hoost, some for to 
bylden and other some for here seurtee. "Therfore 
he sompned oon of his frendes, a right fayr yong man 

Asia to his son, intending bimself to assume the throne 
of Macedonia. But within a few months he was assassinated 
by Ptolemy Ceraunus near Lysimachia in Thrace. He built 
many cities named after him ; this Seleucia, 15 miles below 
Baghdad, is generally called ‘‘on the Tigris,” but it lay 
between the two rivers, which at that point are only 25 
miles apart, and the canal Naarmalcha, connecting the 
Kuphrates with the Tigris, flowed by it. 







κάρτα καλόν, τῷ οὔνομα ἦν Κομβάβος, “᾿Εγώ 
Tot, ἔφη, “ὦ Κομβάβε, ἐσθλὸν ἐόντα φιλέω 
τε μάλιστα φίλων ἐμῶν καὶ πάμπαν ἐπαινέω 
σοφίης τε καὶ εὐνοίης τῆς ἐς ἡμέας, ἣν δὴ 
ἐπεδέξαο. νῦν δέ μοι χρειὼ μεγάλης πίστιος, 
τῷ σε θέλω γυναικὶ ἐμῇ ἑσπόμενον ἔργον τέ 
μοι ἐπιτελέσαι καὶ ἱρὰ τελέσαι καὶ στρατιῆς 
ἐπικρατέειν σοὶ δὲ ἀπικομένῳ ἐξ ἡμέων τιμὴ 
μεγάλη ἔσσεται.᾽ 
Προς τάδε ὁ Κομβάβος αὐτίκα λίσσετο πολλὰ 
λιπαρέων μή μιν ἐκπέμπειν μηδὲ πιστεύειν οἱ 
τὰ πολλὸν ἑωυτοῦ μέξονα χρήματα καὶ γυναῖκα 
καὶ ἔργον ἱρόν. τὰ δὲ ὀρρώδεεν μή κοτέ οἱ ζηλο- 
τυπύ) χρόνῳ ὑστέρῳ ἐς τὴν Στρατονίκην γένοιτο, 
20 τὴν μοῦνος ἀπάξειν ἔμελλεν. ὡς δὲ οὐδαμὰ ἐπεί- 
θετο, ὁ δὲ ἱκεσίης δευτέρης ἅπτεται δοῦναί οἱ χρόνον 
ἑπτὰ ἡμερέων, μετὰ δὲ ἀποστεῖλαί μιν τελέσαντά 
τι τῶν μάλιστα ἐδέετο. τυχὼν δὲ ῥηιδίως, ἐς 
τὸν ἑωυτοῦ οἶκον ἀπικνέεται καὶ πεσὼν χαμᾶξε 
τοιάδε ὠδύρετο' "OQ δείλαιος, τί μοι ταύτης τῆς 
πίστιος ; τί δέ μοι ὁδοῦ, τῆς τέλος ἤδη δέρκομαι ; 
νέος μὲν ἐγὼ καὶ γυναικὶ καλῇ ἕψομαι. τὸ δέ 
μου μεγάλη συμφορὴ ἔσσεται, εἰ μὴ ἔγωγε πᾶσαν 

1 The name Kombabos, which does not occur elsewhere in 
Greek, has been identified as that of the opponent of 
Gilgamesh in the Gilgamesh-Epic, Hu(m)-ba-ba (Schrader- 
Zimmern, p. 570, and note 2). Clay has shown (pp. 49~53) 
that this name is not Elamite, but Amorite or West Semitic ; 
he holds that it was borne by a historical personage who 
lived in a cedar district of the West and humiliated Baby- 
lonia at the time of Gilgamesh, about 4000 B.c. However 
that may be, Kombabos is Humbaba, and in this story, 
which is the temple-legend, the name of Kombabos is the 



that highte Combabe,! and seyde: “ For thou art 
noble, Daun Combabe, I love thee most of alle mine 
frendes, and I preyse thee gretli for thy coninge and 
for thy gode wille to me, that thou hast discovered 
beforn. And now me _ nedeth of grete feyth, 
wherfore I wole that thou folwe my wyf, for to 
acomplisshe the werke in my name, and to per- 
fourme the sacrifises, and to reule the hoost; and 
whan thou retornest thou schalt gete highe worschipe 
fro me." 

Therwith anon Combabe gan preye and beseche 
him ful besily that he scholde not send him forth ne 
betaken him nouther that tresor, that was moche to 
gret for him, ne his wyf, ne the holy werk. For he 
was adrad lest that ialousie scholde assayle him 
afterwardes as touching to Stratonice, that he moste 
lede forthe allone. But sithe the kyng wolde not 
herknen in no kynde, he assayde an other requestc, 
for to graunte him seven dayes space, and than sende 
him forth, whan he hadde don a thing thereof he 
hadde most nede. And whan he obteyned this 
bone lightely, he wente to his owne house and caste 
himself adoun and pleyned right so: ‘‘Allas wrecche, 
what have I to don with this feythe, what have I to 
don with this viage, whereof I seighe now the ende? 
I am yong, and schal folwen a fayre womman. This 
schalle be gret meschief to me, but if I putte awey 

significant part ; Stratonice has taken the place of an earlier 
female. I believe her immediate predecessor was Semiramis, 
from Ammianus Marcellinus, 14, 6, 17, and her general 
connection with this site; she in her turn probably ousted an 
earlier Sima or Ata, with whom Kombabos may have been 
brought into connection through building or rebuilding the 
temple (cf. Clay, p. 51, note 22). 






αἰτίην κακοῦ ἀποθήσομαι" τῷ µε χρῆν μέγα 
ἔργον ἀποτελέσαι, TO μοι πάντα φόβον i ζήσεται. 

Tade εὐπὼν ἀτελέα ἑωυτὸν ἐποίεεν, καὶ ταμὼν 
τὰ αἰδοῖα ἐς ἀγγήιον μικρὸν κατέθετο σμύρνῃ 
τε ἅμα καὶ μέλιτι καὶ ἄλλοισι θυώμασι: καὶ 
ἔπειτα σφρηγῖδι τὴν ἐφόρεε σημηνάμενος τὸ 
τρῶμα ἰῆτο. .μετὰ δέ, ὥς μιν ὁδοιπορέειν ἐδόκεεν, 
ἀπικόμενος ἐς τὸν Βασιλέα πολλῶν παρεόντων 
διδοῖ τε ἅμα τὸ ἆγγήιον καὶ λέγει ὧδε: “ N 
δέσποτα, τόδε μοι μέγα κειμήλιον ἐν τοῖσι 
οἰκείοισι ἀπεκέατο, τὸ ἐγὼ κάρτα ἐπόθεον' νῦν δὲ 
ἐπεὶ μεγάλην ὁδὸν € ἔρχομαι, παρὰ σοὶ τόδε θήσομαι. 
σὺ δέ μοι ἀσφαλέως χει τόδε γάρ pot χρυσοῦ 
βέλτερον, τόδε μοι pox is ἐμῆς ἀντάξιον. εὖτ᾽ 
ἂν δὲ ἀπίκωμαι, σόον αὖτις ἀποίσομαι. ὁ δὲ 
δεξάμενος ἑτέρῃ σφρηγῖδι ἐσημαίνετο καὶ τοῖσι 
ταμίησι φρουρέειν ἐνετείλατο. 

Κομβάβος μέν νυν TO ἀπὸ τοῦδε ἀσφαλέα 
ὁδὸν ἤνυεν' ἀπικόμενοι δὲ ἐς τὴν ἱρὴν. πόλιν 
σπουδῇ, τὸν νηὸν οἰκοδόμεον καὶ σφίσι τρία ἔτεα 
ἐν τῷ ἔργω ἐξεγένετο, ἐν τοῖσι ἀπέβαινε τάπερ 
ὁ Κομβάβος ὀρρώδεεν. 7) Στρατονίκη γὰρ χρόνον 
ἐπὶ πολλὸν συνόντα μιν ποθέειν ἄρχετο, μετὰ δέ 
οἱ καὶ κάρτα ἐπεμήνατο. καὶ λέγουσιν οἱ ἐν τῇ 
ἱρ πόλει τὴν "Ηρην τουτέων αἰτίην ἐθέλουσαν 
γενέσθαι, Κομβάβον ἐσθλὸν μὲν ἐόντα λαθέειν 

μηδαμά, Στρατονίκην δὲ τίσασθαι, ὅτι οὐ ῥηιδίως 
τὸν νηὸν ὑπέσχετο. 

Ἡ δὲ τὰ μὲν πρῶτα ἐσωφρόνεεν καὶ τὴν. νοῦσον 
ἔκρυπτεν' ὡς δέ οἱ τὸ κακὸν μέξον ἡ ἡσυχίης ἐγένετο, 
ἐς ἐμφανὲς ἐτρύχετο κλαίεσκέν τε δι ἡμέρης καὶ 
Κομβάβον ἀνεκαλέετο καί οἱ πάντα Κομβάβος 


al cause of evylle ; therfore most I perfourme a gret 
dede that schal hele me of alle fere." 

Thus he seyde, and thanne he marrede him self ; 
and whan he hadde kutte offe his genitours he put 
hem into a lityl pot, and bawme with alle, and hony 
and othere thinges of swete smelle. Thanne he 
selede it with a signet that he bar, and helede his 
wounde. And after, whan him wel semede for to 
don iorneye, goynge to the kyng, beforn manye men 
that ther weren he toke him the pot, seyinge thus : 
«0 sire, this grete tresor I was wont for to kepe 
prevely, and I lovede it wel; but now, for als moche 
as I schal gon a fer weye, I wole betaken it to you. 
Kepeth it sikkerly ; for this to me is bettre than 
gold, this to me is als dereworth as my lyf. Whan 
I retorne, I schal bere it home ayen saf and sound." 
So the kyng resceyved it and seelede it with an 
other signet and bad his stywardes for to kepen it 

Than Combabe mad his weye safly ; and whan thei 
were comen to the Holy Cytee thei gan bylde the 
temple besily, and thei spenten 3 yeres in the werk, 
and in tho yeres that Combabe dredde befel. For 
in companyinge with him a gret why] Stratonice 
began for to love him, and thanne sche wex right 
wode over him. Men of the Holy Cytee seyn that 
Iuno was voluntarie cause thereof, to the entente 
that Combabes godeness scholde not lye hidde and 
Stratonice scholde ben punissched be cause that 
sche ne behight not the temple buxomly. 

Atte firste sche was mesurable and hyd hir 
maladye; but whan as hir miseyse becam to gret 
for pees, sche sorwede openly and wepte everyche 
day, and cryde on the name of Combabe, and Com- 





ἦν. τέλος δὲ ἀμηχανέουσα τῇ συμφορῇ εὐπρεπέα 
ἱκεσίην ἐδίζητο. ἄλλῳ μὲν ὧν τὸν ἔρωτα opo- 
Ἀογέειν ἐφυλάσσετο, αὐτὴ δὲ é ἐπιχειρέειν αἰδέετο.' 
ἐπινοέει ὧν τοιάδε, οἴνω ἑωυτὴν μεθύσασα ἐς 
λόγους οἱ ἐλθεῖν. ἅμα δὲ οἴνῳ ἐσιόντι παρρησίη 
τε ἐσέρχεται καὶ ἡ ἀποτυχίη οὐ κάρτα αἰσχρή, 
ἀλλὰ τῶν πρησσομένων ἕκαστα ἐς ἀγνοίην 

Ὡς δέ οἱ ἐδόκεε, καὶ ἐποίεε ταῦτα. καὶ ἐπεὶ 
ἐκ δείπνου ἐγένοντο, ἀπικομένη ἐς τὰ οἰκεῖα ἐν 
τοῖσι Κομβάβος αὐλίζετο, λίσσετό τε καὶ γούνων 
ἅπτετο καὶ τὸν ἔρωτα ὡμολόγεεν. ὁ δὲ TOV τε 
λόγον ἀπηνέως ἀπεδέκετο καὶ τὸ ἔργον ἀναίνετο 
καί οἱ τὴν μέθην ἐπεκάλεεν. ἀπειλούσης δὲ 
μέγα τι κακὸν ἑωυτὴν ἐργάσασθαι, δείσας πάντα 
οἱ λόγον ἔφηνεν καὶ πᾶσαν τὴν ἑωυτοῦ πάθην 
ἀπηγήσατο καὶ τὸ ἔργον ἐς ἐμφανὲς ἤνεικεν. 
ἰδοῦσα δὲ ἡ ἡ Στρατονίκη τὰ οὔποτε ἔλπετο, μανίης 
μὲν ἐκείνης ἔσχετο, ἔρωτος δὲ οὐδαμὰ ἐλήθετο, 
ἀλλὰ πάντα οἱ συνεοῦσα ταύτην “παραμυθίην 
ἐποιέετο ἔρωτος ἀπρήκτοιο. ἔστιν ὁ ἔρως οὗτος 
ἐν τῇ ip) πόλει καὶ ἔτι νῦν γίγνεται' γυναῖκες 
Γάλλων ἐπιθυμέουσι καὶ γυναιξὶ Γάλλοι ἐπιμαί- 
νονται, δηλοτυπέει δὲ οὐδείς, ἀλλὰ σφίσι τὸ 
χρῆμα κάρτα ἱρὸν νομίξουσι». 

28 Tà ὃ ὧν ἐν τῇ ip) πόλει ἀμφὶ τὴν Στρατο- 
νίκην οὐδαμὰ τὸν βασιλέα λέληθεν, ἀλλὰ 
πολλοὶ ἀπικνεόμενοι κατηγόρεον καὶ τὰ γιγνό- 
μενα ἀπηγέοντο. ἐπὶ τοῖσι περιαλγέων ἐξ 
ἀτελέος τοῦ ἔργου Κομβάβον μετεκάλεεν. ἄλλοι 

1 αἰδέετο Lehmann: ἐδέετο T, ἠδέετο N. 



babe was alle the worlde to hir. And fynally, for 
sche ne mighte not susteyne suche adversitee, sche 
soughte a wel semynge peticioun. Now sche was 
war for to avowen hir love to ony other, yit sche 
hadde scham for to assayen ought hirself. Therfore 
sche bethoghte hir of this devys, that sche scholde 
make hirself dronke with wyn and thanne speke 
with him ; for whattyme wyn cometh inne, boldness 
of speche cometh inne with alle, and disconfiture 
nys not over schamful, but all that is don passeth 
into foryetynge. 

Right as hir thoghte, right so sche didde. For 
aftre mete sche wente to the house wherin Combabe 
was logged, and besoghte him and embraced his 
knees and avowed hir love. But he resceyved hir 
wordes rudeliche, and wolde not assente to the dede, 
and reprevede hir of dronkenesse. But whan sche 
made manace to don hirself som gret harm, thanne 
for fere he told hir alle the storie and descryved al 
his owne cas and discovered his doynge. And 
whan Stratonice saughe that hir ne thoghte never 
to seen, sche stente of hir wodenesse, yit sche forgat 
not at alle of hir love, but companyed with him 
alle weyes and in that gyse solacede the love, therin 
sche mighte not speden. That maner love abydeth 
yit in the Holy Cytee, and is mad now a dayes; 
wommen coveyten Galles and Galles wexen wode 
for love of wommen ; natheles is no man ialous, but 
hem thenketh this thing right holy. 

Now that that had happened in the Holy Cytee 
touching Stratonice scaped not the kyng in no 
kynde, but manye that retorneden acuseden hem 
and reherceden here doynges; wherfore the kyng 
was grevously troubled and sompnede Combabe fro 





δὲ λέγουσι λόγον οὔτι ἀληθέα, THY Στρατονίκην, 
ἐπειδὴ ἀπέτυχε τῶν ἐδέετο, αὐτὴν γράψασαν ἐς 
N vy ^ / / ΄ e» 
τὸν ἄνδρα τοῦ Κομβάβου κατηγορέειν πείρην οἱ ἐπι- 
καλέουσαν, καὶ τὸ "Ελληνες Σθενεβοίης πέρι Né- 
γουσι καὶ Φαίδρης τῆς Κνωσσίης, ταυτὶ καὶ 
"AC ΄ > 5 ΄ 9 / 3 N 
σσύριοι ἐς Σπρατονίκην μυθολογέουσιν. ἐγὼ 
μέν νυν οὐδὲ Σθενεβοίην πείθομαι οὐδὲ Φαίδρην 
Z 3 / , X ε 2 / 
τοιάδε ἐπιτελέσαι, εἰ τὸν Ἱππόλυτον ἀτρεκέως 
ἐπόθεε Φαίδρη. ἀλλὰ τὰ μὲν ἐχέτω ὅκως καὶ 
24 ‘Os δὲ ἡ ἀγγελίη ἐς τὴν ἱρὴν πόλιν ἀπίκετο 
s e 7 N 342 / 
ἔγνω τε ὁ Κομβάβος τὴν αἰτίην, θαρσέων τε 
3 ef e e , / 3 b ΄ f 
ἦεν, OTL οἱ ἡ ἀπολογίη οἴκοι ἐλείπετο, καί μιν 
> ? f M 3r ` » ’ 
ἐλθόντα ὁ βασιλεὺς αὐτίκα μὲν ἔδησέν τε καὶ 
ἐν φρουρῇ εἶχεν: μετὰ δέ, παρεόντων οἱ τῶν 
f- «^ x / Γή ^ / 
φίλων οἳ καὶ τότε πεμπομένῳ τῷ Κομβάβῳ 
παρεγένοντο, παραγαγὼν ἐς μέσον κατηγορέειν 
ἄρχετο καί οἱ µοιχείην τε καὶ ἀκολασίην προῦ- 
φερεν: κάρτα δὲ δεινοπαθέων πίστιν τε καὶ 
φιλίην ἀνεκαλέετο, λέγων τρισσὰ Ἰομβάβον 
ἀδικέειν μοιχὸν τε ἐόντα καὶ ἐς πίστιν ὑβρίσαντα 
καὶ ἐς θεὸν ἀσεβέοντα, τῆς ἐν τῷ ἔργῳ τοιάδε 
» N \ ^ ή e 
ἔπρηξεν. πολλοὶ δὲ παρεστεῶτες ἤλεγχον ὅτι 
ἀναφανδὸν σφέας ἀλλήλοισι συνεόντας εἶδον. 
πᾶσιν δὲ τέλος ἐδόκεεν αὐτίκα θνήσκειν Κομβά- 
f / 
Bov θανάτου ἄξια ἐργασμένον. 
05. Ὁ δὲ τέως μὲν ἑστήκεεν λέγων οὐδέν: ἐπεὶ δὲ 
» ? ` 7 3 f , M M 
ἤδη ἐς τὸν φόνον ἤγετο, φθέγξατο τε καὶ TO 



the werk or it was finissched. Othere men seyn not 
sooth, that whan Stratonice fayled of hir purpos, 
sche hir self wroot lettres to hir housbond and 
acused Combabe, blamynge him of assayinge hir. 
Right as men of Grece seyn of Steneboye and of 
Fedre Cnossien, right so seyn Assuriens of Strato- 
nice.! Now to me, I ne beleve not that Steneboye 
dide no suche thing, ne Fedre nouther, if Fedre 
trewely lovede Ypolite. But lat tho thinges worth 
right as thei weren.? 

Whan the tidinges were come to the Holy Cytee, 
and Combabe lernede the acnsaccioun, he wente 
boldely, for because he had laft his answere at home. 
And at arryvinge, anon the kyng bond him and 
kepte him in prisoun ; and after, whan his frendes 
there weren that there weren beforn, whan Combabe 
was sent forth, he ladde him in presence and began 
for to blamen him, reprevinge him of avowtrie and 
vileinye; and in sore bitternesse of herte he putte 
him in remembraunce of feythe and frendschipe, 
seyinge that Combabe didde 3 fold wrong be cause 
he was avowtrer and brak feyth and synned ayeyns 
the goddesse in whoos servys that he so wroughte. 
And manye stode forth and made witnessing that 
thei saughen hem companye togider openly. And 
atte laste alle demeden that Combabe scholde dye 
right anon, for his dedis disserveden dethe. 

In this tyme he stondynge seyde noght. But 
whan thei wolde leden him to his dethe, he spak, 

1 The story of Joseph and his master's wife (Genesis 39) 
would be in this instance a parallel more apt. And with 
both compare the scorning of Ishtar by Gilgamesh in the 
Epic (Schrader-Zimmern, p. 571 s7.). 

2 This sentence parodies Herodotus 2, 98: ταῦτα μέν νυν 
ἔστω ws ἔστι τε kal ws ἀρχὴν ἐγένετο, and similar transitions. 



f y 1 / e > ’ , 
κειμήλιον αἰτεε) λέγων WS ἀναιρέεε μιν ουχ 
[14 Σο) / ef 3 . , / ? 
ὕβριος οὐδὲ γάμων εἵνεκα, ἀλλὰ ἐκείνων ἐπιθυ- 
μέων τά οἱ ἀπιὼν παρεθήκατο. πρὸς τάδε ὁ 
Βασιλεὺς καλέσας τὸν ταμίην ἐκέλευεν ἐνεῖκαι 
τά oí φρουρέειν ἔδωκεν' ὡς δὲ ἤνεικεν, λύσας 
τὴν σφρηγῖδα 0 Κομβάβος Tá τε ἐνεόντα ἐπέ- 
ειξεν καὶ ἑωυτὸν ὁκοῖα ἐπεπόνθεεν, ἔλεξέ᾽ TE, 
“Ὦ βασιλεῦ, τάδε τοι ἐγὼ ὀρρωδέων, εὖτέ με 
ταύτην ὁδὸν ἔπεμπες, ἀέκων nov’ καὶ ἐπεί µε 
ἀναγκαίη μεγάλη ἐκ σέο κατέλαβεν, τοιάδε 
3 / ᾽ N . , , 1 ` \ 3 
ἐπετέλεσα, ἐσθλὰ μὲν ἐς δεσπότεα, ἐμοὶ δὲ οὐκ 
εὐτυχέα. τοιόσδε μέντοι ἐὼν ἀνδρὸς ἐπ᾽ ἀδικίην 
26 Ὁ δὲ πρὸς ^ τάδε ἀμβώσας ? περιέβαλέν τέ μιν 
καὶ δακρύων ἅ ἅμα ἔλεγεν, αμ, Κομβάβε, τί μέγα 
κακὸν εἰργάσαο ; τί δὲ σεωυτὸν οὕτως ἀεικέλιον 
ἔργον μοῦνος ἀνδρῶν ὃ ἔπρηξας ; τὰ οὐ πάμπαν 
ἐπαινέω. ὦ σχέτλιε, ὃς τοιάδε ἔτλης, οἷα μήτε 
b f f 9 , \ 50/7 » n , / 
σὲ παθέειν μήτ᾽ ἐμὲ ἰδέσθαι ὤφελεν οὐ γάρ 
μοι ταύτης ἀπολογίης ἔδεεν. ἀλλ) ἐπεὶ δαίμων 
τοιάδε ἤθελεν, πρῶτα μέν σοι τίσις ἐξ ἡμέων 
ἔσσεται, αὐτέων συκοφαντέων ὁ θάνατος, μετὰ 
δὲ µεγάλη δωρεὴ ἀπίξεται χρυσός τε πολλὸς 
καὶ ἄργυρος ἄπλετος καὶ ἐσθῆτες ᾿Ασσύριαι καὶ 
ἵπποι βασιλήιοι. ἀπίξεαι δὲ παρ ἡμέας ἄνευ 
ἐσαγγελέος οὐδέ τις ἀπέρξει σε ἡμετέρης ὄψιος, 
οὐδ᾽ ἣν γυναικὶ ἅμα εὐνάζωμαι. τάδε εἶπέν τε 
ἅμα καὶ ἐποίεεν καὶ οἱ μὲν αὐτίκα ἐς φόνον 
y ^ δὲ M δῶ 28 ὃ M ς f : 
Ἴγοντο, τῷ δὲ τὰ δῶρα ἐδεδοτο καὶ ἢ hiin 
1 αἴτεε Koene: ἀῦτεε ΓΕ, ἄτεε N. 
2 ἀμβώσας Valckenaer: θαμβώσας MSS. 

3 οὕτως-- ἄνδρων N : lacuna in TE, in which the supplement 
(a conjecture) has been entered by a late hand. 



and requered that tresor, seyinge, he wolde sleen 
him, not for no vileinye ne avowtrie, but coveytinge 
tho thinges that in goynge he hadde betoken him. 
Thanne the kyng called his styward and bad him 
brynge what hadde ben goven him for to kepe; and 
whan he broght it, Combabe brak the seel and 
schewed what was with inne and what he himself 
hadde soffred. And he seyde: * O Kyng, for I was 
adrad of this whan ye wolde sende me on this weye, 
therfore me was loth to gon; and whan ye gretly con- 
streyned me, I wroghte this maner dede, that is gode 
for my maistre but not wel for me. Natheles, 1 that 
am such as yeseen am reprevede of a mannes synne." 

At this seyinge that other youled and toke him in 
armes and wepynge seyde: ‘ O Combabe, wherfore 
hastow wrought gret mescheef? Wherfore hastow 
don thiself suche a despyt that never yit no man ne 
sayde? I preyse this not at alle. O herde herte, 
that wast hardy for to don suche thinges, that 1 
wolde thou hadde neer soffred ne I neer seen! Me 
wantede not this answere. But for als moche 
as it was goddes wille, first shaltow han vengeaunce 
of oure grace, the dethe of thi false chalengeres 
hem self, and after schal comen a gret yifte, moche 
gold and gret plentee silver and Assuriene clothes 
and rialle destreres. And thou shalt come before 
me withouten that ony man presente thee, and 
noon schalle lette thee fro sight of me, thoghe I be 
abedde with my wyf.” 1 Right as he seyde, right so 
he didde. Tho weren ladde to dethe anon, but to 
him the yiftes were goven and grettere frendschipe 

1 A plain reminiscence of Herodotus 3, 84 and 118, with 
the significant change of ἣν μὴ Ύυναικί to οὐδ᾽ ἣν γυναικί 




μέζων ἐγεγόνεεν. ἐδόκεεν δὲ οὐδεὶς ἔτι Ασσυρίων 
Κομβάβω σοφίην καὶ εὐδαιμονίην εἴκελος. 

Μετὰ δὲ αἰτησάμενος ἐκτελέσαι τὰ λείποντα 
τῷ νηῴ---ἀτελέα γάρ μιν ἀπολελοίπεεν-- αὖτις 
ἐπέμπετο, καὶ τὸν τε νηὸν ἐξετέλεσε καὶ τὸ 
λοιπὸν αὐτοῦ ἔμενεν. ἔδωκεν δέ οἱ βασιλεὺς 
ἀρετῆς τε καὶ εὐεργεσίης εἵνεκα ἐν τῷ ἱρῷ ἑστάναι 
χάλκεον" καὶ ἔτι ἐς τιμὴν ἐν τῷ ἱρῷ Κομβάβος 
χάλκεος, Ἱρμοκλέος τοῦ ‘Podiov ποίημα, μορφὴν 
μὲν ὁκοίη γυνή, ἐσθῆτα δὲ ἀνδρηίην ἔχει. 

Λέγεται δὲ τῶν φίλων τοὺς μάλιστά οἱ εὖνο- 
έοντας ἐς παραμυθίην τοῦ πάθεος κοινωνίην 
ἑλέσθαι τῆς συμφορῆς' ἔτεμον γὰρ ἑωυτοὺς καὶ 
δίαιταν τὴν αὐτὴν ἐκείνῳ διαιτέοντο. ἄλλοι δὲ 
ἱρολογέουσιν ἐπὶ τῷ πρήγματι, λέγοντες ὡς καὶ 
“Ἡρη φιλέουσα Κομβάβον πολλοῖσι τὴν τομὴν 
ἐπὶ νόον ἔβαλλεν, ὅκως μὴ μοῦνος ἐπὶ τῇ avdpnin 
λυπέοιτο. τὸ δὲ ἔθος τοῦτο ἐπειδὴ ἅπαξ ἐγένετο, 
ἔτι νῦν μένει' καὶ πολλοὶ ἑκάστου ἔτεος ἐν τῷ 
ἱρῷ τάµνονται καὶ θηλύνονται, εἴτε Κομβάβον 
παραμυθεόµενοι εἴτε Kal” Hpn χαρίξονται' Táp- 
νονται Ò ὧν. ἐσθῆτα δὲ οἶδε οὐκέτι ἀνδρηίην 
ἔχουσιν, ἀλλὰ εἵματά τε γυναικῄια Φορέουσιν 
καὶ ἔργα γυναικῶν ἐπιτελέουσιν. ὡς δὲ ἐγὼ 
ἤκουον, ἀνακέαται καὶ τουτέων ἐς Κομβάβον ἡ 
αἰτίῃ: συνενείχθη γάρ οἱ καὶ τάδε. ξείνη γυνὴ 
ἐς πανήγυριν ἀπικομένη, ἰδοῦσα καλόν τε ἐόντα 
καὶ ἐσθῆτα ἔτι ἀνδρηίην ἔχοντα, ἔρωτι μεγάλῳ 
ἔσχετο, μετὰ δὲ μαθοῦσα ἀτελέα ἐόντα ἑωυτὴν 

* Hermocles of Rhodes is known only from this passage; 
his name must have been preserved by an inscription on the 
statue, which we may be sure was the restoration of an 



was graunted. And it semede that Combabe hadde 
not his pere in Assurye for wisdom and for blisse. 

And after, ther as he besoghte to finissche the 
remenant of the temple, for he hadde laft it un- 
finissched, he was sent eftsones and broght it to an 
ende, and abood there fro thens fromward. And be 
cause of his vertue and wel doynge, the kyng vouchede 
saf that his ymage in brasse scholde ben set in the 
seyntuarye. And so for gerdon Combabe dwelleth yit 
in the close, formed of brasse be crafte of Ermocle 
the Rodien, lyk a womman in schappe, but clothed 
as a man.! 

The storie telleth that his beste frendes, for solas 
of his wo, chosen to parte his lot; for thei gelten 
hem and ladde that same manere lyf. But othere 
men rehercen prestes lore to this matere, how that 
Iuno lovynge Combabe putte it in the thoghtes of 
manye to gelden hem, in the entente that he 
scholde not mourne allone for manhode. But ever- 
more sithen that this custom was first establissched, 
it abydeth yit, and everyche yeer manye men 
gelden hem in the close and becomen as wommen, 
wher it be that thei solacen Combabe or reioysen 
Iuno. Algates thei gelden hem. And thise no 
lenger clothen hem as men, but weren wommenes 
wedes and don wommenes werkes. And as I herde, 
the blame of this also is leyde on Combabe ; for a 
thyng befel him in this wyse. A straunge womman 
that cam thider on pilgrimage saughe him why! 
he was fayre and clad yit as a man, and sche was 
seysed of gret love. But after, whan sche lernede 

older statue of the putative originator of the Galli and 
possibly real founder of the temple, installed in connection 
with the Seleucid restoration of the temple itself. 




5 4 2 N ^ / , £ e 
ιειργάσατο. ἐπὶ τοῖσι Κομβάβος, ἀθυμέων ὅτι 
ε 3 f N > > / y > ^ 
οἱ ἀτυχέως τὰ ἐς ᾿Αφροδίτην ἔχει, ἐσθῆτα 
/ ΄ 
γυναικηίην ἐνεδύσατο, ὅκως μηκέτι ἑτέρη γυνὴ 
3 > , e , ’ ιό ^ 
ἴσα ἐξαπατέοιτο. ἥδε αἰτίη l'áXXotat. στολῆς 
Κομθάβου μέν μοι τοσάδε εἰρήσθω, Γάλλων 
\ / / ^ 
δὲ αὖτις ἐγὼ λόγω ὑστέρῳ μεμνήσομαι, τομῆς 
τε αὐτέων, ὅκως τάµνονται, καὶ ταφῆς ὀκοίην 
θάπτονται, καὶ ὅτευ εἵνεκα ἐς τὸ ἱρὸν οὐκ ἐσέρ- 
’ ^ 
χονται' πρότερον δέ μοι θυμὸς εἰπεῖν θέσιός 
τε πέρι τοῦ νηοῦ καὶ μεγάθεος, καὶ δῆτα 
€ . ^ 3 , 3 A & CEN ey 
28 ‘O μὲν χῶρος αὐτός, ἐν τῷ TO ἱρὸν ἵδρυται, 
΄ A / ^ 
λόφος ἐστίν, κέαται δὲ κατὰ μέσον μάλιστα τῆς 
’ ^ 
πόλιος, καί οἱ τείχεα δοιὰ περικέαται. τῶν δὲ 
τειχέων τὸ μὲν ἀρχαῖον, τὸ δὲ οὐ πολλὸν ἡμέων 
Ν ^ ^ 
πρεσβύτερον. τὰ δὲ προπύλαια τοῦ ἱροῦ ἐς 
/ / / ο 
ἄνεμον βορέην ἀποκέκρινται, μέγαθος ὅσον τε 
ἑκατὸν ὀργυιέων. ἐν τούτοισι τοῖσι προπυλαίοισι 
καὶ οἱ φαλλοὶ ἑστᾶσι τοὺς Διόνυσος ἐστήσατο, 
ἡλικίην καὶ οἵδε τριηκοσίων ὀργυιέων. ἐς τουτέων 

1 Since Kombabos bears a very ancient name, since the 
temple-story ascribes the origin of the Galli to him, not to 
Attis, and since Attis does not figure at all in the worship as 
described by Lucian, the Galli can hardly be a Seleucid 
importation from Phrygia (Cumont); in that case Attis 
would have been imported also. Meyer, who believes the 
cult ancient here, but Hittite-Anatolian in its origin, finds 
evidence of Attis-worship in the name Atargatis (Atar-Ata), 
which he interprets as the Astarte of Attis; ie., the goddess 
that is characterized by the worship of Attis (Gesch., p. 650). 
This view not only leaves Kombabos out of account, but 
does not reckon with the fact that the deity Ata was often, 
if not always, thought of as feminine (cf. Baudissin, p. 158, 1). 



that he was marred, sche slowe hirself. Thanne for 
despeyr that Combabe hadde be cause he was 
acurst in love, he didde on femele clothinge to the 
ende that never non other womman scholde ben 
so begyled. That is whi Galles weren femele 

Of Combabe have I seyd ynow, and of Galles I 
schalle make mencioun sone in another partie of my 
boke, how that they ben gelded, and in what 
manere that thei ben buryed, and wherfore thei 
entren not into the temple. But first it listeth me 
to telle of the site of the temple and his gretnesse, 
and therfore I schalle don right so. 

The place therinne the temple sytt isa hille; and 
it liggeth wel in the myddes of the cytee, and two 
walles enviroune it. Oon of tho walles is auncien, 
but the tother is not mocheles elder than oure tyme. 
The entree of the holy place maketh out toward the 
Septemtryon, wela 100 fadmes of largenesse ; and in 
that entree stont tho yerdes that Bachus leet set, 
on heighte a 300 fadmes.? A man goth up the oon 
The connection, however, between Attis and Ata is indubit- 
able; and I believe that there is an analogous connection 
between Kombabos (Assyr. Hum-ba-ba, Babyl. Hu-wa-wa, 
with characteristic w for 6) and Κύβηβος (Gallus), Κυβήβη 
(the goddess Cybele). It cannot be mere coincidence that in 
Syria Ku(m)baba serves Ata, while in Phrygia Cybebe is 
served by Attis. That the transfer in which man and 
goddess exchanged names was from Semitic to non-Semitic 
soil is, it seems to me, likely from the antiquity of the name 
Ku(m)baba. Other arguments are not wanting. 

3 C. 50-53. 

3 Some reduce these 300-fathom emblems to 30 by con- 
jecture, but it is in unimportant details like this that Lucian 
gives rein to his inclination to parody. Mandeville gives the 

seas of Babel the modest height of 64 furlongs—eight 



Tov éva parrov? ἀνὴρ ἑκάστου ἔτεος δὶς d ἀνέρχεται 
οἰκέει τε ἐν ἄκρῳ τῷ φαλλῷ χρόνον ἑπτὰ ἡμερέων. 
αἰτίη δέ οἱ τῆς ἀνόδου ἥδε λέγεται. οἱ μὲν 
\ f ο e ^ A A e / 
πολλοὶ νομίζουσιν ὅτι ὑψοῦ τοῖσι θεοῖσιν ὁμιλέει 
καὶ ἀγαθὰ Ewardon Lupin αὐτέει, οἱ δὲ τῶν 
εὐχωλέων ἀγχόθεν ἐ ἐπαΐουσιν. ἄλλοισιν δὲ: δοκέει 
καὶ τάδε Δευκαλίωνος. εἵνεκα ποιέεσθαι, ἐκείνης 
ξυμφορῆς μνήματα, ὁκότε οἱ ἄνθρωποι ἐς τὰ 
οὔρεα καὶ ἐς τὰ περιμήκεα τῶν δενδρέων ἦσαν 
τὸ πολλὸν ὕδωρ ὀρρωδέοντες. ἐμοὶ μέν νυν καὶ 

΄ 5 ’ ’ `~ 4 / 
τάδε ἀπίθανα. δοκέω ye μὲν Διονύσῳ σφέας 

` / { f . ΄ 

καὶ τάδε ποιέειν, συμβάλλομαι δὲ τουτέοισι. 
φαλλοὺς ὅσοι Διονύσῳ ἐγείρουσι, ἐν τοῖσι φαλ- 
λοῖσι καὶ ἄνδρας ξυλίνους κατίζουσιν, ὅτευ μὲν 

ej SiN , τν / > 9 Nod 
εἵνεκα ἐγὼ οὐκ ἐρέω. δοκέει Ò ὧν pot, καὶ ὅδε 
ἐς ἐκείνου μίμησιν τοῦ ξυλίνου ἀνδρὸς ἀνέρχεται, 
29 H δέ οἱ ἄνοδος τοιήδε: σειρῇ µικρῇ” ἑωυτόν 
τε ἅμα καὶ τὸν φαλλὸν περιβάλλει, μετὰ δὲ 
ἐπιβαίνει ξύλων προσφυῶν τῷ φαλλῷ ὁκόσον 
ἐς χώρην ἄκρου ποδός: ἀνιὼν δὲ d ἅμα ἀναβάλλει 
τὴν σειρὴν ἀμφοτέρωθεν ὅκωσπερ ἡνιοχέων. εὖ 
έ τις τόδε μὲν οὐκ ὄπωπεν, ὄπωπεν δὲ φοινικο- 
βατέοντας ἢ ἐν ᾿Αραβίῃ ἢ ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ ἢ ἄλλοθί 

κου, οἶδε τὸ λέγω. 

1 ἕνα φαλλόν N: lacuna in ΓΕ, in which these words are 

entered in a late hand. 
2 μικρῇ Kuster: μακρῇ MSS. 

1 This is evidently the true reason, and not either of the 
two that follow. That the gods can hear better from near 
at hand is good Semitic psychology ; but the use of a pillar 
instead of a mountain-top, or a ziggurat, or the roof of a 
house, appears otherwise unevidenced in early Syria. ‘‘ It 
was perhaps the memory of this strange rite (not however 



of thise yerdes twyes in the yeer and woneth at the 
cop of the yerde for the space of 7 dayes. And the 
cause of his goynge up, as men seyn, is this. Lewed 
folk trowen that he speketh with the goddes on highe 
and axeth bones for alle Surrye, and the goddes 
heren his preyeres fro there nyghe.t But othere 
wenen that this also is don be cause of Deucalioun, 
in tokene and mynde of that tribulacioun, whan 
men wenten into montaynes and into the gret highe 
trees for fere of the flode. Now to me, that is not 
to beleven. I suppose wel that thei don this for 
worschipe of Bachus, and I conclude it thus. Yerdes 
that thei maken for worschipe of Bachus, on tho yerdes 
thei setten alle weyes wodene men; but I schalle 
not seye whi? Therfore me thenketh, in goynge 
up, that oon countrefeteth that other woden man. 

The manere of his goynge up is this. He putteth 
a schort corde abouten himself and the yerde, and 
thanne he climbeth on peces of wode ynaylled on 
the yerde, bigge ynow for to lette setten on his 
toon; and ther as he climbeth he throweth up the 
corde with bothe hondes right as he mighte schake 
the reynes of a charre. If ony ther be that hath 
not seen this thing, but hath seen men that climben 
trees of palme in Arabye or in Egypte, or elles 
where, he undirstondeth wherof I speke.3 

peeuliar to Syria, but known also in India) which led 
Simeon the Stylite to ascend his column four centuries later 
at a site not very far west of the old temple of the Dea 
Syria" (C. R. Conder, Palestine, p. 206). 

2 Compare Herodotus 2, 48, and the ἱερὸς λόγος. The 
explanation that Lucian has in mind is probably the 
TET story (Clement of Alexandria, Protrept. 2 
p. 30 P.). 

3 nm method of climbing palms is alluded to by Pliny, 
13, 29. 


wa ue 

set his 
toes on 


Emeàv δὲ ἐς Τέλος ἵκηται τῆς ὁδοῦ, σειρὴν 
ἑτέρην ἀφεὶς. τὴν αὐτὸς ἔχει, μακρὴν ταύτην, 
ἀνέλκει τῶν οἱ θυμός, ξύλα καὶ εἵματα καὶ σκεύεα, 
ἀπὸ τῶν ἕδρην συνδέων ὁκοίην καλιὴν ἱξάνει, 
μίμνει τε “χρόνον τῶν εἶπον ἡμερέων. πολλοὶ 
δὲ ἀπικνεόμενοι χρυσὸν τε καὶ ἄργυρον, οἱ δὲ 
χαλκόν, τὰ νομίξουσιν, ἐς ἐχῖνον * πρόσθε κεί- 
μενον κατιᾶσιν, λέγοντες τὰ οὐνόματα ἕκαστος. 
παρεστεὼς δὲ ἄλλος ἄνω ἀγγέλλει" ὁ δὲ δεξά- 
μενος τοὔνομα εὐχωλὴν ἐς ἕκαστον ποιέεται, ἅμα 
δὲ εὐχόμενος κροτέει ποίημα χάλκεον, τὸ ἀείδει 
μέγα καὶ τρηχὺ κινεόμενον. εὗδει δὲ οὐδαμά- 
ἦν γάρ μιν ὕπνος ἕλῃ ποτέ, σκορπίος ἀνιὼν 
ἀνεγείρει τε καὶ ἀεικέα ἐργάξεται, καί οἱ ἦδε ἡ 
ζημίη τοῦ ὕπνου ἐπικέαται. τὰ μὲν ὧν ἐς τὸν 
σκορπίον μυθέονται ἱρά τε καὶ θεοπρεπέα' εἰ 
δὲ ἆ ἀτρεκέα ἐστίν, οὐκ ἔχω ἐρέειν. δοκέει δέ μοι, 
μέγα ἐς ἀγρυπνίην συμβάλλεται καὶ τῆς πτώσιος 
7) ὀρρωδύη. 

Φαλλοβατέων μὲν δὴ πέρι τοσάδε ἀρκέει. ὁ 

90 δὲ νηὸς ὀρέει μεν ἐς ἠέλιον ἀνιόντα, εἶδος δὲ καὶ 
ἐργασίην ἐστὶν ὁκοίους νηοὺς ἐν ᾿Ιωνίῃ ποιέουσιν. 
ἕδρη μεγάλη ἀνέχει ἐκ γῆς” μέγαθος ὀργυιέων 
δυοῖν, ἐπὶ τῆς ὁ νηὸς ἐπικέαται. ἄνοδος ἐς αὐτὸν 

1 ἐχῖνον A.M.H.: ἐκεῖνον TE. N reads: of δὲ χαλκὸν 
κομίζουσιν, εἶτ᾽ ἀφέντες ἐκείνου πρόσθε κείμενα ἀπιᾶσι, etc. This 
Byzantine correction has been followed in all editions since 
the princeps, which reads as ΓΕ. 

2 γῆς Longolius: τῆς MSS. 

* Very likely the bronze sistrum ; fragments of these have 
been found in Phoenicia (Cook 45). The object was to scare 



Whan he is comen to the ende of his weye, he 
letteth falle an other corde that he hath, that is 
long, and draweth uppe what him list, wode and 
clothes and purveyaunce, of the whiche he frameth 
a sete lyk as a nest, theron he sytteth and abydeth 
for the space of the before seyde dayes. And 
manye comynge putten gold or silver or peraunter 
brasse, that thei usen for here moneyes, in to a 
vesselle that lyeth there neer, seyinge everychon 
his name. Thann oon that stondeth there beside 
calleth it uppe ; and whan that other resceyveth the 
name of eech, he preyeth for him, and in preyinge 
schaketh a thyng of brasse that souneth gret and 
schrille whanit is stered.! And he ne slepeth never. 
For if that ever he falle on slepe, a scorpioun goynge 
up awaketh him and doth him pitous harm; and 
that is the peyne that is leyde on him for slepynge.? 
Now this tale that is told of the scorpioun is a holy 
tale and wel semyng, but wher it be trewe or non, 
I wot neer. Natheles, me semeth that drede of 
fallynge avayleth moch to wakfulnesse. 

Now thanne, of yerde-climberes have I seyd y 
now. But as touching the temple, it loketh ayenst 
the sonnes rysynge, and the form and makyng 
therof is right as thei bylden temples in Ionye. A 
gret platte forme ryseth fro the erthe 2 fadmes of 
highte, where on the temple sytt. The weye up to 

away evil spirits, which as Lucian says elsewhere (vol. iii, 
p. 343), take flight if they hear a chink of bronze or iron. 

2 There is probably special significance in the scorpion. 
Not only does it occur frequently on Babylonian seals, and 
later becoine the sign of the Zodiac, but in the Gilgamesh 
Epic (Frazer, Folxlore,i, 112), the mountain, where the sun 
goes down (i.e. Antilian on ; Schrader-Zimmern, p. 573), is 
guarded by a scorpion man and woman. 




λίθου πεποίηται, οὐ κάρτα μακρή. ἀνελθόντι 
. ^ ε 
δὲ θωῦμα μὲν καὶ ὁ πρόνηος μέγα παρέχεται 
4 ¢ 
θύρῃσί τε ἤσκηται χρυσέῃσιν: ἔνδοθεν δὲ ὁ νηὸς 
- - > / M e , Ν 
χρυσου τε πολλοῦ ἀπολάμπεται καὶ ἡ ὀροφὴ 
πᾶσα χρυσέη. ἀπόξει δὲ αὐτοῦ ὀδμὴ ἀμβροσίη 
e / "^ ’ "m 
oKoin λέγεται τῆς χώρης τῆς ᾿Αραβίης, Kal 
σοι τηλόθεν ἀνιόντι προσβάλλει πνοιὴν κάρτα 
3 N73 
ἀγαθήν: καὶ ἣν αὗτις ἀπίῃς, οὐδαμὰ λείπεται, 
, / / t/ 3 λ 3 M! ` 
ἀλλά σευ TA TE εἵματα ἐς πολλὸν ἔχει τὴν πνοιὴν 
καὶ σὺ ἐς πάμπαν αὐτῆς μνήσεαι. 
L4 e 
livóoOev δὲ ὁ νηὸς οὐκ ἁπλόος ἐστίν, ἀλλὰ ἐν 
> ^ / y f » X 
αὐτῷ θάλαμος ἄλλος πεποίηται. ἄνοδος καὶ ἐς 
- > / / \ > » , \ 
τοῦτον ὀλίγη: θύρησι δὲ οὐκ ἤσκηται, ἀλλὰ 
7 e 
ἐς ἀντίον ἅπας ἀναπέπταται. ἐς μὲν ὧν τὸν 
μέγαν νηὸν πάντες ἐσέρχονται, ἐς δὲ τὸν θάλαμον 
οἱ ἱρέες μοῦνον, οὐ μέντοι πάντες οἱ ἱρέες, ἀλλὰ 
τ 7 N ^ 
οἳ μάλιστα ἀγχίθεοί τέ εἰσιν καὶ οἷσι πᾶσα ἐς 
’ e^ r4 
τὸ ἱρὸν µέλεται θεραπηίη. ἐν δὲ τῴδε εἶαται τὰ 
ο ο “ M A , . / 5 e 
ἔδεα, ἤ re "Hox καὶ τὸν αὐτοὶ Δία ἐόντα ἑτέρῳ 
οὐνόματι κληίζουσιν. ἄμφω δὲ χρύσεοί τέ elow 
. 3 ο 3 . M b eu , 
καὶ ἄμφω ἔζονται' ἀλλὰ τὴν μὲν “Hpnv λέοντες 
φέρουσιν, ὁ δὲ ταύροισιν ἐφέξεται. 

1 The other name, the right one, is Hadad, or Ramman, 
god of the lightning and of the waters (rains and floods), 
known from very early times to the Semites, to the Mitani 
folk under the name of Teshub, and to the Hittites, upon 
whose monuments he is conspicuous, with the axe and the 
thunderbolt for attributes. He underlies not only Jupiter 
Heliopolitanus but Jupiter Dolichenus. Consequently his 
identification here also with Jupiter was inevitable, and it 
is chiefly in virtue of this that his spouse was identified 
with Juno (ef. Dussaud, Pauly-Wissowa, s.v., and Schrader- 
Zimmern, p. 447). 

2 Lucian’s statement is borne out by the coins; see Head, 
Hist. Numm., 2nd ed., p. 777. Atargatis is seen sometimes 



it is mad of stone, that is not over long. And 
whan thou art aboven, the parvys of the temple 
scheweth thee a thing of grete merveylle, for it is 
dight with dores of gold. And with inne, the temple 
schyneth with mocheles gold, and the ceylours ben 
alle goldene. And a hevenlyche savour cometh out 
of it, lyk as cometh, men seyn, out of the londe of 
Arabye. In goynge up, fro fer it sendeth toward 
thee a wondur swete brethe; and ther as thou gost 
thy weye, it fayleth never, but thi clothes kepen 
that brethe ful longe tyme, and thou schalt ever- 
more ben in remembraunce ther of. 

And with inne, the temple is not oon, but in it is 
mad an other chambre, to the which is an other weye 
up, that is but schort. That chambre is not dight 
with dores but liggeth alle open ayens thee. In to 
the grete temple comen alle men, but in to the 
litylle chambre the prestes only, and not alle the 
prestes, but only thei that ben most nyghe to 
the Goddes and han in governaunce alle the servys 
of the temple. And in that chambre arn throned 
the ydoles, that oon Iuno and that other that is 
love, algates thei clepen him be another name.} 
And both ben of gold, and both sytten, but lyonns 
beren Iuno, and that other sytt on boles.? 

riding on a lion, sometimes enthroned between two of them ; 
Hadad (not Baal Kevan) is seated between two oxen. ** On 
an inscription from North Syria (eighth century) Hadad has 
horns, and with this agrees the association of the bull with 
the god . . . we may conjecture that the small heads of 
bulls unearthed by the excavations are connected with his 
worship" (Cook, 90; cf. Schrader-Zimmern, p. 778). Com- 
pare Tobit, 1, 5. The lion appears also in connection with 
Ata, with ‘‘ Kadesh,” who stands upon a lion in an Egyptian 
representation of her, aud with several Dabylonian deities, 
as well as with Cybele. 




Kai δῆτα τὸ μὲν tod Διὸς ἄγαλμα ἐς Δία 
4 "e ^ ` M . e, e 
πάντα óp) καὶ κεφαλὴν καὶ εἵματα καὶ ἕδρην, 
καί μιν οὐδὲ ἐθέλων ἄλλως εἰκάσεις. ἡ δὲ " Hp 
/ 4 / . 2 / M 
σκοπέοντί TOL πολυειδέα μορφὴν éexpavée καὶ 
X ~ / 3 fa / 4 > 4 ” 
τὰ μὲν ξύμπαντα ἀτρεκέϊ λόγῳ “Hpn ἐστίν, ἔχει 
δέ τι καὶ ᾿Αθηναίης καὶ ᾿Αφροδίτης καὶ Σεληναίης 
. € / . , f . / . 
καὶ Ῥέης καὶ ᾿Αρτέμιδος καὶ Νεμέσιος καὶ 
^ f ^ 
Μοιρέων. χειρὶ δὲ τῇ μὲν ἑτέρη σκῆπτρον ἔχει, 
τῇ ἑτέρη δὲ ἄτρακτον, καὶ ἐπὶ τῇ κεφαλῇ ἀκτῖνάς 
τε φορέει καὶ πύργον καὶ κεστὸν τῷ μούνην τὴν 
Οὐρανίην κοσμέουσιν. ἔκτοσθεν δέ οἱ χρυσός τε 
ἄλλος περικέαται καὶ λίθοι κάρτα πολυτελέες, 
τῶν οἱ μὲν λευκοί, οἱ δὲ ὑδατώδεες, πολλοὶ δὲ 
5 ’ . ΔΝ , » . » e 
οἰνώδεες, πολλοὶ δὲ πυρώδεες, ἔτι δὲ ὄνυχες οἱ 
bs δῶ . Nie Of 8 M f ὃ \ 
Σαρδῷοι πολλοὶ καὶ ὑάκινθοι καὶ σμάραγδοι, τὰ 
/ 2 4 \ 9 . . 24 N 
φέρουσιν Αἰγύπτιοι καὶ Ἰνδοὶ καὶ Αἰθίοπες καὶ 
Μήδοι καὶ ᾿Αρμένιοι καὶ Βαβυλώνιοι. τὸ δὲ δὴ 
/ / y ^ , + ’ 
μέξονος λόγου ἄξιον, τοῦτο ἀπηγήσομαι' λίθον 
ἐπὶ τῇ κεφαλῇ φορέει: Ἄυχνὶς καλέεται, οὔνομα 
δὲ οἱ τοῦ ἔργου ἡ συντυχίη. ἀπὸ τούτου ἐν 
. f M 3 r e . / t 
νυκτὶ σέλας πολλὸν ἀπολάμπεται, ὑπὸ δέ οἱ 
καὶ ὁ νηὸς ἅπας οἷον ὑπὸ λύχνοισι φαείνεται. 
, e / N N M / , / 2 f y 
ἐν ἡμέρη δὲ τὸ μὲν φέγγος ἀσθενέει, ἰδέην δὲ ἔχει 

1 Compare Plutarch, Crassus, 17, 6: ““Απὰ the first 
warning sign came to him from this very goddess, whom 
some call Venus, others Juno, while others (cf. Cornutus 6) 
still regard her as the natural cause which supplies from 
moisture the beginnings and seeds of everything, and points 
out to mankind the source of all blessings. For as they 



And certeynely the symulacre of Iove ressembleth 
Iove in alle pointes, as heed and garnements and 
throne; and thou mightest not lyknen him unto 
no thing elles, and thou wolde. But whan thou 
lokest on Iuno, sche wil schewe thee grete dyver- 
sitee of semblauntz; for al be it that the hool, trewely 
considered, be Iuno, natheles it conteyneth some 
dele of Minerve and Venus and Luna and Cibella 
and Deane and Fortune and Parcas! And in that 
oon hond sche holt a troncheon, and in that 
other a distaf; and on hir hede sche bereth rayes, 
and a tour, and that ceynt that men arayen with cestus 
Venus Celestial allone. And abouten hir sche hath 
mo gold and precious stones right costlewe, some 
whyte and some watry, and manye lyk wyn and 
manye lyk fuyr; and therto sardoynes withouten 
nombre and berylles and emeraudes. Thise stones 
bryngen men of Egypte and Inde and Ethyope and 
Medye and Ermonye and Babyloyne. But I schal 
devyse you a thyng that is yit mo to speke of. 
Sche bereth on hir hede a ston that hight Lampe 
and hath his name after that that it doth. That ston 
schyneth in the nyght with grete claretee and 
serveth all the temple with light, right as it were 
of lampes. In the daye his schyninge is feble but 

were leaving her temple (where, Plutarch says, he had been 
taking an inventory of the treasures), first the younger 
Crassus stumbled and fell at the gate, and then his father 
fell over him” (Perrin's translation) The identification 
with Aphrodite, which occurs on inscriptions from Delos, is 
due to her Astarte side; to Lucian in this case it is of course 
particularly suggested by the famous cestus. What sug- 
gested the other goddesses is not clear to me in the case of 
Athena or of Nemesis; the rays indicate Selene, the distaff 
Artemis, and the sceptre the Parcae, or Moirai (Fates). 





κάρτα πυρώδεα. καὶ ἄλλο θωυμαστόν ἐστιν ἐν 
τῷ ξοάνῳ. ἣν ἑστεὼς ἀντίος ἐσορέῃς, ἐς σὲ ὁρῇ 
καὶ μεταβαΐνοντι τὸ βλέμμα, ἀκολουθέει' καὶ 
ἦν ἄλλος ἑτέρωθεν ἱστορέῃ,᾽ ἴσα καὶ ἐς ἐκεῖνον 

Ἐν μέσῳ δὲ ἀμφοτέρων ἕστηκεν ξόανον ἄλλο 
χρύσεον, οὐδαμὰ τοῖσι ἄλλοισι ξοάνοισι εἴκελον. 
τὸ δὲ μορφὴν μὲν ἰδίην οὐκ ἔχει, φορέει δὲ τῶν 

ἄλλων θεῶν εἴδεα. καλέεται δὲ σημήιον καὶ ὑπ᾽ 
αὐτῶν ᾿Ασσυρίων, οὐδέ τι οὔνομα ἴδιον αὐτῷ 
ἔθεντο, ἀλλ᾽ οὐδὲ γενέσιος αὐτοῦ καὶ εἴδεος 
λέγουσιν. καί μιν οἱ μὲν ἐς Διόνυσον, ἄλλοι δὲ 
ἐς Δευκαλίωνα, οἱ δὲ ἐς Σεμίραμιν ἄγουσιν" καὶ 
γὰρ δὴ ὧν ἐπὶ τῇ κορυφῇ αὐτοῦ περιστερὴ 
χρυσέη ἐφέστηκεν, τοὔνεκα δὴ μυθέονται Sepi- 
ράμιος ἔμμεναι. τόδε σημήιον. ἀποδημέει. δὲ δὶς 
ἑκάστου ἔτεος ἐς θάλασσαν ἐς κομιδὴν τοῦ εἶπον 

᾿Εν αὐτῷ δὲ τῷ νηῷ ἐσιόντων ἐν ἀριστερῇ κέα- 
ται πρῶτα μὲν θρόνος ᾿Ηελίου, αὐτοῦ δὲ ἕδος 2 
οὐκ ἔνι' μούνου γὰρ Ἠελίου καὶ Σεληναίης 
ξόανα οὐ δεικνύουσιν. ὅτευ δὲ εἵνεκα ὦδε voui- 
ζουσιν, ἐγὼ καὶ τόδε ἔμαθον. λέγουσι τοῖσι μὲν 
ἄλλοισι θεοῖσιν ὅσιον ἔμμεναι ξόανα ποιέεσθαι, 

1 ἐσορέη du Soul, Edd. 
2 ἕδος Schaefer: εἶδος MSS. 

: Cone Herodotus 2, 44, on the great emerald pillar in 
the temple of Melkart at Tyre ; ; also Mandeville, pp. 239, 
276, ed. Halliwell, on luminous stones in the possession of 
the Emperor of Cathay and of Prester John. Diodorus (3, 39, 
8) credits the topaz with this power. 

? [t is clear from the passage in Melito quoted above that 
Lucian's **token" (semeion) rests upon a misunderstanding 



it hath a right fuyry aspect.! And ther is an 
other merveylle in that ydole. Gif thou loke on 
hir stondynge ayenst hir, sche loketh on thee, and 
if thou remeve thee, hir regard folweth thee ; natheles 
if an other beholde hir fro the tothere syde, sche 
doth right so to him also. 

And betwene hem stont a symulacre of gold, not 
lyk the othere symulacres in no kynde, that hath 
no propre schap but bereth the qualitees of the 
other goddes. And the Assuriens hem selve clepen 
it Tokene, for thei han not goven him no propre name ; 
in sothe thei mowe not seyn whens it cam ne what 
maner thyng itis. But some beleven, it is of Bachus, 
and othere that it is of Deucalioun, and othere that it 
is of Semiramys. And for sothe a dowve of gold 
stont on his hede, and so thei devisen that it is 
Semiramys Tokene. And it doth iorney twyes 
eech yeer to the See, for to fecchen that water 

In the temple himself on the left syde in entrynge is 
first a thron of Elye the sonne, but noon ymage of him 
sytt there on. For of Sonne and Mone only schewen 
thei non symulacres, and I lernede wherfore thei 
folwen this usaunce. Thei seyn that of othere 
goddes it is leful to lete make symulacres, for that 

of the name of a goddess, Simi, Simia, Semea (Noldeke ; cf, 
Hoefer, s.v. Semea in Roscher) The name also figures in 
the Semiramis-Derceto myth, for the royal overseer is called 
Simmas. Note also that the figure has a dove on its head. 
A Talmudic gloss cited by Drusius says: “ Samaritanus 
cireumcidit in nomine imaginis columbam referentis quam 
inventam in vertice montis Garizim certo quodam ritu colunt ” 
(Selden, de Dis Syris, p. 2/5). See Montgomery, Samaritans, 
p. 320. 



, M / 
οὐ γὰρ σφέων ἐμφανέα πάντεσι τὰ εἴδεα' ᾿Ηέλιος 

δὲ καὶ LeAnvain πάμπαν ἐναργέες καὶ σφέας πάν- 

e ΄ ^ 
τες ὀρέουσι. κοίη ὧν αἰτίη ξοανουργίης τοῖσι ἐν 
^ +f 
τῷ ἠέρι φαινομένοισι ; 
N ^ 

35 Mera δὲ τὸν θρόνον τοῦτον κέαται ξόανον 
3 / e 
Απόλλωνος, οὐκ οἷον ἐώθεε ποιέεσθαι' οἱ μὲν 

M » 
yap ἄλλοι πάντες ᾿Απόλλωνα νέον τε ἥγηνται 

M , / ^ M t ? ’ 
καὶ πρωθήβην ποιέουσιν, μοῦνοι δὲ οὗτοι ᾿Απόλ.- 
λωνος γενειήτεω ξόανον δεικνύουσιν. καὶ τάδε 

/ € \ ^ , ’ ε ; 
ποιέοντες ἑωυτους μὲν ἐπαινέουσιν, Ελλήνων δὲ 
/ ` ¥ € , , / 
κατηγορέουσιν Kat ἄλλων οκοσοι Απόλλωνα 
παῖδα θέμενοι ἱλάσκονται. αἰτίη δὲ ἥδε. δοκέει 
> ’ > / 4 » , $ / 
αυτέοισι ἀσοφίη µεγάλη ἔμμεναι ἀτελέα ποιέε- 
^ ^ . y X . / , . y 
σθαι τοῖσι θεοῖσι τὰ εἴδεα, τὸ δὲ νέον ἀτελὲς ἔτι 
νομίξουσιν. ἐν δὲ καὶ ἄλλο τῷ σφετέρῳ ᾿Απόλ- 
λωνι καινουργέουσι' μοῦνοι Απόλλωνα elpasi 

36 ργων δὲ αὐτοῦ πέρι πολλὰ μὲν ἔχω εἰπεῖν, 
> / $08 , , x A ` 
ἐρέω δὲ τὸ μάλιστα θωυμάξειν ἄξιον. πρῶτα δὲ 
τοῦ μαντηίου ἐπιμνήσομαι. μαντήια πολλὰ μὲν 
παρ "Ελλησι, πολλὰ δὲ καὶ παρ Αἰγυπτίοισι, 
τὰ δὲ καὶ ἐν Λιβύη, καὶ ἐν τῇ δὲ Acin πολλά 
3 , M x \ » e [4 κ » 
ἐστιν. ἀλλὰ τὰ μὲν οὔτε ἰρέων ἄνευ οὔτε προφη- 

1 Compare Meyer, Gesch., Ῥ. 192, on the lack of images and 
teniples in tbe Egyptian worship of Ra. 

? Apollo is Nebo, whose statue, bearded and clothed, 
ereeted at Kelach by Adad-Nirari III, son of Semiramis, 
may be seen at the British Museum (illustrated in Roscher, 
Lexikon, I, p. 49). The inscription that it bears implores 

long life for Adad-Nirari, king of Assyria, and for Sam- 
muramat, the Lady of the Palace. Nebo was highly favoured 



here schappes ben not seen of alle men. But Sonne 
and Mone ben wel visible and alle men beholden 
hem. Whi thanne make symulacres of thynges that 
aperen in the eyr?! 

And ther nyghe this throne is sett a symulacre 
of Apollo, not lyk as he is wont to ben formed. For 
alle othere leven Apollo yong and formen him as a 
stripling, but thise allone schewen a symulacre of 
Apollo berded. And doynge this thei preisen hem 
selve and repreven Grekes and alle othere men that 
worschippen Apollo in lyknesse of a child. And the 
resoun is, for it semeth hem gret folye to maken 
schappes of Goddes inperfyt, and al that is yong 
thei demen yit inperfyt. And here Apollo hath 
other novelrye; for thei allone arayen him with 

Now of the wondres that he doth I can speke 
largely, but I wol telle only that that is most 
marveyllous; and first I schalle make mencioun 
of the oracle. Ther ben manye oracles amonges 
Grekes and manye amonges Egyptyens, and some in 
Libye, and also manye in Asye. But thise oracles 
speken not withouten prestes or prophetes; but 

by Semiramis, and also, in later days, by Antiochus Soter, 
who rebuilt his temple at Borsippa in 268 B.c. At Edessa, 
near Hieropolis, his worship continued until the coming of 
Christianity (Cureton, Ancient Syriac Documents, pp. 14, 22, 
41). Contemporary testimony to its existence at Hieropolis 
is furnished by Melito; see above, p. 353, note 3. The statue 
at Hieropolis that we find described in Macrobius seems to be 
a later one; for though it was bearded and clothed, as in 
Lucian’s day, there was a calathus on the head, a spear 
topped with a little figure of Victory in the right hand, a 
flower in the left, a breastplate on his body, and over it a 
snaky aegis; also, two eagles near by (Saturn, 1, 17, 67-70). 




τέων φθέγγονται, ὅδε δὲ αὐτός τε κινέεται καὶ τὴν 
µαντηίην ἐς τέλος αὐτουργέει. τρόπος δὲ αὐτῆς 
τοιόσδε. εὖτ᾽ ἂν ἐθέλῃ .Χχρησμηγορέειν, ἐν τῇ 
ἕδρῃ πρῶτα κινέεται, οἱ δέ μιν ἱρέες αὐτίκα 
ἀείρουσιν: ἦν δὲ μὴ ἀείρωσιν, ὁ δὲ ἱδρώει καὶ ἐς 
μέξον ἔτι κινέεται. εὖτ᾽ ἂν δὲ ὑποδύντες φέρωσιν, 
ἄγει σφέας πάντη περιδινέων καὶ ἐς ἄλλον ἐξ 
ἑτέρου μεταπηδέων. τέλος ὁ ἀρχιερεὺς ἀντιάσας 
ἐπερέεταί µιν περὶ ἁπάντων πρηγµάτων' ὁ δὲ ἤν 
TL μὴ ἐθέλῃ, ποιέεσθαι, ὀπίσω ἀναχωρέει, ἣν δέ 
TL ἐπαινέῃ, ἄγει ἐς τὸ πρόσω τοὺς προφέροντας 
ὅκωσπερ ἠνιοχέων. οὕτως μὲν συναγείρουσι τὰ 
θέσφατα, καὶ οὔτε ἱρὸν πρῆγμα οὐδὲν οὔτε ἴδιον 
τούτου ἄνευ ποιέουσιν. λέγει δὲ καὶ τοῦ ἔτεος 
πέρι καὶ τῶν ὠρέων αὐτοῦ πασέων, καὶ ὁκότε οὐκ 
ἔρονται." λέγει δὲ καὶ τοῦ σημηΐου πέρι, κότε 
χρή μιν. ἀποδημέειν. τὴν εἶπον ἀποδημίην. ἐρέω 
δὲ καὶ ἄλλο, τὸ ἐμεῦ παρεόντος ἔπρηξεν. οἱ μέν 
μιν ἱρέες ἀείροντες ἔφερον, ὁ δὲ τοὺς μὲν ἐν γῆ 
κάτω ἔλιπεν, αὐτὸς δὲ ἐν τῷ ἠέρι μοῦνος ἐφορέετο. 

88 Μετὰ δὲ τὸν ᾿Απόλλωνα ξόανόν ἐστιν"Ατλαν- 

τος, μετὰ δὲ 'Epuéo καὶ EiXei8vins. 

1 ἔρονται Fritzsche: ἔσονται MSS. 

1 At Heliopolis, Jupiter Heliopolitanus, who had absorbed 
* Apollo," gave oracles in much the same way (Macrobius, 
Satura, l, 93. 18sqg.). So also did Ammon at his great 
Libyan shrine (Siwa); the deseription of the procedure when 
Alexander consulted it (Diodorus, 17, 50-51), somewhat blind 
in itself, is clear in the light of these parallels. The ikon of 
the Virgin at Phaneromene, Salamis, is eredited with similar 

owers to-day (Capps), and for a puse in modern Sierra 

eone, see Frazer, Folklore, iii, p. 323. 

2 This is very likely the same ol of Semitic deities 
under another set of names, and in slightly different mani- 



that oon meveth be himself and be himself acom- 
plischeth his fercastinge, wher of the maner is right 
so. Whan he is in wille for to make predicatioun, atte 
firste he meveth on his thron, and thanne anon the 
prestes beren him up; but if thei ne beren him 
not up, he sweteth and meveth ever the more. And 
whyls thei carryen him on here scholdres, he dryveth 
hem, tornynge hem in alle weyes and lepynge fro 
that oon to that other. And atte last the Chefe 
Preste meteth him and axeth him of alle manere 
thinges; and gif he wole not that a thyng ben don, 
he draweth him backwardes; but if he commende a 
thyng, he dryveth his bereres forwardes right as he 
were dryvinge a charre.! So assemblen thei the 
predicatiounes, and withouten this don thei no 
thing, ne solempne ne lewede. And he speketh of 
the yeer and the sesouns ther of, ye, whan thei 
ne axe not; and he speketh of the Tokene, whan 
it schal gon that iorney aforseyde. And I schalle 
seye you an other wonder that he wroghte in min 
owene presence. Whan the prestes wolde beren 
him up and carryen him, he lafte hem doun on the 
erthe and fleighe in the eyr al be him self. 

There beside Apollo is a symulacre of Atlas, and 
there neer, of Mercure and of Lucine.? 

festations. For Atlas I would suggest Hadaranes, who 
according to Melito was worshipped here; a sign of the 
Zodiac would have sufficed to suggest the supporter of the 
heavens. Hermes(Mercury) should be Nebo at bottom, be- 
cause that planet is the planet of Nebo; but the Helio- 
politan Mercury who took the place of the Hieropolitan 
Apollo-Nebo in the triad is thought to have been called 
Simios (Dussaud).  Eileithyia (Lucina), the helper in child- 
birth, is Mylitta, though here they may not have called her 
by that name (cf. Schrader-Zimmern, 423, notc 7). 





Τὰ μὲν ὧν ἐντὸς τοῦ νηοῦ ὧδε κεκοσµέαται" 
ἔξω δὲ βωμός τε κἐαται µέγας χάλκεος, ἐν δὲ καὶ 
ἄλλα ξόανα μυρία χάλκεα βασιλέων τε καὶ ἱρέων' 
/ ` A / ¥ f 3 
καταλέξω δὲ τῶν μάλιστα ἄξιον μνήσασθαι. ἐν 
ἀριστερῇ τοῦ νεὼ Σεμιράμιος ξόανον ἕστηκεν ἐν 
^ A 
δεξιῇ τὸν νηὸν ἐπιδεικνύουσα. ἀνέστη δὲ δι᾽ 
αἰτίην τοιήνδε. ἀνθρώποισιν ὁκόσοι Συρίην 
οἰκέουσιν νόμον ἐποιέετο ἑαυτὴν μὲν ὅκως θεὸν 
ἱλάσκεσθαι, θεῶν δὲ τῶν ἄλλων καὶ αὐτῆς "Ηρης 
, / \ Ad , / M E 4 e / 
ἀλογέειν. καὶ ὧδε ἐποίεον. μετὰ δὲ ὥς οἱ Oed- 
θεν ἀπίκοντο νοῦσοί τε καὶ συμφοραὶ ! καὶ 
ἄλγεα, μανίης μὲν ἐκείνης ἀπεπαύσατο καὶ 
θνητὴν ἑωυτὴν ὁμολόγεεν καὶ τοῖσιν ὑπηκόοισιν 
. 3 / , “ / / . 
αὖτις ἐκέλευεν ἐς "Ηρην τρέπεσθαι. τούνεκα δὴ 
ἔτι τοιήδε ἀνέστηκεν, τοῖσιν ἀπικνεομένοισι τὴν 
e εν / ΄ \ ` > / 
Ηρην ἱλάσκεσθαι δεικνύουσα, καὶ θεὸν οὐκέτι 
ε A ? , 9 f e / : 
ἑωυτὴν ἀλλ, ἐκείνην ομολογέουσα. 
Εἶδον δὲ καὶ αὐτόθι “Ελένης ἄγαλμα καὶ 
Ἑκάβης καὶ Ανδρομάχης καὶ Πάριδος καὶ " Ex- 
τορος καὶ ᾿Αχιλλέος. εἶδον δὲ καὶ Νειρέος εἶδος 
τοῦ ᾿Αγλαΐης, καὶ Φιλομήλην καὶ Πρόκνην ἔτι 
^ \ DA [4 y ^ y 
γυναῖκας, καὶ αὐτὸν Τηρέα ὄρνιθα, καὶ ἄλλο 
ἄγαλμα Σεμιράμιος, καὶ Κομβάβου τὸ κατέλεξα, 
καὶ Στρατονίκης κάρτα καλόν, καὶ ᾿Αλεξάνδρου 
, ^ , , vy M [4 e f 
αὐτῷ ἐκείνῳ εἴκελον, παρὰ δέ of Σαρδανά- 
^ » ^ 
παλλος ἕστηκεν ἄλλῃ μορφῇ καὶ ἄλλη στολῇ. 

1 συμφοραὶ N, du Soul: συμφορή ΓΕ. 


Now have I devysed you how that the temple 
is aparaylled with innen. Withouten is set a gret 
awtere of brasse, and there nyghe ben othere symul- 
acres of kynges and prestes withouten nombre ; and 
I schalle telle you tho that ben moste worthy of 
mencioun. At the lefte syde of the temple stont a 
symulacre of Semiramys schewinge the temple with 
hir righte hond, the whiche was sett up for this 
resoun. Sche made ordeynaunce unto alle that 
duelleden in Surrye that thei scholde worschippe hir 
as here goddesse, recchynge nought of the othere 
goddes and Iuno hirself. And thei didde right 
so. But after, for als moche as syknesses and tribu- 
laciouns and peynes weren leyde on hir by the - 
goddes, sche cessed of that folye and knouleched that 
sche was mortalle and commaunded alle hir subgettes 
to tornen hem ayen un to Iuno. Wherfore sche 
stont yit in suche gyse, devysing to alle that comen 
that thei schulle worschippe Iuno, and knoulechynge 
that sche is not goddesse no more, but that other.! 

And in that place saughe I also ymages of Eleyne 
and Ecube and Andromacha and Parys and Ector 
and Achilles. And I saughe Nireos ymage, that 
was sone of Aglaye, and Philomele and Progne, that 
weren yit wommen, and Tereus himself, that was a 
brid, and an other ymage of Semiramys, and of 
Combabe that that I spak of, and a right fayr of 
Stratonice, and oon of Alexaundre lyk as it were the 
verray man, and there beside him stont Sardanapalle 
in other schappe and other aparayl.? 

1 There may be some truth in this legend, for Semiramis 
actually received worship in Carchemish, just north of 

2 That is, with the figure and clothing of a woman. 



4l Ἔν δὲ τῇ αὐλῇ ἄφετοι νέμονται βόες μεγάλοι 
καὶ ἵπποι καὶ ἀετοὶ καὶ ἄρκτοι καὶ λέοντες, καὶ 
3 4 2 \ / 7 \ / e ” / 
ἀνθρώπου» οὐδαμὰ σίνονται, ἀλλὰ πάντες ἐροί τέ 
εἰσι καὶ χειροήθεες. 
49 Ipées δὲ αὐτοῖσι πολλοὶ ἀποδεδέχαται, τ τῶν οἱ 
μὲν τὰ ἱρήια σφάξουσιν, οἱ δὲ σπονδηφορέουσιν, 
ἄλλοι δὲ πυρφόροι καλέονται καὶ ἄλλοι Tapa- 
΄ » a ’ ΄ 3! 
βώμιοι. ἐπ᾽ ἐμεῦ δὲ πλείονες καὶ τριηκοσίων ἐς 
/ ^ 
την θυσίην ἀπικνέοντο. ἐσθὴς δὲ αὐτέοισι πᾶσι 
λευκή, καὶ πῖλον ἐπὶ τῇ κεφαλῇ ἔχουσιν. ἀρχιε- 
\ \ » e G v 3 / 
ρεὺς δὲ ἄλλος ἑκάστου ἔτεος ἐπιγίγνεται, πορφυ- 
/ ^ ` 
ρέην τε μοῦνος οὗτος φορέει καὶ τιάρῃ χρυσέῃ 
43 ἀναδέεται. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἄλλο πλῆθος ἀνθρώπων 
f o^ 3 / x / \ /, 
(pov αὐλητέων τε καὶ συριστέων καὶ 1 άλλων, 
M ^ 3 / \ id 
καὶ γυναῖκες ἐπιμανέες τε καὶ φρενοθλαβέες. 
44 Θυσίη δὲ δὶς ἑκάστης ἡμέρης ἐπιτελέεται, ἐς 
τὴν πάντες ἀπικνέονται. Διὶ μὲν ὧν κατ᾽ hov- 
Li ΄ 5 5-4 vy > / 4 3) 
χίην θύουσιν οὔτε ἀείδοντες οὔτε αὐλέοντες' εὖτ 
* M ^ Cf / 3 A / \ 
ἂν δὲ τῇ “Hpn κατάρχωνται, ἀείδουσίν τε καὶ 
αὐλέουσιν καὶ κρόταλα ἐπικροτέουσιν. καί μοι 
τούτου πέρι σαφὲς οὐδὲν εἰπεῖν ἐδύναντο. 
bi NER 
45 "Kore δὲ καὶ λίμνη αὐτόθι, οὐ πολλὸν ἑκὰς τοῦ 
[4 ^ 3 ^ > 7 [4 ~ ’ \ * 
ἱροῦ, ἐν τῇ ἰχθύες ἱροὶ τρέφονται πολλοὶ καὶ 
πολυειδέες. γίγνονται δὲ αὐτῶν ἔνιοι κάρτα 
μεγάλοι: οὗτοι δὲ καὶ οὐνόματα ἔχουσιν καὶ 

1 Sacred animals were a common feature of temple-closes 
in Greece (Gardner-Jevons, Manual, p. 188). Plato intro- 
duces sacred bulls into his utopian Atlantis, Critias, 119 p. 



And in the clos at large pasturen grete boles 
and hors and egles and beres and lyouns ; and thei 
don no manere harm to men but ben everyche of 
hem holy and tame. 

Prestes thei apoynten withouten nombre, of the 
whiche some slcen the victimes and some beren the 
offrynges of licours and some ben cleped Fuyrbereres 
and some Awtere Prestes. Whan I was there, mo 
than a 300 weren wont to assemblen hem for sacrifise. 
Thei ben clothed in whyte robes alle, and thei han 
ἃ poynted cappe on here hedes.* And everyche 
yeer a newe chefe preste is sett over hem, that 
allone wereth a robe of purpre and is crouned with a 
coronale of gold.3 And therto is other gret multy- 
tude of religious men, of floyteres and piperes and 
Galles, and also wommen that ben wode and out of 
here witte. 

Twyes each day sacrifise is perfourmed, to the 
which alle comen. To Iove thei sacrificen withouten 
ony noys, ne syngynge not ne floytynge; but whan 
thei presenten offrynges to Iuno, thanne thei syngen 
and floyten and sounen cymbales. And as to this 
thei mighte not telle me no thing certeyn. 

Ther is also a lak, a lityl fro the temple, in the 
whiche holy fissches ben norysscht, withouten nombre 
and of dyverse kyndes. Some of hem ben ful grete, 
and thise han names and comen whan thei ben 

2 For the pointed cap, see Cumont in Daremberg-Saglio, 
Dict. des Ant., s.v. Syria Dea, fig. 6698, and the reference in 
the next note (Abd-Hadad). 

3 Coins of Hieropolis, of the fourth century, B.c. (Babelon, 
Perses achéménides, No. 315), show the high priest Abd-Hadad 
in the dress here described. Compare Herodian 5, 3, 6 
(costume of Elagabalus ; cf. Dio Cassius 79, 11); Cureton, 
Ancient Syriac Documents, p. 41 (Sharbil, priest of Nebo); 
Athenaeus 5, 215 B.C. (priest of Sandan at Tarsus). 



3 / 3 5 3 ’ , 4 3 
ἔρχονται καλεόμενοι: ἐπ᾽ ἐμέο δέ τις ἦν ἐν 
αὐτοῖσι χρυσοφορέων. ἐν τῇ πτέρυγι ποίημα 
χρύσεον αὐτέῳ ἀνακέατο, καί μιν ἐγὼ πολλάκις 
ἐθεησάμην, καὶ εἶχεν τὸ ποίημα. 

46 Βάθος δὲ τῆς λίμνης πολλόν. ἐγὼ μὲν οὐκ 
3 ’ / > 4 Q / > / 
ἐπειρήθην, λέγουσι δ᾽ ὧν καὶ διηκοσίων ὀργυιέων 
πλέον ἔμμεναι. κατὰ μέσον δὲ αὐτῆς βωμὸς 

λίθου ἀνέστηκεν. δοκέοις ἂν ἄφνω ἰδὼν πλώειν 
ή M ^ ei , ’ . . κ. 
TE μιν καὶ τῷ ὕδατι ἐποχέεσθαι, καὶ πολλοὶ ὧδε 
’ ‘ 3 \ δὲ ὃ ΄ ^ e . 1 
vopitovciv: ἐμοὶ δὲ δοκέει στῦλος ὑφεστεὼς 
μέγας ἀνέχειν τὸν βωμόν. ἔστεπται δὲ ἀεὶ καὶ 
> . \ ’ 
θυώματα ἔχει, πολλοὶ δὲ καὶ ἑκάστης ἡμέρης 
κατ᾽ εὐχὴν ἐς αὐτὸν νηχοµενοι στεφανηφορέουσιν. 
4T Γίνονται δὲ αὐτόθι καὶ πανηγύριές τε µέγισ- 
’ \ 3 M ’ 7 e 
ται, καλέονται δὲ ἐς τὴν λίμνην καταβάσιες, ὅτι 
^ N N 
ἐν αὐτῆσι ἐς τὴν λίμνην τὰ ἱρὰ πάντα κατέρχε- 
A / ^ 
ται. ἐν τοῖσιν ἡ Ἡρη πρώτη ἀπικνέεται, τῶν 
, ΄ e ` [ή τ . ^ LO 
ἰχθύων εἵνεκα, μὴ σφέας ὁ Ζεὺς πρῶτος ἴδηται: 
ἣν γὰρ τόδε γένηται, λέγουσιν ὅτι πάντες ἀπόλ- 
` A . M ¥ , /, e ` 
λυνται. καὶ δῆτα ὁ μὲν ἔρχεται ὀψόμενος, ἡ δὲ 

1 ὑφεστεὼς Gesner: ἐφεστεὼς MSS. 

! ** At Hierapolis in Syria, in the lake of Venus, they (the 
fish) obey the spoken commands of the aeditu? ; when called, 
they come with their golden ornaments ; they show affection 
and let themselves be tickled (adulantes scalpuntur), and 
they open their mouths for people to put in their hands" 
(Pliny, Nat. Hist. 32, 17). According to Aelian (Nat. Hist. 
12, 2) they swam in regular formation, and had leaders. 
The pond still exists, but thc fish are no more (Cumont, 
Études Syriennes, p. 36 sq.). There were similar ponds at 



cleped. And whan I was there, amonges hem was 
oon that werde gold. On his fynne was festned a 
ioyelle of gold; and often tymes I saughe him, and 
he hadde that ioyelle.! 

That lak is passynge depe. I assayde it not, but 
men seyn that it hath wel mo than a 200 fadmes ; 
and in the myd place ther of stont an awtere of 
stone. Seeynge it on a sodeyne, thou woldest 
trowen that it fleyted and rode upon the water, and 
manye men wenen thus; but I suppose that a gret 
piler pight undernethe bereth up the awtere. And 
it is ever more dressed with gerlondes and hath 
encens brennynge, and manye swymmen overthwart 
to it eech day for a vowe that thei han, and bryngen 

At that place ben wondur grete festes, the which 
highte Desceyntes unto the Lak, be cause that in 
tho festes alle the ydoles gon doun to the lak. 
Amonges hem Iuno cometh first, be cause of the 
fissches, to the entente that love schalle not seen 
hem first; for if so be that this happeth, thei dyen 
alle, as men seyn. And for sothe he cometh to 

Ascalon, Edessa, and Smyrna: see the interesting inscription 
from Smyrna in Dittenberger, Sylloge Inscr. Gracc.?, No. 584. 
The eustom was transmitted to modern times (Daudissin, 
Studien, ii, pp. 159 and 165; Hogarth, le., p. 189). 
On the fish tabu in Syria, see Xenophon, Anab. 1, 4, 9; 
Menander, fragment 544 Kock ; Cicero, de Nat. Deor. 3, 39 ; 
Diodorus 2, 4, 3; Plutarch, Moral. 170 D, 730 D; Ovid, 
Fasti 2, 461 sqq.; Athenaeus 4, 157 B; 8, 346 C sqq.; 
Clement Alex., Protrept. 2, 39, p. 35 r ; Hyginus, Fab. 197; 
Astron. 2, 30. 

2 Gruppe (Gr. Myth. u. Religionsgesch., p. 813) connects this 
** Floating " island with the holy island of Tyre, the floating 
island of Chemmis in the swamps of Buto, and with the 
Greek stories of Delos and Patmos. 





’ ε / 3 , ’ N 
πρόσω ἱσταμένη ἀπείργει τέ μιν καὶ πολλὰ 
λιπαρέουσα ἀποπέμπει. 

/ M , ^ A es , 

Μέγισται δὲ αὐτοῖσι πανηγύριες at ἐς θάλασσαν 

/ , , , A ᾽ / \ > M 
νομίζονται. AAN ἐγὼ τούτων πέρι σαφὲς οὐδὲν 
» 3 ^ , \ 5 ᾽ν IQA , ’ 
ἔχω εἰπεῖν' οὐ γὰρ ἦλθον αὐτὸς οὐδὲ ἐπειρήθην. 

^ f 
ταύτης τῆς ὁδοιπορίης. τὰ δὲ ἐλθόντες ποιέου- 
σιν, εἶδον καὶ ἀπηγήσομαι. ἀγγήιον ἕκαστος ὕδατι 
^ / 
σεσαγμένον φέρουσιν, κηρῷ δὲ τάδε σεσήμανται. 
καί μιν οὐκ αὐτοὶ λυσάμενοι χέονται, ἀλλ᾽ ἔστιν 
3 ` € ’ 3 / . 3 ~ ^ / ^ , 
ἀλεκτρυών (pos, οἰκέει δὲ ἐπὶ τῇ λίμνῃ, ὃς ἐπεὶ 

/ / \ 3 / / ^ e ^ 

σφέων δέξηται τὰ ἀγγήια, τήν τε σφρηγῖδα ὁρῇ 
καὶ μισθὸν ἀρνύμενος ἀνά τε λύει τὸν δεσμὸν καὶ 
/ \ / 
τὸν κηρὸν ἀπαιρέεται' καὶ πολλαὶ μνέες ἐκ του- 
^ 3 ^ / / 
τέου τοῦ ἔργου τῷ ἀλεκτρυόνι ἀγείρονται. ἔνθεν 
δὲ ἐς τὸν νηὸν αὐτοὶ ἐνείκαντες σπένδουσί τε καὶ 
θύσαντες ὀπίσω ἀπονοστέουσιν. 

Ὁρτέων δὲ πασέων τῶν οἶδα μεγίστην τοῦ 
εἴαρος ἀρχομένου ἐπιτελέουσιν, καί μιν οἱ μὲν 
πυρὴν, οἱ δὲ λαμπάδα καλέουσιν. θυσίην δὲ ἐν 

3 - A / [4 / 3 , 
αὐτῇ τοιήνδε ποιέουσιν. δένδρεα μεγάλα ἐκκόψαν- 

- ^ ^ \ M / 
τες τῇ αὐλῇ ἑστᾶσι, μετὰ δὲ ἁγινέοντες αἶγάς τε 

. oe Ny / X , ^ / 
καὶ dias καὶ ἄλλα κτήνεα ζωὰ ἐκ τῶν δενδρέων 
ἀπαρτέουσιν' ἐν δὲ καὶ ὄρνιθες καὶ εἵματα καὶ 

3 \ 
χρύσεα καὶ ἀργύρεα ποιήματα. ἐπεὰν δὲ ἐντελέα 
. [4 
πάντα ποιήσωνται, περιενείκαντες τὰ ἱρὰ περὶ 
- M 
τὰ δένδρεα πυρὴν ἐνιᾶσιν, τὰ δὲ αὐτίκα πάντα 

1 **"The rite of descending to the water (κατάβασις, Semitic 
yerid) was common all over Syria. . . . Its purpose was to 
revive the water-sources and bring rain” (Dussaud, Pauly- 
Wissowa s.v. Hadad). Why the fish should need protection 



seen hem, but sche, stondynge beforn him, letteth 
him, and with manye supplicatiouns sendeth him his 

Wondur grete ben also the festes that thei ben 
wont to make in goynge to the see. Of tho festes 
ne can I not seye no thing certeyn, be cause that 
I ne wente not myself ne assayde not that pil- 
grimage. But what thei don whan thei retornen, 
that I saughe and schalle devyse you. Thei beren 
everychon a pot fulle of water, and thise pottes ben 
seeled with waxe. And of hem self thei ne breke 
not the seel for to schede it out; but ther is a holy 
Cokke,? that woneth nyghe to the lak, that whan dwells 
he resceyveth the vesseles he loketh to the seel, and 
getteth him a fee for to undon the bond and remeve 
the waxe; and the Cokke gadereth moche silver 
thorghe this werk. And fro thens thei hem self 
bryngen it in to the temple, and scheden it out; 
and after this thei perfourmen sacrifise, and than 
thei wenden hoom ayen. 

But the grettest of alle festes wherof I knowe is 
kepte in the firste somer sesoun, and some men 
clepen it Fuyr Feste and some Torche Feste. ‘Ther 
inne thei don sacrifise in this wyse. Thei kutten 
grete trees and setten hem in the clos, and after, 
brynginge gotes and schepe and othere bestes, thei 
hangen hem fro the trees, alle on lyve, and eke 
briddes and clothes and ioyelles of gold and of silver. biras 
And whan thei han mad everyche thing complet and 
perfyt, thei beren the ydoles aboute the trees, and 
thanne thei casten inne fuyr and als swythe alle tho instantly 

from Hadad is a mystery to me, unless here too Hadad had 
begun to be identified with the sun. 
* Not, according to Dussaud, a Gallus, but an overseer. 

VOL. 1V. ο 




καίονται, ἐς πα. τὴν ὁρτὴν πολλοὶ νερο 
ἀπικνέονται ἔκ τε Συρίης. καὶ τῶν πέριξ χωρέων 
πασέων, φέρουσίν τε τὰ ἑωυτῶν (ρὰ ἕκαστοι καὶ 
τὰ σημήια ἕκαστοι. ἔχουσιν ἐς τάδε μεμιμημένα. 
Ἔν -ῥητῇσι δὲ ἡμέρῃσι τὸ μὲν πλῆθος ἐς τὸ 
ἱρὸν ἀγείρονται, Γάλλοι δὲ πολλοὶ καὶ τοὺς 
ἔλεξα, οἱ ἱροὶ ἄνθρωποι, τελέουσι τὰ ὄργια, τάμ- 
νονταί τε τοὺς πήχεας καὶ τοῖσι νώτοισι πρὸς 
ἀλλήλους τύπτονται. πολλοὶ δὲ σφίσι παρε- 
στεῶτες ἐπαυλέουσι, πολλοὶ δὲ τύμπανα πατα- 
γέουσιν, ἄλλοι δὲ ἀείδουσιν ἔνθεα καὶ ἱρὰ ἄσματα. 
τὸ δὲ ἔργον ἐκτὸς τοῦ νηοῦ τόδε γίγνεται, οὐδὲ 
ἐσέρχονται ἐς τὸν νηὸν ὁκόσοι τόδε ποιέουσιν. 
Ἐν ταύτῃσι τῇσι ἡμέρῃσι καὶ Γάλλοι γί- 
γνονται. ἐπεὰν γὰρ οἱ ἄλλοι αὐλέωσί τε καὶ 
ὄργια! ποιέωνται, ἐς πολλοὺς ἤδη ἡ μανίη 
ἀπικνέεται, καὶ πολλοὶ ἐς θέην ἀπικόμενοι μετὰ 
δὲ τοιάδε ἔπρηξαν. καταλέξω δὲ καὶ τὰ ποιέου- 
σιν. ὁ νεηνίης ὅτῳ τάδε ἀποκέαται ῥίψας τὰ 
εἵματα μεγάλῃ βοῇ ἐς μέσον ἔρχεται καὶ ξίφος 
ἀναιρέεται' TO? δὲ πολλὰ ἔτη, ἐμοὶ δοκέει, καὶ 
τοῦτο ἕστηκε. λαβὼν δὲ αὐτίκα τάμνει ἑωυτὸν 
θέει τε διὰ τῆς, πόλιος καὶ τῇσι χερσὶ φέρει τὰ 
ἔταμεν. ἐς τν δὲ οἰκίην τώδε ἀπορρίψει, ἐκ 

1 ὄργια du Soul: ὅρκια MSS. 
27> A4. M. H.: τὰ MSS. 

1 Baudissin (176, 3) knows no closer parallel than the 
Continental Mai-/vste, and thinks that, if the Syrian custom 
came down from the North, a cominunity of origin is possible. 
Somewhat similar is the practice at Tarsos of erecting a 
pyre, setting on it an image of the god Sandan, aud then 
burning it up. Frazer (i, 126, 146) associates the two 
customs and ascribes their origin to the immolation of 8 



thinges brennen.! To this feste comen manye bothe 
fro Surrye and from alle the marches there aboute ; 
and alle bryngen here owne holy thinges and han 
alle here Tokenes made in lyknesse of that on. 

And upon sette dayes the multytude assemblen 
hem in the clos, and manye Galles and tho religious 
men that I spak of perfourmen here cerimonyes ; 
and thei kutten here owne armesand beten that oon 
that other upon the bak.? And manye that stont 
ther neer floyten, and manye beten timbres, and 
othere syngen wode songes and holy. This is don 
withouten the temple, and thei that don it comen 
not in to the temple. 

And in thise dayes Galles ben made. For whan 
tho floyten and perfourmen here rytes, that folye 
sone entreth into manye, and manye ther ben that 
camen for to seen and thanne wroghten in thilke 
manere. And I shal descryve what thei don. The 
yong man to whom Fortune hath goven this adver- 
sitee, he casteth offe his clothinge and cometh in to 
the myddes, cryinge in a grete voyce, and taketh 
up a swerd that hath stode there thise manye 
yeeres, I wene. Thanne he geldeth him right anon 
and renneth throghe the Cytee berynge in his 
hondes tho parties therof he gelt him. And that 
house into the whiche he schalle casten thise, he 

human victim, the priest-king. For myself, I should like 
to know what became of the tree in the Attis-cult, that was 
cut down and brought into the temple, that the image of 
Attis might be tied to it (Frazer, i, 207). In the Gilgamesh 
Epic, Humbaba is posted by Bel as watcher of the cedars 
(Schrader-Zimmern, 570); and sacred trees still have offerings 
hung on them (Robertson Smith, Rel. of the Semites, pp. 
? See 1 Kings, 18, 26-28. 




ταύτης ἐσθῆτά τε θηλέην καὶ κόσμον. τὸν γυναι" 
κήιον λαμβάνει. τάδε μὲν ἐν τῆσι τομῇσι ποιέου- 

? ΄ 

Αποθανόντες δὲ Γάλλοι οὐκ ὁμοίην ταφὴν 

^ y / ? 3 
τοισιν ἄλλοισι θάπτονται, ann ἐὰν ἀποθάνῃ 
Γώλλος, ἑταῖροί µιν ἀείραντες ἐς τὰ προάστεια 
φέρουσιν, θέμενοι δὲ αὐτὸν καὶ τὸ φέρτρον τῷ 


ἐκόμισαν, ὕπερθε λίθοις βάλλουσιν, καὶ τάδε 
πρήξαντες ὀπίσω ἀπονοστέουσιν. φυλάξαντες 
δὲ ἑπτὰ ἡμερέων ἀριθμὸν οὕτως ἐς τὸ ἱρὸν 
ἐσέρχονται" πρὸ δὲ τουτέων ἣν ἐσέλθωσιν, οὐκ 

53 ὅσια ποιέουσιν. νόμοισι δὲ ἐς ταῦτα χρέωνται 


τουτέοισι. ἣν μέν. τις αὐτέων νέκυν ἴδηται, 
’ ~ 
ἐκείνην τὴν ἡμέρην ἐς TO ipòv οὐκ ἀπικνέεται, TH 
€ / \ ν a 
ἑτέρῃ δὲ καθήρις ἑωυτὸν ἐσέρχεται. αὐτῶν δὲ 
^ > f A 
τῶν οἰκείων τοῦ νέκυος ἕκαστοι φυλάξαντες 
, ` / . A 
ἀριθμὸν ἡμερέων τριήκοντα καὶ τὰς κεφαλὰς 
ξυράμενοι ἐ ἐσέρχονται" πρὶν δὲ τάδε ποιῆσαι, οὗ 
σφίσι ἐσιέναι ὅσιον. 
(θύουσιν δὲ Boas ἄρσενάς τε καὶ θήλεας καὶ 
αἶγας καὶ δίας. σύας δὲ μοῦνον ἐναγέας vopi- 
5 f » / y ? 
ζοντες οὔτε θύουσιν οὔτε σιτέονται. ἄλλοι ὃ 
» ’ 3 ’ 3 \ e A / ? s) 
οὐ σφέας ἐναγέας, ἀλλὰ ἱροὺς νομίζουσιν. ορνί- 
^ 4 
θων Te αὐτέοισι περιστερὴ δοκέει χρῆμα ἱρότατον 

1 Compare Joshua 8, 29, and for the modern practice, 
Baldensperger, 16, 1. Perhaps originally the Gallus was 
stoned to death at the expiration of a certain time. 

2 On the pollution of death, see Leviticus 2I, 1-3; Ezekiel 
44,25. Cf. Frazer, ii, 227 sqq. On shaving the head, Levit. 
31, 5; Ezekiel 44, 20. 

3 Elagabalus, by way of sportula, gave away all manner 
of animals except pigs; “for he abstained from them by the 
law of the Phoenicians” (Herodian 5, 6,9; cf. Dio Cassius 



getteth thens femele wedes and wommanlyche 
aparayles. Thus don thei whan thei gelden hem. 

And Galles at here dyenge ben not enterred in 
lyk manere as other men, but gif a Galle dye, his 
felawes liften him up and carryen him in to the 
skirtes of the Cytee and sette doun the man himself 
and the fertre on the whiche thei broghte him, and 
casten stones aboven;! and whan this is don, thei 
wenden hoom ayen. And thei wayten for the nombre 
of 7 dayes or that thei entren in to the temple ; for 
if thei entren before, thei misdon. And the cus- 
tomes that thei folwen therto ben thise. If so 
be that ony of hem seeth a dede man, he cometh 
not in to the temple that day; but on the nexte 
daye, aftre that he hath pured him, thanne he 
entreth. And tho that ben of the dede mannes kyn 
wayten for the space of 30 dayes and lette sehaven 
here hedes or thei entren; but before that this hath 
ben don, it is not leful for to entren.? 

Thei sacrificen boles and kyn and gotes and schepe. 
Swyn only thei ne sacrificen not nouther eten be cause 
that thei demen hem unclene? But othere men 
demen hem not unclene but holy. And amonges 
briddes the dowve semeth hem wondur holy thing, 

79,11) Suidas s.v. Aouvivos alludes to the custom as Syrian, 
and Sophronius (Migne 87, 3, p. 3624) in the case of a girl 
from Damascus ascribes it to the worship of Adonis. See 
Baudissin, p. 142 sgg. **In Palestine and Syria the animal 
was used in certain exceptional sacrifices which were recog- 
nized as idolatrous (Isaiah 65, 4 ; 66, 17) and it was an open 
question whether it was really polluted or holy" (Cook, 48). 
There was similar uncertainty in Egypt: see Herodotus 
2, 47, and Plutarch, Jsis and Osiris, 8. Lucian is perhaps 
thinking of the pig as holy in connection with the Eleusinian 
mysteries, and Demeter worship generally. It was holy also 
in Crete, and apparently in Babylon (Ninib). 



καὶ οὐδὲ ψαύειν αὐτέων δικαιέουσιν' καὶ ἣν 
ἀέκοντες ἄψωνται, ἐναγέες ἐκείνην τὴν ἡμέρην 
εἰσί. τοὔνεκα δὲ αὐτέοισι σύννομοί τέ εἰσι καὶ 
ἐς τὰ οἰκεῖα ἐσέρχονται καὶ τὰ πολλὰ ἐν γῇ 

55 Λέξω δὲ καὶ τῶν πανηγυριστέων τὰ ἕκαστοι 
ποιέουσιν. ἀνὴρ εὖτ᾽ ἂν ἐς τὴν ἱρὴν πόλιν πρῶτον 
ἀπικνέηται,᾽ κεφαλὴν μὲν ὅδε καὶ ὀφρύας ἐξύ- 
PATO, μετὰ δὲ ἱρεύσας div τὰ μὲν ἄλλα κρεουργέει 
τε καὶ εὐωχέεται, τὸ δὲ νάκος χαμαὶ θέμενος ἐπὶ 
τουτου ἐς γόνυ ἕξεται, πόδας δὲ καὶ κεφαλὴν 
τοῦ κτήνεος ἐπὶ τὴν ἑωυτοῦ κεφαλὴν ἀναλαμβά- 
νει’ ἅμα δὲ εὐχόμενος αἰτέει τὴν μὲν παρεοῦσαν 
θυσίην δέκεσθαι, μέζω δὲ ἐσαῦτις ὑπισχνέεται. 
τελέσας δὲ ταῦτα, τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτοῦ τε στέφεται 
καὶ τῶν ἄλλων ὁκόσοι τὴν αὐτὴν ὁδὸν ἀπικνέονται, 
ἄρας δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ἑωυτοῦ ὁδοιπορέει, ὕδασί τε 
ψυχροῖσι χρεόµενος λουτρῶν τε καὶ πόσιος 
εἵνεκα καὶ ἐς πάμπαν χαμοκοιτέων' οὐ yap oi 
εὐνῆς ἐπιβῆναι ὅσιον πρὶν τήν τε ὁδὸν ἐκτελέσαι 

56 καὶ ἐς τὴν ἑωυτοῦ αὖτις ἀπικέσθαι. ἐν δὲ τῇ 

l ἀπικνέηται Werfer: ἀπικνέεται MSS. 

1 “In Syria by the sea is a city named Ascalon. .. . I 
saw there an impossible number of doves at the crossways 
and about every house. When I asked the reason, they said 
it was not perinissible to catch them ; for the inhabitants, 
from a remote period, had been forbidden to enjoy them. 
So tame is the creature through security that it always lives 
not only under the same roof with man but at the same 
table, and abuses its immunity” (Philo Judacus, quoted by 
Eusebius, Praep. Evang. 8, 14, 50). See Hehn, Kulturpflanzen 
und Haustiere,* p. 329 sqq. ; Baudissin, Studien, ii, p. 191. 

? Shaving the head and brows was probably purificatory 
in this connection. See Plutarch, Jsts and Osiris, 4. 



and thei ben not wont so moche as to touchen hem; 
and gif thei touchen hem maugree hem selven, thei 
ben unclene that day. Therfore dowves lyven 
amonges hem and entren here houses and gadren 
here mete for the moste part atte erthe.! 

And I schal telle you what the pilgrimes alle don. 

Whan that a man wole faren for the firste sythe to'ime 

the Holy Cytee, he schaveth his heed and his browes,? 
and after that, he sacrificeth a schep; and than he 
kerveth it and eteth it alle, saf only the flees that 
he leyeth on the erthe and kneleth ther on, and 
taketh the bestes feet and heed and putteth upon 
his owne heed. Ther with alle he preyeth, askynge 
that this present sacrifise be resceyved and behotynge 
a grettere that nexte sythe.? And whan alle this is 
atte ende, he putteth a gerlond on his owne heed 
and on the hedes of his felawes that wolle gon that 
ilke pilgrimage. Thanne levynge his owne contree 
he doth iorney ; and he useth cold watre bothe for 
to wasschen with and to drynken, and slepeth 
alle weyes on the erthe; for he ne may not liggen 
in no maner bedde un to tyme that his pilgrimage 
be fulfilled and he be comen ayen to his owne 
contree.4 And in the Holy Cytee he is resceyved 

? By this procedure the worshipper seems clearly to 
indicate that the sacrificed sheep is a substitute for himself ; 
it is so understood by Frazer, Folklore, i, 414, 425-428. 
What the worshipper says and does is equivalent to: ‘ Take 
this poor offering in my stead, part for part ; myself I will 
offer next time.” In Schrader-Zimmern, p. 597, a cuneiform 
inscription is cited that concerns such a vicarious sacrifice : 
“The lamb, the substitute for a man, the lamb he gives for 
the man’s life; the head of the lamb he gives for the head of 
the man,” etc. For another view, see Robertson Smith, Rel. 
of the Semites, p. 438. 

4 Psalm 132, 3; cf. Robertson Smith, Rel. of the Semites, 
481 sqq. 




ἱρῆ πόλει ἐκδέκεταί μιν ἀνὴρ ξεινοδόκος ay 
νοέοντα' ῥητοὶ γὰρ δὴ ὧν ἑκάστης πόλιος αὐτοθι 
ξεινοδόκοι εἰσίν, καὶ τόδε πατρόθεν οἴκοι δέκονται. 
καλέονται δὲ ὑπὸ ᾿Ασσυρίων οἵδε διδάσκαλοι, 
ὅτι σφίσι πάντα ὑπηγέονται. 

57 ΟΘύουσι δὲ οὐκ ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ ἱρῷ, ἀλλ. ἐπεὰν 
παραστήσῃ τῷ βωμῷ. τὸ ἱρήιον, ἐπισπείσας 
αὖτις ἄγει Swov ἐς τὰ οἰκεῖα, ἐλθὼν δὲ κατ 
ἑωυτὸν θύει τε καὶ εὔχεται. 

58 "στιν δὲ καὶ ἄλλης θυσίης τρόπος τοιόσδε. 
στέψαντες τὰ ἱρήια, ζωὰ ἐκ τῶν προπυλαίων 
ἀπιᾶσιν, τὰ δὲ κατενεχθέντα θνήσκουσιν. ἔνιοι 
δὲ καὶ παῖδας ἑωυτῶν ἐντεῦθεν ἀπιᾶσιν, οὐκ 
ὁμοίως τοῖς κτήνεσιν, ἀλλ. ἐς πήρην ἐνθέμενοι 
χειρὶ κατάγουσιν, ἅμα δὲ αὐτέοισιν ἐπικερ- 
τομέοντες λέγουσιν ὅτι οὐ παῖδες, ἀλλὰ βόες 

69 Στίξονται δὲ πάντες, οἱ μὲν ἐς καρπούς, οἱ δὲ ἐς 
αὐχένας: καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦδε ἅπαντες ᾿Ασσύριοι 

1 A relic of child-sacrifice. ‘‘Shall I give my first-born 
for my transgression, the fruit of my body for the sin of my 
soul?” (Micah 6, 7). On traces of infant sacrifice discovered 
in the excavations in Palestine, see Cook, pp. 36, 38, 43; 
Frazer, Folklore i, 418 and note. From recent excavations in 
a sanctuary of Tanit at Carthage, it is apparent that first- 
born children were offered to that goddess during the whole 
period of Punic occupation (Am. Journal of Archaeol., 1923, 

.107). '*Jephthah's daughter had many successors before 
Hadrian tried to stamp out the practice. At Laodicea a 
virgin was annually sacrificed to ‘ Athena’ until a deer took 
her place ; Elagabalus was accused of offering children in his 
sun-temple at Rome; . . . an Arabian tribe annually sacri- 
ficed a child, which they buried beneath the altar that served 



of an hoste that he knoweth not propurly. For 
certeyne men in that place ben apoynted unto 
everyche cytee as hostes, and dyverse kynredes han 
this office of linage. And Assuryens clepen tho 
men Maistres be cause thei techen hem everyche 

And the sacrifises ben not perfourmed in the 
temple, but whan he hath presented his victime 
beforn the awtere, he schedeth offrynge of wyn 
there on, and thanne he ayen ledeth him on lyve 
to his logging, and whan he is comen there he 
sacrificeth and preyeth be him self. 

Ther is also this other maner sacrifise. Thei dressen 
here victimes with gerlondes and hurlen hem doun 
the degrees of the entree on lyve, and in fallynge 
doun thei dyen. And some men hurlen here owne 
children thens, but not in lyke manere as the bestes. 
Thei putten hem in a walet and beren hem doun 
in hond, and thei scornen hem with alle, seyinge 
that thei ben not children but oxen.! 

And alle leten marke hem, some on the wriste 
and some on the nekke; and for that skylle alle 
Assuryens beren markes.? 

them as an idol. In many parts, too, bodies of slain victims 
were used for purposes of divination" (Bonchier, Syria as a 
Roman Province, p. 247 sq.). 

3 Lucian probably means tattooing, although actual brand- 
ing was practised on occasion. ‘‘Some are afflicted with 
such an extravagancy of madness that, leaving themselves no 
room for a change of mind, they embrace slavery to the 
works of human hands, admitting it in writing, not upon 
sheets of papyrus as the custom is in the case of hunian 
chattels, but by branding it upon their bodies with a heeted 
iron with a view to its indelible permanency ; for even time 
does not fade these letters" (Philo Judaeus, de Monarchia 1, 
8 fin.) The view that this was the “mark of Cain” is 



60 Ποιέουσι δὲ καὶ ἄλλο μούνοισι Ελλήνων 
Τροιζηνίοισι ὁμολογέοντες. λέξω δὲ καὶ τὰ 
ἐκεῖνοι ποιέουσιν. Ἱροιζήνιοι thot παρθένοισι 
καὶ τοῖσιν ἠιθέοισι νόμον ἐποιήσαντο μή μιν 
ἄλλως γάμον ἰέναι, πρὶν Ἱππολύτῳ κόμας 
κείρασθαι: καὶ ὧδε ποιέουσιν. τοῦτο καὶ ἐν τῇ 
(pf) πόλει γίγνεται. οἱ μὲν νεηνίαι τῶν γενείων 
ἀπάρχονται, τοῖς δὲ νέοισι πλοκάμους ἱροὺς ἐκ 
γενετῆς ἀπιᾶσιν, τοὺς ἐπεὰν ἐν τῷ ἱρῷ γένωνται, 
τάμνουσίν τε καὶ ἐς ἄγγεα καταθέντες οἱ μὲν 
ἀργύρεα, πολλοὶ δὲ χρύσεα ἐν τῷ νηῷ προση- 
λώσαντες ἀπίασιν ἐπιγράψαντες ἕκαστοι τ 
οὐνόματα. τοῦτο καὶ ἐγὼ νέος ἔτι ὢν ἐπετέλεσα, 
καὶ ἔτι μευ ἐν τῷ ἱρῷ καὶ ὁ πλόκαμος καὶ τὸ 

forever being advanced anew, only to be anew denied. The 
practice was forbidden to the Jews (Levit. 19, 28, where 
the Septuagint reads: καὶ γράμματα στικτὰ οὗ ποιήσετε ἐν 
ὑμῖν). Among the Moslem population it still survives, but 
apparently without any religious significance. ‘A Syrian 
custom: the workers in tattoo are generally Syrian, and the 
decoration is seen mainly in Syria and North Palestine ”; 
(H. Rix, T'ent and. Testament, p. 103). In du Soul's time all 
Christians who visited the Holy Land came back tattooed, 
he tells us (Lucian, ed. Hemsterhuys-Reitz, iii, p. 489). 



And thei don another thing, in the whiche thei 
acorden to men of Trosen allone of Grekes, and I 
schalle telle you what tho don. Men of Trosen han 
made ordeynaunce as touchinge the maydens and 
the bachelers, that thei schulle not maryen or thei 
lette scheren here lokkes for worschipe of Ypolitc ; 
and so thei don. That thing is don also in the 
Holy Cytee. The bacheleres offren of here berdes, 
and the children from here birthe leten holy crulles 
growe, the which thei scheren whan thei ben pre- 
sented in the temple and putten in boystes outher 
of silver or often tymes of gold, that thei naylen 
faste in the temple, and than gon here weye; but 
first thei wryten there on here names everychon. 
Whan I was yong, I fulfilled that ryte; and bothe 
my crulle and my name ben yit in the seyntuarye.! 

! For the custom at Troezen see Pausanias 2, 32, 1; but 
he speaks only of girls. Its general prevalence is shown in 
Frazer's note on that passage, in which the item of chief 
interest in connection with Lucian is that in Caria, at the 
temple of Zeus Panamaros, it was customary for a man to 
dedicate a lock of hair in a stone receptacle on which was 
carved his name and that of the priest or priestess in charge ; 
the receptacle was preserved in the temple. 



Abonotelchus, city on the coast of 
Pap ilagonia, now Ineboli, 175, 187, 
189, 217, 251 

Abradatas, king of Susiana, contem- 
porary with Cyrus the Great, 
according to Xenophon in the 
Cyropaedia, 275, 291 

Achaeans, 129 

Acheron, Lake, In Hades, 89, 115 

Acherusian Plain, beslde Acheron, 97 

Achilles, 323, 331, 395 

Acropolis, of Athens, 25, 265 

Adonis, 343, 345, 347 

Adonis River,in Phoenicia, 347 

Aeacus, nephew of Pluto, son of Zeus 
and Europa, brother of Minos and 
Rhadamanthus, gate-keeper of 
Hades, 87, 103, 115, 123 

Aegeus, klng of Athens, father of 
Theseus, 117 

Aeglall, village ou the coast of Paphla- 
gonla, about half-way between 
Abonoteichus and Amastris, 249 

Aeginetan (obol), 119 

Aeschines, Attic orator, opponent of 
Demosthenes, 149 

Aeschines, the Socratic, 287 

Aétion, famous painter, 271 

Agamemnon, 99, 101, 331 

Agathon, Athenian trazedian, whose 
effeminate manners were riliculed 
by Aristophanes in the Thesmo- 
phoriazusae, 149 

Agenor, of Sidon, 341 

Aglaia (Aglaye), 395 

Aidoneus (Pluto), 89, 123 

Alastores, see Avengers 

Alcamenes, sculptor, 261, 263, 265, 

Alcestis, wlfe of Admetus of Thessaly, 
who gave her llfe in exchange for 
hls, and was brought back from 
Hades by Heracles, 117 

Alemene, mother of Heracles, 323 


Alexander of Abonoteichus, 175 sqq. 

Alexander the Great, 139, 141, 149, 
175, 185, 199, 305, 307, 395 

Alexandria, 231 

Alibantis, name of '* tribe ’’ 1n Hades, 
coined from alibas, corpse, 107 

Amalthea, the goat that nursed Zeus, 
whose horn became the Horn of 
Plenty, 141 

Amastris (see p. 210, note 1), 209, 211, 
247, 249 

Amazons, 55, 265, 267 

Amphiaraus, of Argos, a seer, one of 
the Seven who led the Argives 
against Thebes, worshipped as a 
god after his translation at Oropus 
In Boeotia, where he gave oracles 
to those whoslept in the teinple, 201 

Amphilochus, son of Amphlaraus, who 
also had an oracular shrine at 
Mallus in Cilicia, 201, 215 

Amphion, who, with the aid of a lyre 
given him by Hermes, built the wall 
of Thebes by making the stones 
move of their own accord, 281 


Anacharsis, the Scythian, visited 
Athens in quest of Greek learning 
and was introduced to Solon by his 
countryman Toxaris (Lucian, 
Scytha), 3 sqq. 

Andromache, wife of Hector, 395 

Anonymus (poet), 159, 325, (Pindar ?) 
333, (Epicharmus) 143 

Antenor, one of the elders of Troy, 

Aornus, in India, 143 (see note 1) 

Apelles, famous painter, contemporary 
of Alexander the Great, 261, 271, 



Aphrodite, 149, 271, 295, 303, 305, 
309, 311, 329, 331, 333, 387, (Pan- 
demos) 171, (Urania) 387, (of 
Bybios; Baalat) 343, 345, 349, 
(of Cnidos) 263, 265, 269, 305, 319, 
327, 329, (in the Gardens) 263, 267, 
305, 307, 319 

Apis, the sacred bull of Egypt, 345 

Apolio, 7, 9, 151, 189, 195, 215, 223, 
225, 231, 237, 285, (Nebo) 391, 393 

Apollonius of Tyana, famous Neo- 
Pythagorean phiiosopher and 
thaumaturge of the lst century 
A.D., 1 

Aquileia, 237 (its narrow escape from 
capture is not chronicled elsewhere) 

Arabia, 139, 349, 353, 381, 385 

Arbela, town E. of Nineveh, which 
gaveits name to the battie(331 B.C.) 
between Darius and Alexander, 
fought at Gaugamela, about sixty 
miies N.W. of Arbela, 139 

Areopagite, member of the court of 
the Areopagus, 29, 31, 35 

Areopagus, hili opposite the Acropolis 
at Athens, and high court which sat 
there, 29, 35 

Ares, 331 

Arete, wife of Alcinous, king of the 
Phaeacians, 289, 303 

Aristarchus, grammarian of Alexan- 
dria, ca. 175 B.C., especially famous 
for his commentaries upon Homer, 
in which a dash (obelos) was 
prefixed to lines thought spurious, 

Aristippus of Cyrene, founder of the 
Cyrenaic (Hedonic) school of phiio- 
sophy, honoured in Hades for his 
geníality (cf. i, 321), 95 

Aristodemus, an Athenian, the schol- 
iast says, satirized for indecency 
by Cratinus (fr. 151 K) and Aris- 
tophanes (fr. 231 K), 179 

Armenia, 213, 387 

Arrian (Fiavius Arrianus), born in 
Bithynia, Roman by citizenship, 
but not by birth, distinguished for 
eminent civil and miiitary service 
under Hadrian as weli as for his 
writings, 177 

Artemisium, northern point of Euboea, 
off which a naval engagement 
between Greeks and Persians took 
placein 480 B.O., 159 


Artemis, 331, 387 

Asclepius, 189, 195, 197, 211, 225, 
229, 951 

Asin, 177, 187, 355, 391 

Aspasia, of Miletus, mistress of 
Pericles (see Piutarch, Pericles, c. 
24), 287 

Assyria, Assyrian (often confused with 
Syria, Syrian), 103, 339, 341, 343, 
349, 361, 373, 375, 377, 389, 409 

Astarte, 341 and note 3 ' 

Atargatis, the Goddess of Syria, 
identical with Derceto, but called 
Hera by Lucian, see p. 356, note 3, 
and s.v. Hera (Atargatis) 

Ate, 291 

irre 25, 265, 267, 295, 319, 329, 

Athens, Athenian, Attic, 17, 23, 25, 
67, 119, 155, 159, 225, 239, 263, 
283, 287 

Athos, Mount, a conica] peak of white 
limestone 6350 ft. high, connected 
with the peninsula of Chaicidice by 
a narrow isthmus through which 
Xerxes dug a canal for his fleet, 
159, 305, 307 

Atlas, 393 

Atreus, father of Agamemnon, 101 

Atrometus, father of the orator 
Aeschines, 141 
Attis, Asiatic demigod, legendary 

worshipper of Rhea (Cybeie), who 
emasculated himself in orgiastic 
frenzy, 357, 359 

Augean stable, which it was one of the 
labours of Heracies to clean, 175 

Avengers (Alastores), a piuralization 
of the spirit of Vengeauce, siagic 
in Greek tragedy, 91 

Avitus, governor of Bithynia and 
Poutus, 249 and note 3 

Babyion, Babyionia, 83, 85, 139, 199, 
349, 355, 365, 387 

Bacchus, see Dionysus 

Bactra, the city of Balkh, in Central 
Asia, 229 

Bion the Borysthenite, moralist and 
satirist of the first haif of the 3rd 
century B.C., whose  PDiatribes, 
which influenced Horace and were 
imitated by Teles, are now iost 
(111, 128, note 1, 129, note 2) 

Bithynia, 183, 187, 189, 199, 249 


Boeotia, 85, 109 

Bosporus (Cimmerlan), 249 

Branchidae, priestly family of Miletus, 
claiming descent from Branchus, 
custodians of the temple of Apollo 
at Didymi, to which the name 
Branchidae is also applied, 185, 215 

Brimo, goddess of Hades, worshipped 
especially at Pheraein Thessaly and 
represented on horseback, bearing 
a torch: elsewhere identified with 
Hecate, Demeter, or Persephone, 

Briseis, captured by Achilles in 
Lyrncssus, given to him as prize, 
and afterwards taken away by 
Agamemnon, 329 

Briseus, father of Briseis, king of 
Pedasus, 271 

Bruttian, 203 

Bubalus, a fictitious bandit, 241 

Byblos, city of Phoenicia, 343, 345, 

Byzantine, 183 

Cadmus, a Phoenician, son of Agenor 
and brother of Europa, mythical 
founder of Thebes, 341 

Calamis, Attic sculptor, fl. ca. 460 Β.0., 
265, 267 

Calligeneia, name of woman, 239 

Cailiope, Muse of Epic Poetry, 283, 

Calypso, name of servant, 241 

Cappadocia, 245, 349 

Cariau, 101 

Carystus, city of S. Euboea, 321 

Cassandra, 271 

Cassiopeia, 305 

Cebes, author of the Tabula, a 
description of an imaginary allegori- 
cal painting representing the life 
of man, 141 

Cecrops, legendary founder and first 
king of Athens, 101 

Celer, name of fictitious bandlt, 241 

Celsus, to whom Lucian addresses the 
ALEXANDER (see notes, pp. 174, 204), 
175, 199, 203, 205, 253 

Ceit, Celtic, 213, 241 

Cerberus, 77, 89, 95, 107, 115, 119 

Cercopes, 179 

Ceryces, descendants of a mythical 
Ceryx (Herald), hereditary priests 
at Eleusis, 227 

Chaerephon, friend of Socrates, 151 

Chalcedon, city opposite Byzantium, 
187, 189 

Chaldeans, 85 

Charicles, father of the actor Polus, 

Charon, 91, 119 

Chimera, 95 

Choaspes, a river flowing past Susa, 
the water of which, boiled and 
stored in vessels of silver, accom- 
panied the Great King wherever he 
went, 85 

Chrestus of Byzantium, pupil of 
Herodes Atticus, paid teacher of 
rhetoric in Athens (133) 

Christians, 209, 225 

Chrysippus, the Stoic philosopher, 
3rd century B.C., 209 

Cibella, see Cybele 

Cilicia, Cilicians, 201, 215, 349 

Cinyras, fabled king of Cyprus, father 
of Adonis, priest of Aphrodite, 
renowned for wealth and, it would 
scem, for luxury, 149, 349 

Cithaeron, Mount, separating Boeotia 
from Megaris and Attica, 281 

Clarus, just W. of Colophon, site of 
famous sanctuary of Apollo, 185, 
215, 231 

Clio, Muse of History, 285 

Clysma, 231 

η, Cnidian, 263, 267, 269, 327, 


Cnossian (Cnossus, in Crete), 373 
Cocconas, partner of Alexander of 
Abonoteichus, otherwise unknown, 
183, 187, 189 
Cocytus (River of Wailing), 115 
Combabus (see p. 366, note 1, 378, 
note 1), 367-379, 395 
Compliments, personified, 141, 143 
Coronis, daughter of Phlegyas and 
mother of Asclepius, 195, 225 
Cranion (Seuily) name of dead man, 

Creon, king of Thebes, typical usurper 
and tyrant, 101 

Crete, Cretans, 65, 117, 341 

Critius (Kritios), sculptor, 147 

Croesus, King of Lydia, defeated and 
captured by Cyrus after obtaining 
from Apollo the oracle that on 
crossing the Halys he would destroy 
a great kingdom, 99, 237, 325 



Cronus, 145 

Croton, city in Magna Graecla, 321 

Cupids, see Erotes 

Cybeie, 193, 237, 357, 359, 387 

Cynaethus, a toady, 325, 327 

Cynegeirus, brother of Aeschylus, a 
hero of Marathon, who had his arm 
cut off when he laid hold of a 
Persian ship, 159 

Cynic, 73, 173 

Cyprus, 333 

Cyrene, 95 

Dacdalus, escaped from Minos in 
Crete on wings cemented with wax, 

Danae, 79 

Danube, see Ister 

Darius, 103, (the Younger) 139 

Deane (Diana), see Artemis 

Delos, 185 

Delphi, Delphian, 185, 231, 237, 271 

Demeirius Poliorcetes, son of Anti- 
gonus, 335-282 B.C., 325 

Democritus of Abdera, the philosopher 
(see p. 240, note 1), 199, 241 

Demosthenes, 137, 145, 147, 157, 163: 
his father “ was calicd the sword- 
maker because he had a great fac- 
tory and slave workmen who 
exercised that trade” (Plut. 
Demosth. 4) 

Demostratus, 233 

Derceto, 355, 357 

Deucalion, the Greek flood-hero, 161, 
351, 353, 381, 389 

Didymi, ten miles S. of Miletus, seat 
of a great sanctuary of Apollo, 215, 

Diocies, 241 

Diogenes, the Cynic, 103, 105, 319 

Dion, of Syracuse, banished by Diony- 
sius the Younger (366 B.C.), later 
became tyrant in his stead, 95 

Dionysius of Sicily, the Younger, 
tyrant of Syracuse, 367—357 B.C., 
of Locri, 357-346, and again of 
Syracuse 346—313, 95 

Dionysius, as a common name, 333 

Dionysus, 39, (named beside Heracles 
as a conqueror because of his sub- 
jection of India) 143, (in Syria) 
359, 361, 379, 381, 389 

Dioscuri, 179 

Diotima, 289 


Kcbatana, capital of Media, 159 

Ecube, see Hecuba 

Egypt, Egyptian, 97, 127, 139, 141, 
277, 333, 339, 341, 343, 345, 357, 
381, 387, 391 

Eileithyia (Lucina), 393 

Eleyne, see Helen 

Elis, 311 

Elye, see Helios 

Elyople, see Heliopolis 

Elysian Fields, 117 

Endymion, 225, cf. 221 

Ephialtes (see Otus), 153 

Epicharmus, 143 (see p. 144, note 1) 

Epictetus, 177 

Epicureans, 225, 231, 233 

Epicurus, 199, 209, 231, 235, 253 

Eponymi (Namesakes, at Athens), 25 

Erasistratus, a physician, 361—365 

Erechtheus, fabled king of Athens aud 
founder of the Erechtheum, where be 
was worshipped as a hero, along 
with Athena Polias, 101 

Erinyes (Furies), 89, 91, 117 

Ermonye, see Armenia 

Erotes (Cupids, Loves), 141, 273 



Ethiopia, 359, 387 

Eumolpids, descendants of Eumolpus, 
hereditary priests of the Eleusinian 
mysteries, 227 

Eumolpus, a Thracian invader, cham- 
pion of Eleusis in the war with 
Athens, 55 

Eupator, king of the Bosporus, 249 

Euphorbus, Trojan hero of the Jliad, 

Euphranor, painter and sculptor, con- 
temporary with Alexander the 
Great, 271 

Euphrates, 85, 89, 339, 353, 357, 

Euripides, 73, 75 

Europe, 341, 343 

Kurybatus, proverbial for rascality, 
variously explained as an Ephesian 
who betrayed Croesus to Cyrus, an 
Aeginetan, a thief able to climb wails 
by the aid of sponges and ciimbing- 
irons, one of the Cercopes, and 
Eurybates, the comrade of Odys- 
seus, 179 

Euxine Sea, 17, 191 


Evagoras, king of Cyprus, fl. ca. 
400 B.C., extolled in the Evagoras 
of Isocrates, 333 

Fame personified, 141, 143 

Fates (Moerae), 387 

Fedre  Cnossien, see 

Fortune, see Tyche and Nemesis 

FUNERALS, ON, 111-131 

Furies, see Erinyes 

Galatia, 187, 199, 215, 231 

Galli (Galles), emasculated devotees 
of Atargatis, 359, 371, 379, 397, 
403, 405 

Germany, 235 

Glaucus of Carystus, victor in boxing 
at Olympia (ca. 520 B.C), Delphi 
(twice), Nemea, and the Isthmus 
(eight times each), 321, 323 

Glycera, a name commonly adopted 
by courtesans, borne by the mis- 
tress of Menander, and by the 
leading character in his Perikei- 
romene, 151 

Glycon, 201, 225, 227, 229, 231, 247, 
251, cf. 173 

Gorgon (Medusa), 257, 281 

Graces, the, 149, 179, 273, 333 

Great Mother, the (Rhea-Cybele), 193 

Greece, Greeks, 7, 17, 61, 63, 109, 
127, 135, 323, 341, 351, 353, 359, 
361, 373, 391, 411 

Hades (Pluto), 73, 75, 87, 209, 221, 
(lower world) 113, 125, (ambiguous) 

Phaedra of 

Hebrew, 193 

Hecate, 89 

Hector, 395 

Hecuba, wife of Prlam of Troy, 395 

Hegesias, sculptor, 147 

Helen of Troy, 293, 387, 395 

Helicon, mountain of Boeotia, haunt 
of the Muses, 139, 285 

Heliopolis, city in Lower Egypt, just 
N. of Cairo, 343 

Helios, the sun, 389-391 

Hellanodicae, the ten officials in charge 
of the Olympic games, 307 

Hellespont, bridged, and so '' crossed 
afoot,’’ by Xerxes, 159 

Hephaestion, as a man’s name, 333 

Hera, 271, 303, 305, 309, 311, 319, 

333; (Atargatis), 339, 353, 355, 
359, 361, 365, 369, ^77, 385, 387, 
395, 397, 399 

Heraclea (Pontica), coastal city of 
Bithynia, 249 

Heraclean stone (i.e. either from 
Heraclea, or of Heracles), the 
magnet, 258 

Heracles, 87, 91, 97, 143, 179, 323, 341 

Heraclids, name of a company of 
young men in Sparta, 63 

Hermes, 117, 285 (a giver of eio- 
quence), 393 (a Syrian god) 

Hermes, as man's name, 333 

Hermocles of Rhodes, sculptor, 371 

Hesiod, 35, 79, 81, 113, 139, 143 

Hieropolis, in Syria, 339, 349, 353, 
355, 365, 369, 371, 373, 407, 411 

Himera, city in Sicily near Termini,313 

Hippolyta, Queen of the Amazons, 
invaded Attica to punish Theseus 
for carrying off Antiope, 55 

Hippolytus (see Phaedra), 373, 411 

Homer, 35, 75, 79,87, 97, 99, 113, 117, 
129, 145, 151, 183, 219, 243, 249, 
271, 273, 279, 283, 291, 295, 325, 
229, 331, 333, 335 

Hydra, 59 

Hymettus, mountain E. of Athens, 
famous for honey, 149 

Icarius, father of Penelope, 289 

Icarus, nephew of Daedalus, who flew 
too high on his artificial wings, so 
that the sun melted the wax, 293 

Ida, Mount, 177 

India, Indian, 127, 159, 231, 237, 
359, 387 

Ionia, Ionian, 215, 259, 261, 287. 383 

Ionopolis, later name of Abonoteichus, 

Irus, 99 

Isocrates, 157 

Iter (Danube), 235, 237 

Isthmian games, held every other year 
near the sanctuary of Poseidon, on 
the Isthmus of Corinth, 9, 13, 59 

Isthmus (of Corinth), 13, 21 

ltaly, 215, 221, 223, 243 

Ixion, punished in Hades for his 
endeavour to seduce Hera by being 
bound to a revolving wheel, 97 

Jove, see Zeus (Hadad) 
Juno, see Hera (Atargatis) 



Lebadela, town of Boeotia, now 
Livadia, 109 

aer mother of Castor and Pollux, 


Lemnian Athena, 265, 267 

Leonidas, 159 

Lepidus (see p. 210, note 1), 211, 231 

Lesbiau poetess (Sappho), 289 

Lesche, the, at Delphi, 271 

Lethe (Oblivion), 117 

Leto, mother of Apollo and Artemis, 

Leto, of Cyprus, wife of King Eva- 
goras, 333 

Libanon, Monnt, 347 

Libya, 391 

Luclan, 245 

Lneine, see Eileithyia 

Luna, see Selene 

Lyceian Apollo, 7 

Lyceum, grove of Lycelan Apollo, 
E. of Athens, in which was a gym- 
nasinm, 49 

Lycinus, a mask of Lucían's, 257- 
295, 299-335 

Lyenrgids, name of a company of 
youths in Sparta, 63 

Lyeurgus, 65, 67 

Lydian,357,359 ᾿ 

Lynceus, sharp-sighted pilot of the 
Argonauts, 325 

Macedon, Macedonian, 103, 119, 143, 
183, 185, 199 

Maeandrius, retainer of Polycrates, 
and his successor for a brief space 
as tyrant of Samos, 99 

Magi, 83 

Magnus, name of Bandit, 241 

Mallus, city in Cilicia, seat of the 
oracle of Amphilochus, 215 

Malthace, a courtesan, leading char- 
acterinalostcomedy by Antiphanes, 


Marathon, (Attic deme) 101, (battle 

h of) 159 

Marcomanni, 235 

Marcus (Anrelius), 235, 251 

Mausolus, tyrant of Halicarnassus In 
Caria, in whose memory his wife 
Artemisia erected the Mausoleum, 
one of the seven wonders of the 
world, 101 

Medes, Medlan, 87, 159, 387 

Medusa, 257, 281 


Melampus, 325 

Melpomene, Muse of Tragedy, 288 

Menander, the comic poet, 221 

Menelans, 271 

Menippus, Cynlc satirist, of Gadara, 
perhaps of the 3rd century B.C., 
whose writings were characterized 
by the intermixture of prose and 
verse, 73 sqq. 

HADES, 71-109 

Menoeceus, father of Creon, 101 

Mercure, see Hermes 

a oooi chief disciple of Epicurus, 


Midas, King of Phrygia, 103 

Miletus, 287 

Milo, of Croton, latter half of 6th 
eentury B.C., victor at Olympla and 
Delphi, six times each, in wrestling, 
σος of many feats of strength, 

Minerve, see Athena 

Minos, 65, 91, 93, 95, 117 

Mithrobarzanes, name of Magus, 85, 
89, 91, 109 

Moerae, 387 

Mnses, 139, 285, 295 

Mysia, 177 

Namesakes, see Eponymi 

Nausicaa, 289 

Necysieus (of Corpsebury), mock name 
of deme in Hades, 107 

Nemean games, held every other year 
in the precinct of Zeus Nemeius 
between Cleonae and Phlius, in 
Northern Peloponnese, 9, 21 

Nemesis, 387 

Nerelds, 305 

Nesiotes, sculptor, 147 

Nestor, oldest of the Greeks at Troy, 
most eloquent, and most talkative, 
103, 279, 323 

Nile, 141, 231, 233 

Niobe, 129, 257, 333 

Nlreus, most handsome of the Greeks 
at Troy, 99, 299, 395 

Odyssens, 87, 103, 117 

Olympia, 13, 21, 311 

Olympiad, 123, 147 

Olympian, the (Pericles, see Plut. 
Pericles 8), 287 


Olymplas, wife of Philip of Macedon, 
and mother of Alexander the 
Great, 185 

Olympic games, 9, 13, 59, 307 

Orpheus, 87, 281 

Osiris, 345 

Osroes (Chosroes), Parthian general, 

Othryades, a Spartan, who, left for 
dead on the field of Thyrea by two 
surviving Argives, erected a trophy 
and inscribed it in his own biood, 

Otus, and Ephialtes, sons of Aloeus, 
nine years old, nine ells broad, 
and nine fathoms high, who tried to 
scale heaven and were slain by 
Apollo, 153 

Pacate, 271 

Paetus, physician, 253 

Palamedes, Greek hero at ‘Troy, 
famous for wisdom and inventions, 
unjustly put to death on a charge of 
treason, hence Socrates (Apology, 
41 B) wished to compare experiences 
with him in Hades, 103 

Panathenaea, festival held at Athens, 
the ''Lesser" every year, the 
** Greater ’’ every four years, 9, 13 

Pandion, father of Philomeia and 
Procne, legendary king of Athens, 
whose daughters were turned iuto 
the swallow and the nightingale, 

Panthea, mistress of Verus, see p. 255 

Panthea, wife of Abradatas (see p. 
274, note), 275, 291 

Paphlagonia, Paphlagouians, 187, 189, 
191, 197, 199, 215, 227, 231, 233 

Parcas (Moerae), the Fates, 387 

Paris, 331, 395 

Parrhasius, celebrated painter, rival 
of Zeuxis, 261, 295 

Parthi, 213 

Patroclus, 329 

Peleus, father of Achilles, 221, 331 

Pelias, usurping ruler of Toleus, uncle 
of Jason, who was dismembered 
and boiled by his daughters at the 
suggestion of Medea in order to 
restore his youth, 301 

Pella, city of Macedonia, which Philip 
made its capital instead of Aegae, 
185, 193, 197 

Penelope, wife of Odysseus, 289, 291, 

Pericles, 287, see Olympian 

Persephone, 89, 113, 117 

Perseus, son of Danae, slayer of the 
Medusa, 189, 251 

Persia, Persians, 127, 139, 141 

Phaeacians, kiug of (Alcinous, in the 
Odyssey), 99 

Phacdra, daughter of Minos, King of 
Crete, and wife of Theseus, who 
brought about the death of her 
stepson Hippolytus by  faisely 
accusing him of attempting her 
honour, 373 

Phaon, mythical boatman of Myti- 
lene, who received youth and 
beauty from Aphrodite for carrying 
her across the water without pay, 

Phidias, 261, 265, 267, 311, 329 

Philip of Macedon, 103, 149, 175 

Philomele, and Procne, daughters of 
Pandion, 281, 395; Philomele was 
ravished and maimed by Tereus of 
Thrace, husband of Procne, who in 
revenge slew Itys, her son and his. 
She was changed into a nightin- 
gale, Philomele into a swallow, and 
Tereus into a hoopoe. 

Phineus, blind king of Salmydessus 
in Thrace, 325 

Phobi, pluralization of the earlier 
Phobos, son of Ares, spirit of 
panic, 117 

Phoebus (Apollo), 189, 223 

Phoenicia, Phoenician, 193, 341, 343, 
319, 355 

Phrygian, 97, 105, 357, (Paris) 331 

Phrynondas, ''notorious among the 
Athenians for rascality, no less than 
Eurybatus'' (Harpocration; see 
Suidas, and Biaydes on Aristoph. 
Thesm. 861), 179 

Pindar, 271, 321, 325, 333 

Plataea, battie of, 159 

Plato, 145, 151, 157, 171, 209 

Plenty, Horn of, see Amalthea 

Pluto (see p. 115, note), 89, 113, 115, 
117, 123, 127 

Pnyx, where the Athenians assembled, 
on the slope of the hill adjoining 
the Areopagus, 25 

Podaleirius, the Healer (see p. 190, 
note), 189, 191, 225, 251 



Poenae (Tormentors), personifications 
of retaliation in Hades, 89, 91, 117 

Pollux, see p. 133 

Polus of Sunium, son of Charicles, 
actor, 101 

Polycrates of Samos, tyrant renowned 
for the brilliancy of his court, sixth 
century B.C., 99, 103 

Polydamas, of Scotussa in Thessaly, 
Olympic victor in the pancratium, 
408 B.C., renowned for feats such as 
killing a lion without arms, 321 

Polydeuces (Pollux, Castor’s twin), 
famous as a boxer before he 
achieved immortality, 323 

Polygnotus of Thasos, 5th-century 
painter, active at Athens, 271, 295 

Polymnia, Muse of Sacred Poetry, 

299 sqq. 

Pontus, Roman province on the Black 
Sea, E. of Dithynia, 189, 199, 209, 
227, 233, 249 

Poseidon, 331 

Posidonius, man's name, 333 

Potheinus, 169 

Praxiteles, Attic sculptor, 4th century 
B.C., best known by his Cnidian 
Aphrodite (copy in Vatican) aud 
his Hermes (original at Olympia), 
263, 267, 269, 329 

Priam, 101; son of (Paris), 331 

Procne (see Pandion and Philomele), 
281, 395 


Protesilaus, of Thessaly, first of the 
Greeks to fal at Troy, who was 
allowed to revisit earth and see 
his bride Laodamia, 117 

Protogenes, slave name, 239 

Pylos, old man from, Nestor, 279 

Pyriphlegethon, River of Burning 
lirein llades, 89, 115 

Pyrrha, wife of Deucalion, 161 

Pyrrhias, a cook, probably fictitious, 

Pythagoras, 179, 181, 209, 219, 227 

Pythian Apollo, 151 

Pythlan games, held at Delphi 

(‘‘ rocky Pytho’’) every four years, 



interlocutor, 257 sqq., 

Quadl, a German people, 235 

Rhadamanthns, son of Zeus and 
Europa, brother of Minos and 
Aeacus, viceroy of Hades, 77, 89, 
107, 117 

Rhetoric personified, 131-171, esp. 
141 sqq. 

Rhodian, 377 

Rome, Roman, Roman Empire, 177, 
191, 213, 215, 217, 223, 237, 287 

Roxana, daughter of a Bactrian chlef, 
wife of Alexander, 271 

Rutilia, wife of an Imperial steward, 

Rutilianus, prominent Roman, com- 
memorated in two Inscriptions 
(C.I.L. xiv, 3601, 4244; see note, 
p. 214), 179, 215, 217, 219, 221, 225, 
235, 245, 247, 249, 251, 253 

Sacerdos, of Tíus, otherwise unknown, 
229, 231 

Salamis, 159 

Samothracians, 357 

Sappho, 289 

Sardanapalus, Assurbanipal, King of 
Assyria, 7th century B.C., to the 
Greeks a byword for luxury and 
effeminacy, 103, 149, 395 

Satyrus, of Marathon, son of Theo- 
giton, actor, 101 

Scythia, Scythian, 7, 13, 17, 25, 69, 
127, 241, 351 

Selene, 221, 225, 341, 387 

Seleucus, 303, 361-373 

Semeion (see p. 388, note 2), 389, 
393, 403 

Semele, daughter of Cadmus, mother, 
by Zeus, of Dionysus, 359 

Semiramis (see p. 354, note 1), 355, 
357, 389, 395 

Severlanus, 213 

Siby1, 191 

Sicily, 95 

Sicyonian, 155 

Sldon, Sidonian, 139, 341, 343 

Simonldes, 323 

Sinope, 191 

Sipylus, Mount, near Magnesia on the 
Maeander, 257 

Sirens, 283 

Sisyphus, who, for telling Asopus, 
father of Aegina, that her abductor 
was Zeus, was compelled In Hades 
to roll uphill a huge stone which 
kept rolling down again, 97 


Skeletion, 107 

Smyrna, 259, 26] 

Socrates, 103, 151, 287, 289 

Solon, as an interlocutor in the 
Anacharsis, 1-69 

Sosandra, statue by Calamis, 265, 
267, 269 

Sostratus, possibly the effeminate 
Athenian whom Aristophanes dubs 
Sostrate, 179 

Sparta, Spartan, 63, 65, 67 

Steneboye (Stheneboea), of Tiryns, 
who falsely accused Bellerophon to 
her husband Proetus of attempting 
her honour, 373 

Stentor, a Greek at Troy “' who used 
to shout as loud as fifty men"' 
(Iliad, 5, 783), 121 

Stesichorus of Himera, lyric poet, 

Stratonice, wife of Seleucus Nicator, 
303, 361-373, 395 

Sunium, an Attic deme on the pro- 
montory of that name, 101 


Syria, Syrian (see also Assyrian), 241, 
339, 341, 349, 353, 357, 359, 381, 
395, 403 

Tantalus, father of Niobe, 97, 117, 

Tarentine, 155 
Teiresias, Theban prophet, consulted 
in Hades by Odysseus in Homer 
and by Menippns in Lucian, 75, 85, 


Tereus (see Philomele), 395 

Terpsichore, Muse of choral dance and 
song, 283 

Terrors, see Phobi 

Thais, not the historical courtesan, 
but ‘‘ Thais pretiosa Menandri," a 
character created by Menander in 
his lost comedy Thais, 151 

Theano, wife of Antenor of Troy, 289, 
303 (? 

Theano, the Pythagorean, 289, 303 ( 9) 

Theban, 75, (Theban poet, Pindar) 
271; Thebes, 201 

Theogiton, father of the actor Satyrus, 

Thersites, ugliest of the Greeks at 
Troy, 99, 323 

Theseus, went to Hades to help 
Pelrithous to carry off Persephone, 

was imprisoned there, and at last 
brought back by Heracles, 117 

Thessaly, 117 

Thmuis, town in Egypt, 167 

Thon, king in Egypt, 183 

Thrace, Thracians, 55, 187, 199, 281 

Thucydides, 185 

Tiber, 213 

Tigris, 85 

Tillorobus, 177 

Timocrates of Heraclea, philosopher, 
otherwise unknown, 249 

Tisiphone, one of the Erinyes, or 
Furies, 127 

Tityus, 97 (see note), 153 

Tius, coastal city of Bithynia, 229 

Token, see Semeion 

Tormentors, see Poenae 

Tricca, townin Thessaly, 191 

Trophonius, legendary builder, with 
Agamedes, of early temple at 
Delphi, worshipped as a hero at 
Lebadeia in Boeotia, in a cave 
deemed to be an entrance to Hades 
and much visited by seekers after 
oracles, 109 

Trosen (Troezen), birthplace of 
Theseus, city near Β. shore of 
Saronic Gulf, approximately oppo- 
site Athens, 411 

Troy, 161, 323 

Twin Brethren, the Dioscuri, Castor 
and Pollux, 179 

Tyana, city in Cappadocia, near the 
Cilician Gates, 183 

Tyre, 341 

Venus, see Aphrodite 
Verus, Lucius, Emperor, 161—169 A.D., 
(255), 275, 293, 295 

Wealth personified, 141, 143 

Xenophon, of Athens, 275 

Xenophon, unknown companion of 
Lucian, 247 

Xerxes, 103, (his flight from Greece 
after Salamis) 159 

Xois, town in Egypt, 167 

Ynde, see India 

Ypolite (Hippolytus, see Phaedra) 

Zeno, man's name, 333 



Zeus, 51 77, 93, 115 127, 137, 171, Zoilus, the Homeromastix, of Amphi- 

179, 195, 201, 227, 237, 263, 311, polis, who censured Homer in two 

331, 341, 343, (son of, Minos) 65, writings, one of them containing 

117, (sons of Zeus and Leda, Castor nine books, 331 

and Pollux) 169, (Zeus Philios) 137, Zoroaster (Zarathushtra), the founder 

Hadad, see p. 384, note 1) 385, 387, of the religion of Persia and the 

397, 399 wisdom of the Magi, of unknown 
Zeuxis, painter, active from about date, 83 

425 B.C., 261 

a rn ων ee, eee on 



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Lucan. J. D. Duff. 

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τιονβ. I.-XVIJ. AND XX. J. H. Vince. 

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Vol. VII. €. L. Sherman. Vols. IX. and X. R. M. Geer. 
Vol. XI. F. Walton. 

DioaENES LaERitTIus. R. D. Hicks. 2 Vols. 

man’s translation revised by E. Cary. 7 Vols. 

Epictetus. W. A. Oldfather. 2 Vols. 

Evuriripes. A.S. Way. 4 Vols. Verse trans. 

Evsresrus: ECCLESIASTICAL History. Kirsopp Lake and 
J. E. L. Oulton. 2 Vols. 

GALEN: ON THE NATURAL Facurtiss. A. J. Brock. 

THE GREEK ANTHOLOGY. W. R. Paton. 5 Vols. 

Edmonds. 2 Vols. 

J. M. Edmonds. 

GREEK MATHEMATICAL WonKs. Ivor Thomas. 2 Vols. 


HrROoDoTUs. A. D. Godley. 4 Vols. 

HrsioD AND THE Homeric Hymns. H. G. Evelyn White. 

Jones and E. T. Withington. 4 Vols. 

Homer: Iran. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. 

Homer: ΟΡΥΒΒΕΥ. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. 

IsaEus. E. W. Forster. 

IsocRATEs. George Norlin and LaRue Van Hook. 3 Vols. 

Woodward and Harold Mattingly. 

JosePHUS. H. St. J. Thackeray and Ralph Marcus. 9 Vols. 
Vols. I.-VII. 

JuLIAN. Wilmer Cave Wright. 3 Vols. 

Lucian. 8 Vols. Vols. I.-V. A. M. Harmon. Vol. VI. K. 


Lyra GRAECA. J. M. Edmonds. 3 Vols. 

Lvsras. W. R. M. Lamb. 

MANETHO. W. G. Waddell: ProreMv: TErRABIBLOs. F. E. 

Marcus AURELIUS. C. R. Haines. 

MENANDER. F.G. Allinson. 

J. O. Burrt. 2 Vols. t 

Nonnos: Dronysiaca. W. H. D. Rouse. 3 Vols. 


a 2 Vols. LITERARY SELECTIONS (Poetry). D. L. 



Vols. and Companion Vol. arranged by R. E. Wycherley. 

Ῥπιτο. 10 Vols. Vols. L-V.; F. H. Colson and Rev. G. H. 
Whitaker. Vols. VI.-IX.; F. H. Colson. 

PHILO: two supplementary Vols. (Translation only.) Ralph 

PnmiLosrTRATUS: THE Lire or APOLLONIUs OF Tyana. F. C. 
Conybeare. 2 Vols. 



Cave Wright. 

Pinpar. Sir J. E. Sandys. 

THEAGES, Minos and Eptnomis. W. R. M. Lamb. 

Hiprias. H. N. Fowler. 

H. N. Fowler. 


Prato: Laws. Rev. R. G. Bury. 2 Vols. 
Prato: Lysis, SvMPosivM, Goreras. W. R. M. Lamb. 
PrATo: REPUBLIC. Paul Shorey. 2 Vols. 


PLATO: THEAETETUS and SoPHisr. H. N. Fowler. 

Rev. R. G. Bury. 

PLUTARCH: ΜΟοΒΑΙΙΑ. 15 Vols. Vols. I.-V. F. C. Babbitt. 
Vol. VI. W. C. Helmbold. Vol. VII. P. H. De Lacy and 
B. Einarson. Vol. IX. E. L. Minar, Jr., F. H. Sandbach, 
W. C. Helmbold. Vol. X. H. N. Fowler. Vol. XII. H. 
Cherniss and W. C. Helmbold. 

PLUTARCH: THE PARALLEL Lives. B. Perrin. 11 Vols. 
PotysBius. W. R. Paton. 6 Vols. 

Procopius: History OF THE Wars. H. B. Dewing. 7 Vols. 

QUINTUS SMYRNAEUS. A. 8. Way. Verse trans. 

Sextus Emprricus. Rev. R. G. Bury. 4 Vols. 

SorHocLES. F. Storr. 2 Vols. Verse trans. 

STRABO: GEOGRAPHY. Horace L. Jones. 8 Vols. 

ete. A. D. Knox. 

Bart. 2 Vols. 

THUCYDIDES. C. F. Smith. 4 Vols. 


XENOPHON: CYROPAEDIA. Walter Miller. 2 Vols. 

C. L. Brownson and O. J. Todd. 3 Vols. 

XENOPHON: MEMORABILIA and OEconomicus. E.C. Marchant. 

XENOPHON: Scripta MiNoRA. E. C. Marchant. 


Greek Authors 

ARISTOTLE: History or ANIMALS. A. L. Peck. 
Protinus: A. H. Armstrong. 

Latin Authors 





Harmon, A.D. editor 

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